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3 1833 01742 6245 



VOLUME 8 part 2 



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 
in 2013 


VOL V0T rco. 7 










The First Instalment ol a New lllustraied Symposium ^ 


Co:^[prisi::g AR-MCLi:s ox Early GF.uNr.w- Catholic 


Brkthrex "Churcii-SchoO'LS. " The Germans 
Axn TiiF. Charity- School ^^(V, kmkxt. etc. Also: 

Plxxsyl\anl\ Th<rouicAL a Xcvv Dop.irt- 


G^•:R^^A^; SrRXAME>: Tlioir ( )riiiin. Chani;::es atul Sign"- 

iicati<'n. Part Third 

Mylls Louixa;: A Tale of the Tulpcliocken (lilusirate-.- 
Serial Story), Chapters IX aiul X 

LiTKRARY Gems. Eoitorlxl Co.^[^r^::xi^ Nt\v< Cmitings. 
CoRREst'ONOEXTs' Chat. Gexf. \logical Xorr:s. 

Fu'l Tabla of Contents b^ck cf Frcatisplece. B:i.«lr"^s Mxtt^rt oa n«xt ^*C«. 


®l|^ Pi^nnsi|luantci-(grrman 

JULY, 1907 



Frontispiece— Portrait and Autograph of Dr. X. C. Schaeffer. State 

Superintendent of Pubic Instruction 290 

The Pexxsylvaxia-Germax ix his Relatiox to Edlxation— A 


Proem— By Prof. L. S. Shiuunell, Ph.D 291 

Early German Catholic Parochial Schools— By Rev. J. J. Xerz . 292 

The "Church-Schools" of the Moravians— By J. Max Hark. D.D. 299 
-Moravian Influence in Foundinsr :he University of Pemisylvania 

By George E. Xitzsche ........... 304 

The Germans and the Charitv-School Movemeiu— Bv Prof S E 

Weber, D.D ' .... 305 

United Brethren "Church-Schools"— By Rev. C. I. B. Brane. D.D. 312 

Drei Wohnungen — Three Dwellings 317 

Our Superintendent of Public Instruction- Bv Prof L. S. Shim- 

mell, Ph.D ' 318 

Pennsylvania Historical Societies: Their Aims and their Work: 

The Pennsylvania Federation of Historical Societies— By S. P. 

Heilman, M.D. . 319 

German Surnames: Their Origin. Changes and Signification — Bv 

Leonhard Felix Fuld. M.A.. LL.M. . .^. . . . '. 321 

Myles Loring: A Tale of the Tulpehocken — By Rev. Alden W. 

Quimby. Chapter fX and X 324, ^jy 

The Home : Penns}"lvania-Dutch Cooking ;^^2 

Literary Gems : 

Walmer's Church and the Old Schoolhouse — By Rev. D. B. Shuey 334 

Das Schulhaus an der Krick 333 

Die Schhtta uf der Krick— By Charles C. More 336 

En Trip noch Fildelfy un Canada — By "Gottlieb r^oonastiei" . . x^6 

Editorial Departmext 33S 

Clippings from Current Xews 339 

Chat with Correspondents 541 

Genealogical X'otes and Queries J42 

Our Book-Table 34J 

Calendar of Pennsylvania History, May, 1907 J44 







jt^tiiiiskJaii^it^l^jikdsbW^i^^^ Iv 


iEl)t P^nitBylttantci-Cga^man 

Vol. VIII 

JULY, 1907 

No. 7 

The Pennsylvania-German in His 
Relation to Education 

A Symposium of Historical and Descriptive Articles 

Edited by Prof. L. S. Shimmell, Ph.D., Harriselkg, Pa. 


IN THE scheme for this symposium 
the special editor thereof has 
planned to prove by the contribu- 
tions preceding his own — "The Pennsyl- 
vania-Germans and the Common School 
Law of 1834" — that prior to the intro- 
duction of the common school system 
history furnishes no ground for charg- 
ing the Pennsylvania-Germans with in- 
difference toward, and opposition to, ed- 
ucation. In the parts following his own, 
his purpose is to show that after the 
common school law of 1834 met its ene- 
mies — whoever they may have been — 
conquered them and made them its 
friends, the Pennsylvania-Germans were 
as much interested in the public schools 
as any other of the numerous classes of 
people that compose the population of 
the State. In his own contribution to 
the symposium, the editor of it. admit- 
ting German opposition to the law of 
'*\U» sives the reasons for it, and shows 
that some of them were peculiarly the 
Germans' own, and that others were 
urged against the law with equal 
^ehemence by opponents in general. 
I'urthcr, he makes it appear that the op- 
position of the Germans was exagger- 
ated — in part willfully, in part unwit- 

Hut the proof that the Pennsylvania- 
^^'crman was not opposed to education 
/•t'^ sc, in 1834 and 1835, or upon any 
other occasion when civil educational 
niovenionts made him a victim of mis- 

representation, is not dependent upon 
contemporary evidence alone. The proof 
is involved in the logic of the scheme 
followed in the symposium. If prior to 
1834 the Germans had built schocdhouses 
by the side of churches and at country 
cross-roads, had joined in efforts of the 
Province to propagate knowledge among 
themselves, had educated the savage In- 
dian, and had established seminaries and 
colleges : and if again, after the common 
school had become a verity, they tell into 
line in supporting, patronizing and im- 
proving the new system of education by 
the State, the only logical deduction is, 
that their opposition to the common 
school law of 1S34. or to any other form 
of State education, was not due to a be- 
nighted condition in which they could 
not appreciate the value oi education. 

The purpose oi the symposium in its 
entirety is to remove every trace of the 
obloquy that was heaped upon the Ger- 
mans even in Coh^nial times and espe- 
cially at the period of the inauguration 
of the public school system. Tlie editor 
and his staff of assistants, as well as the 
management of this magazine, sincerely 
hope they may have succeeded in ex- 
punging from the reci^rds oi tradition a 
charge against the Pennsylvania-Ger- 
mans which their present state of en- 
liglitomnent and intelligence refutes 
more etTectually than any proof avail- 
able to the historian. 

L. S. Shimmell. 



Early German Catholic Parochial Schools 


THE broad-minded tolerance of 
William Penn attracted people of 
all creeds to this colony, ^lanv 
of the emigrants came from the Rhine 
provinces, especially the Palatinate, and 
of these Catholics formed a large part. 
Most of the German emigrants were 
farmers and took up the same occupation 
in the new country, taking land to the 
west and northwest of Philadelphia. 
When they had firmly settled, their first 
care was, as it has been to this day, to 
procure a church in their midst and a 

Traditional Evidence of Parish Schools 

There is no documentary proof to 
show the time of the establishment of the 
first Catholic schools in Pennsylvania, 
but there is strong traditional evidence 
for the belief that they date back to the 
time of the very first organization of the 
Church in the various centers of Catholic 
fife. We find, however, in the parish 
records mention of the schoohnasters. 
Local traditions indicate that in nearly 
every instance the organization of a Cath- 
olic parish was attended, if not preceded, 
by the organization of a parish school, 
the priest himself, in some cases, being 
the first school-teacher. ^Ir. Martin I. 
Griffith, a competent historical aurhor- 
ity, here has summed up the result of a 
thorough investigation of the subject in 
the statement that, "'wherever through- 
out Pennsylvania prior to 1800 there was 
a chapel, there was undoubtedly, where 
there was a number of children, some 
system of instruction, even, though the 
method was crude and but elementary 
in its extent. 

This conclusion is further supported 
by the fact that the other religious de- 
nominations in the colony, especially those 
which were German, almost invariably 
signalized the beginning of church work 
in a locality by the establishment of 
schools." This agrees with Mr. Fischer's 
statement in ^'Mci Altc Hccmct": 

"Es war. for Alters, so der Weg 

In so'mc deutsche Eck, — 
Der Parre a'h Schulmeschier war 
Un's Schulhaus fon der Kerich war 
Ah g'wiss net well eweck." 

As a rule the schoolmaster was also 

The school was considered an essen- 
tial part, a fixture of the parish. It was 
the supporter and feeder for the preser- 
vation of the faith, and a guarantee f«T 
the permanence of the parish. It was the 
preserver of their mother-tongue, in 
which they prayed and sang hymns. 
which sounded in no other language so 
hearty and devotional to them. 

Missionaries Sent from the Fatherland 
In 1 74 1 the German province oi the 
Society of Jesus sent out two priests to 
minister to the German Catholics in the 
colony. These were Father Wapelcr. 
who founded the missions of Conewag""^ 
and Lancaster, and Father Schneider. 
who took up his residence at Goshenhop- 
pen. in Berks county. Other Gemiaii 
Jesuits came later on, one of these being 
the celebrated Father Farmer, who tlid 
missionary and educational work in Lan- 
caster from 1752 to 1758 and later on in 
St. Mary's church in Philadelphia. 

A peculiar interest attaclies to the Rev. 
Theo. Schneider. S. J., both as a mis- 
sionary and as an educator for twenty- 
three years at Goshenhoppen ( now Pal- 
ly. P.erks county), dating as far back a> 
1 74 1, as we see from the subjoineil cut. 
which is taken from the original ox his 
precious church record. We cannot 
give his educational labors without giv- 
ing a brief sketch of his life. 

The followim^ historical sketch is lak- 
«Mi from the unpublished manuscript of 
The German Catholic Scliools in CM«">nial 
Times, hv Father lUirns. Trinity College. 
Washington. D. C. : 

Father Schneider's School at Goshenhoppfn 

The school oi Goshenlioppen was caccrly 
attx.Mided bv the children of the whole neigh- 




horhood, Protestant as well as Catholic, it be- century afterward, the public school authoritw* 

ii!g the only one in the place. Father Schnei- of the district showed their appreciation of 

<lcr, in fact, soon made himself greatly be- his work, by an arranorement which provided 

loved by the members of all denominations, for the education of the children in the old 

and there is a tradition that when, in 1745,. he Goshenhoppen parish school at the public «x- 

CDmmenced the work of building a church, the pense. 

Protestants were not less generous than the Under Father Schneider, the work of or- 

Catholics in helping to furnish the necessary ganizing the parish at Goshenhoppen, as well 

material means. It is pleasant to record that as the neighboring Catholic missions, pro- 

the educational zeal of the first schoolmaster gressed rapidly. Before he died, in 1764. he 

.it Goshenhoppen was not forgotten by the had the satisfaction of seeing the church tirm- 

descendants of the early settlers. More than a ly established in Pennsylvania, and in the 


l{-^^iU^tvm Orr^^u^rn;. rt^^L tT^4- ^.v//^ 
fa4n>7vu U^iyn^xfii CJ^rnAri. Of-J^^rti^(t 




building of churches, schools and mission 
chapels, together with the increasing influx of 
Catholic emigrants, he must have discovered 
the prospect of a much greater and more rapid 
growth in the future. 

For many years, however, the growth of the 
Church in and around Goshenhoppen was slow, 
and Father Schneider's school remained small. 
The French and Indian war came on, and the 
country became the theatre of the most savage 
depredations on the part of the Indians. After 
Braddock's defeat in 1755. Berks county was 
laid waste with fire and sword, hundreds of 
houses being burned, and many of the settlers 
being slain and scalped or dragged away into 
captivity to undergo a fate worse than death. 
In 1757 the total number of adult Catholics in 
the county was only 117. 

Yet Father Schneider seems to have kept up 
his school all this time, and to have gradually 
increased the number of pupils attending, for 
in 1763, about the time of the close of the war, 
we find that the school was large enough to 
engage the services of a paid school teacher. 
The baptismal register of Goshenhoppen for 
that year records the baptism privately of a 
child when eleven weeks old by ""Henry Fred- 
der, the schoolmaster at Conisahoppen." 

The Jesuit missionaries in America 
were men of marked abilities and learn- 
ing, as a class, men oftentimes, who had 
occupied places of distinction in the sem- 
inaries or imiversities of the order in the 
Old World. The Gertnan Jesuits who 
labored in the rough mission fields of 
Pennsylvania during those early days, 
were men of this kind. Of Father Wap- 
eler, Bishop Carroll wrote that ''he was a 
man of much learning and unbounded 
zeal." He referred to Father Schneider 
as "a person of great dexterity in busi- 
ness, consummate prudence and un- 
daunted magnanimity," and said that ''he 
spread the faith of Christ far and near." 
An old Jesuit catalogue refers to the 
foimder of the Goshenhoppen mission 
as, "Th. Scluieidcr, qui dociiit PJiilos. ct 
control'. Lcodi, ct fii^'.t rector ))iai::uif. 
Uniz'crsi Hc^idclbcrirciisis"'^ (who taught 
philosophy and polemics at Liege and 
was regent of the University of Heidel- 

A University-Regent Turns Schoolmaster 
Father Schneider was born in Ger- 
many in the year 1700. He entered the 
Jesuit order while still young, and his 
superior talents caused him to be sent 
after ordination to teach in the famous 

•TLI9 Inscription la f. iind on n slab In t\ie ohrti»«»l of 
the church at Hally. where Father Schneider Is burie«l. 

Jesuit seminary at Liege, in Belgium. 
Here he taught both philosophy and the- 
ology. Subsequently, he was sent to 
Heidelberg to teach in the college estab- 
lished by the Jesuits in connection with 
the L'niversity. Heidelberg was a Catholic 
University then, and the custom was for 
the various faculties to furnish a reel' 
to the L'niversity in their turn. In this 
way. Father Schneider was chosen and 
installed as rector in December. 1738. his 
term of office lasting until December of 
the following year. It was a high dis- 
tinction to have come to one compara- 
tively so young, a fine tribute to 
his talents as well as to his popu- 
larity, and it opened up a prospect of : 
brilliant career. But a nobler and holier 
fire than that of intellectual ambition 
burned in the soul of Father Schneider. 
He turned aside from the shining heights 
of academic fame, to devote himself, as 
a poor and humble missionary, to ihf 
ministry of souls 

It is interesting to contemplate the 
brilliant young priest, fresh from the 
honors and experience gained while ful- 
filling the office of Rector Ma^uificits of 
Heidelberg L'nlversity. gathering the 
poor German children of Goshenhoppen 
and vicinity about him in his little room 
to teach them, along with the simple cat- 
echism, the rudiments of a brief pioneer 
education. There can be no doubt that 
he to<,->k up the work of teaching himself 
soon after his arrival in 1741. Reading. 
writing and spelling were about all that 
was taught at that early pericnl in the 
schools that were being started every- 
where in the colony. Little if any at- 
tention was given to what is now callevi 
arithmetic. The term oi schooling was 
brief, the pupils were few and of all 
ages. There was no church in Goshen- 
hoppen as yet. tlivine services boinsT held 
in one of the farmers* houses. Father 
Schneider took up his residence in a two- 
storied frame house, the largest probablv 
in the vicinitv. and here, according to 
traditions, he began his scIkx-^I. 

A schoolhouse, too. apparently had 
been built. From this time on. there are 
frequent references to the schoolmasters 
in the parish records. 




The rear part of this church is the original chapel where Father Schneider Is burled. 
The present church was built independent of the old chapel. 

Three Other Schoolmasters — Haycock 

Three schoolmasters are mentioned in 
the parish registers between 1763 and 
1796, Henry Fredder, Breitenbach and 
John Lawrence Gubernator. Breitenbach 
seems to have stayed only a short time, 
as we have only a single mention of him 
as standing sponsor for a child with ''his 
wife Susan," in 1768. He was preceded 
by Henry Fredder, who is mentioned oc- 
casionally between 1763 and 1768. There 
is an interval then of sixteen years, dur- 
ing which we have no means of knowing 
who the schoolmaster was, for if his 
name is given in the registers as it prob- 
ably is, the title of his office is not sub- 
joined. John Lawrence Gubernator. the 
"lost distinguished of the Goshenhoppen 
schoolmasters, and the ancestor of the 
numerous families of Pennsylvania who 
liavc borne that name, appears first on 
the parish registers in 1784. He was 
born in Oppenhcim, Germany, in 1735, 
served as an officer in the army of the 
Allies in the Seven Years* War, and 

came to America during the Revolution- 
ary War. He landed in Philadelphia, 
and made his \vay to Goshenhoppen, 
where he was engaged by Father Ritter, 
dien the pastor, to take charge oi the 
school. He was a finely educated man 
and a devoted teacher and rendered 
great services to the cause of Catholic 
education in Pennsylvania during a pe- 
riod of twenty-five years. Xot long al- 
ter coming to Goshenhoppen he was 
married to a widow named Johanna Our* 
ham. It was a gala-day in the old Cath- 
olic settlement, and the chronicle oi the 
happy event in the parish records, brief 
as it is. affords us a pleasant glimpse of 
the positi«Mi of social prominence ac- 
C(^nled to this distinguished successor of 
Father Schneider in the Goshenhopf>cn 
school. He subsequently taught school 
at Hanover, returned to Goshenhoppen. 
and after removing again to Hanover 
about ij</^. finallv settled down as a 
teacher in the newly started preparatory 
seminary of the Sulpicians at Pigeon 



Hills, Pa. His son became a school 
teacher also, and had charge for a time 
of the parish school at Conewago. 

From the will of John [McCarthy we 
have evidence of tlie existence of a 
school at one of the Goshenhoppen mis- 
sions, at Haycock, in 1766; and again in 
1784, the marriage of Ferdinand Wag- 
ner, **our schoolmaster at Haycock," is 
recorded in the Goshenhoppen register. 
There was thus a Catholic school at Hay- 
cock long before there was a Catholic 
church there in 1798. According to lo- 
cal tradition, mass was said in McCar- 
thy's house, and the school was kept in 
another building on the premises until 
the erection of a permanent school build- 
ing with the church later on. 

Sportman's Hall — St. Vincent's Abbey 

About 1787 a number of German 
Catholic families from Goshenhoppen 
crossed the AUeghenies and settled in 
Westmoreland county at a place called 
Sportsman's Hall. Their pastor. Rev. 
Theodore Browers, bought a farm of sev- 
eral hundred acres of land, and at his 
death a few years later he left all his 
property to the Church. The estate sub- 
sequently fell to the Benedictines, and 
upon it was built St. \'incent's Abbey 
and College, the motherhouse of the nu- 
merous convents, colleges and schools of 
this religious order in the United States. 
There was a Catholic school at Sports- 
man's Hall very early, if not from the 
very founding of the settlement. When 
Dominus Boniface Wimmer, the famous 
Benedictine, at the invitation of Father 
Lempcke, arrived there in 1846. he 
found a two-story brick church erected 
by Father Stillinger in 1835. with a two- 
story brick house, which, though put up 
as a pastoral residence, had been an acad- 
emy of the Sisters of Mercy. Plere on 
the 19th of October. 1846, the commun- 
ity of the Benedictine Fathers was or- 
ganized in a schooUwusc. Father Wim- 
mer from the outset confined his labors 
to the German missionary and educa- 
tional work, and received financial aid 
from the St. Ludzi'igs J\^rci)i of I»avaria. 

The fact is of special interest as it 
gives us a thread of connection between 

Father Schneider and his educational 
work in the old Catholic colony of Gosh- 
enhoppen and St. X'inccnt's, the mother- 
house of the Benedictine Order, which 
has had so large a share in Catholic edu- 
cational development in the United 
States during the past fifty years. ) 

Schools at Conewago and Brandt's Chapel 

Among the German Catholics scat- 
tered through the counties farther wc;t 
from Goshenhoppen a school was star:*: J 
at Conewago by Father Wapeler. als'j in 
several of the missions attended from 
Conewago : chief among them were Para- 
dise. Littletown. Hanover. Tanytown, 
Westminster and York. About 1787 the 
school at Hanover was sufficiently de- 
veloped to engage the paid schoolmaster 
of Goshenhoppen, for we find him mov- 
ing there at that time. 

Education at Conewago from Catholic 
Local History, page 79, records: "The 
first schools in the valley, like those 
through the country, were mostly private 
or subscription schools. The missionary 
fathers combined the primary education 
of the children with their religious in- 
struction, which was never neglected. 
\'ery little definite is known of the early 
educational interests of Conewago. Jo- 
seph Heront taught a school near the 
Pigeon Hills before 1800. where after- 
wards the Sulpcian Fathers located. 
Colleges were just then being established 
and his curriculum may have incliukd 
a preparatory course in the higher 
branches for the young men of the val- 
lev whose parents were in good circum- 
stances, j 

Father Lekeu. S. J., built two schovMS 
in the ncighborluxxJ of Conewago in 
1830. Rev. F. Reudter taught there 
from 1833 to 1840. Father F. X. 
T'rosius. a learned German priest, wh^^ 
had come to America in 1797. taught 
such a school in Conewago about 1800. 

In the early thirties a parochial school 
was established in Paradise township. 
York county, at Brandt's Chapel by V.\- 
ther IVr.arth. Both chapel and sclu^^l 
were built on a large farm willed to iho 
church by a noble layman. j 



Pittsburg, Lancaster and Philadelphia 
Three German Fathers of the order of 
the "Holy Redeemer," who came from 
Austria in 1832, made Pittsburo^, Pa., 
the tliird of tlieir settlements. Here they 
bou^it a factory, situated at the corner 
of Liberty and Factory (now 14th) 
street, made a church and school out of 
it, and used it as such until the new 
church of St. Philomena was built in 
1842. The old church was called the 
"Factory Church," and was opened to- 
p:ether with the school in 1839. ^^ ^^^ 
the schools erected by the Fathers the 
education was given to the children gra- 
tuitously, because the people \\ere too 
poor to pay for the education of their 
children. The expenses were in part 
borne by the people in general and the 
rest was paid with money received by 
the Fathers from Europe from benevo- 
lent societies. (Parish Record.) 

While the Rev. John B. Causse was in 
charge of the church at Lancaster, he 
joined in a petition to the State Assem- 
bly, asking the establishment of a Ger- 
man charity school at that place ; but the 
project soon took a more ambitious form 
and on the loth of ^larch. 17S7, Frank- 
Jin College at Lancaster was incorpo- 
rated by the Legislature of Pennsylvania. 
Of this institution the Catholic priest, 
John B. Causse, was trustee from 1787 
to 1793, when he tendered his resigna- 
tion. (S. M. Sener, in U. S. Catholic 
History Magazine, citing Register of 
St. Mary's Church, and the Independ- 
ent Gazetteer of 1785.) 

Father Farmer, wdiose real name was 
Steinmeyer, S. J., was a very famous fig- 
ure in the history of the German Catho- 
lic Church in Pennsylvania. He was sent 
to America after passing through a Ger- 
uian university course in 1752. After 
Ix^ing six years pastor in Lancaster, he 
Nvas called to Philadelphia, to minister 
<"si)ccially to the Germans there. We 
have no historical proof of a parochial 
^cliool erected by him in Lancaster: how- 
i^'ver, as he worked so zealousl\' for the 
church and school of St. Mary's church, 
I'liiladelphia, we must suppose that ho 
!s'''^ve attention also to the education in 
Lancaster. The respect for his learning 

was shown by his being elected a mem- 
ber of the board of trustees of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, when that insti- 
tution was organized, as well as a mem- 
ber of the famous Pliilosophical Society. 

Until the year 1788, Xovember 22, the 
German Catholics worshiped in com- 
mon with the Catholics of other nation- 
alities, in St. Mary's church, but in that 
year they split off from that church, and 
soon after built a church of their own — 
Holy Trinity. Provision was immedi- 
ately made for a parish school. Xot be- 
ing able to found a schoolhouse as yet. the 
basement of the church was set apart for 
that purpose, and fitted up as a school- 
room. The church was described as be- 
ing "100 feet long and 60 feet broad, and 
underneath was a comfortable school- 
room." Father Filing is mentioned as 
schoolmaster. A few years later, with 
the rapid growth of the parish, the need 
of a separate schoolhouse was felt, and 
the congregation had recourse to a com- 
monlv employed means of raising money 
for charitable purposes at the time, 
which was a lottery. The sum of Sio.- 
000 was wanted, and the Legislature oi 
Pennsylvania was petitioned for the legal 
power to create a lottery in that amount. 
The Act was passed in 1S03. The lot- 
terv was a grand success. The tickets 
we're sold for $6.00 apiece. There were 
6,274 prizes, amounting to $8,700. 
The Parish-School at Allento\^-n 

How solicitous the German Catholic 
settlers were, and what sacrifices they 
made to have schools in connection with 
the parish, can be seen from the fact that 
there is no parish numbering fifty faini- 
lies which has not its school. For an in- 
stance, we may cite the origin oi the 
parish in Allentown. When the X'cner- 
able Bishop Neumann, of Philadelphia, 
blessed the little brick church in the 
Sixth ward in May. 1857, it numbered 
about eighty-five families. The collection 
on that (lay amounted in the morning 
service to $11.20 and in the afternoon 
to $(\CK-), total $17.20. and still in Octo- 
ber the following year a parish sch(.x>l 
was opened in the frame house oi Peter 
Koehler, with thirty children. The first 
teacher and organist was Jonas Adam, 




N :^. Vk^. '^^?;^ ^'^-^ . 

f . 


Frame house of Peter Koehler at Ridge Road aud Libert.v Street (44ii HlJge Road). 


Situate on North Fourth Street. ojM^oslte Churoh of the Saorod Heart of Jesus. IVUl- 

oated June 24. 1900. 



of Goshenhoppen, the second F. X. Gres- 
sing; these two remained but a short 
time, but the third, Mr. Lehmer, re- 
mained several years ; the children paid 
50 cents tuition per month. The paro- 
chial school exists to this dav ; it has sev- 

eral times changed its location until in 
April, 1906, it moved into its new quar- 
ters, a stately edifice with twelve class- 
rooms, equipped with all modern require- 
ments and an attendance of 370 scholars. 
( Parish Record.) 

The "Church-Schools" of the Moravians 


AN ounce of prevention is worth 
more than a pound of cure.'' It 
is only in comparatively recent 
times that this principle is being acted 
upon even in the physical world. In the 
spiritual its application is still hardly 
thought of as a possibility. There was a 
time when the science of medicine con- 
cerned itself almost exclusively with 
trying to cure small-pox. typhoid, yellow 
fever and kindred ailments. Xow its 
efforts are mainly directed to their pre- 
vention, through vaccination, rigid sani- 
tation and destruction of the fever-bear- 
ing mosquito. Why is not the same prin- 
ciple recognized more generally in relig- 
ion? Almost alone among Christian 
churches the small and obscure r^Iora- 
vian Church centuries ago saw that igno- 
rance is the fruitful mother of sin, and 
set herself vigorously and persistently 
to the destruction of ionorance, that so 
she might the more effectively strike at 
that worst of human ailments, sin. 

The Moravian View of Education 
That the Moravian Church should do 
this was but natural. She grew out of 
the a'shes of the martyred John Hus, the 
learned and most popular professor and 
lecturer in Europe, who for years drew 
tens of thousands of students to the Uni- 
versity of Prague to sit at his feet. Her 
last bishop before she was transplanted 
from Bohemia and Poland to Germany 
was the ereat John Amos Comenius. the 
''Father of ^Modern Education." whom 
kings and parliaments sought after and 
delighted to honor, and the value of 
whose educational principles was never 
more fully appreciated than it is to-day. 
When, then, not many years after, the 
Church, in its zeal for the evangelization 
of the world, sent its pioneers over to 

this country, and especially to our State. 
from 1740 on, it was under leaders who 
were filled with the same spirit, and who 
were pre-eminently men of learning and 
scholarship, men like Peter Boehler, 
Count Zinzendorf, Spangcnberg. Pyr- 
laeus and many more. How could it be 
otherwise than that to such settlers the 
schoolmaster's desk was as essential a 
part of the Church as was the pulpit' In 
their minds the two were inseparable. 
}vlen, white, black and red. were to be 
saved, not only from positive badness, 
but just as much from negative badness. 
uselessness, emptiness of mind, feeble- 
ness of character. It was not enough 
for them to help men merely to be born 
again ; they wanted to teach and train 
the new-born ones to become good, use- 
ful citizens of God's kingdom, and in 
ever\- way "meet for the Master's use." 

\\'hile thus the early Moravians re- 
garded education not only as an aid to 
religion, but as itself an clement in their 
religion, it is to be noted that for this 
very reason they never valued learning 
for its own sake, or e.xalted it as some- 
thing to be sought after for itself. Its 
sole worth lay in its being a means to 
greater perfection of character, an ele- 
ment of manly and womanly strength. 
Their schools diil not aim at mere schol- 
arship as such. Still less did they strive 
after merely acquiring skill as money- 
makers. Their teaching was to develop 
their God-given powers of bixly. soul and 
spirit, and so produce a symmetrical hu- 
manity, a restoration as far as might be 
of the image of God in each man and 
woman. This was the sole end in view. 

On the other hand, neither did they 
commit the too common mistake of mak- 
iuir a false distinction between so-called 



secular and 


sacred knowledge. 

was sacred to them. Knowledge 
of the Bible, the catechism and hymns 
had its place beside knowledge of history 
and literature, training in ancient and 
modern languages, skill in mathematics, 
in music, and the arts. They had learned 
from their great Bishop Comenius that 
true education must be "in all things hu- 
man," in the "humanities." in whatever 
helps to make a man such as God intend- 
ed man to be when He created him in 
His own image. 

remarks have been 
order that we may 
the kind and the 

These preliminary 
deemed necessary in 
properly understand 
extent of the educational attempts made 
in Pennsylvania by the Moravian Church 
from the time when the first pioneers ar- 
rived at Bethlehem, we may say, up to 
the present. They were utterly misun- 
derstood by their fellow settlers at the 
time, often wilfully, because of denomi- 
national jealousy and racial suspicion 
and hatred; and perhaps as often be- 
cause of an honest lack of comprehen- 
sion of their motives and the spirit that 
animated them. Hence their efforts fell 
short of the large accomplishment that 


might otherwise have been 

General Educational Conference Called 
In March of 1742, just one year after 
the first log cabin had been built and oc- 
cupied where now the town of Bethle- 
hem stands, and not three months after 
the arrival of Count Zinzendorf from 
Herrnhut, in Saxony, at a general con- 
ference he had called of all German evan- 
gelical Christians in Pennsylvania, held 
in Germantown. he brought up for con- 
sideration the matter of education for the 
hosts of neglected children in the prov- 
ince. It was dien and there decided to 
invite the parents in the different town- 
ships to meet in Germantown on the 
follow in y April 17th for consultation on 
the subject. The invitation was published 
as widely as possible, both by word of 
mouth and by printed circulars which 
were distributed. The day for the meeting 
arrived. The place was ready. But only 
a few parents came, and they exclusively 
from Germantown itself. The reason 
mav have been indifference in some : lack 
of time and facilities for travel in more : 
but suspicion of the "Herrnhuter." mis- 
interpretation of their motives, and fear 
of proselytins: on their part, were un- 
doubtedlv the chief reasons for the fail- 
ure cf this first attempt to devise some 


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wniTi:FiK[.i> nt>rsi:. NAZAiarrn. ta. 

OconifleU aa ii Cbun li-ScluMl as »."iirly as 1740 




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"^ L 


ErceLed in 1740 

kind of a school system for the province. 

Another attempt was made on June 
5th, when a meeting was called, and 
widely published, for June 24th at Beth- 
lehem. To this there was no response 
at all. Then it was decided to make a 
personal canvass, and so gradually awak- 
en the interest of the settlers "in the 
townships" in the matter of education. 
Finally the subject was again discussed 
at a session of the Synod held in October 
at Fredericktown ; and it was there re- 
solved to establish two boarding schools, 
one for boys, in Philadelphia, and one 
for girls, in Germantown. But again, 
while there was considerable interest 
aroused by the personal canvass, through 
the jealousy of certain denominations 
and calumnies spread by them against 
the Moravians, the laudable effort was 
brought to nought. 

It will be noticed that this was a move- 
ment not only to open a few single 
schools, but to establish an educational 
system that should embrace all the Ger- 
man settlers in the province, regardless 
of religious affiliation. It was a large 
plan ; but the times were not ripe for it. 
Origin of Notable Young Ladies* Seminary 

In the meantime, however, the young 
Countess Benigna. dau«Miter of Zinzen- 

dorf, who had come with her father from 
Germany, rented a house in German- 
town, on the old Germantown Road, and 
there, assisted by two other women and 
two men. opened a school with twenty- 
five girls as the first pupils, on May 4th. 
1742. This was the actual beginning oi 
the school work of the Moravian Church 
in this country. In June of 1743 this 
school was transferred to Bethlehem, 
where also the next month a school for 
boys was organized, as well as the nucle- 
us of another boys* school in one of the 
two log houses that stood at Xazareth. 
The next year Bishop Spangenberg still 
further regulated this work by moving 
the girls' school into more commodious 
quarters at Bethlehem, and joining the 
two boys' schools at Xazareth and Beth- 
lehem into one, which was located on the 
land of Henry Antes in Fredericktown. 
who had offered his farm to be used for 
a large boarding school. 

The girls' school was the first church 
boardinj^ school for girls in America, 
and only a few years later grew into the 
famous ^^orav^an Seminary for Young 
Ladies, an institution which still carries 
on the work oi educating and training 
young women in the spirit of its found- 
ers, and from which have gone forth, in 




<yi. t*" 



.■- U 

^■AiS^---^ - - '■- 

- %%i- --• --^ --- 


^^^ .'^.^' 

Erected 1T4S. 

Occupied siuce 1S15 as part of Mcravian Young Ladies 


the more than a century and a half of its 
continuous and uninterrupted existence, 
more than eight thousand of America's 
noblest women, the wives and mothers of 
her greatest soldiers and statesmen, gov- 
ernors of many States, philanthropists 
and men eminent in every" walk of life. 
For this seminary never closed its doors 
since 1749 to the present day, during 
all the exciting scenes of the French and 
Indian \\'ar, the struggle for American 
independence, and the more recent Civil 
War. Among its earliest pupils were a 
niece of Washington himself, the daugh- 
ters of John Jay, Nathaniel Greene, 
Chancellor Livingston, and a long list of 
others bearino^ names almost equally fa- 
mous : Lees, Sumpters, Alstons and Hu- 
gers from the South ; Hiesters, Snyders, 
Colemans from our State ; Lansings, 
Vanderheydens and Roosevelts from 
New York, representatives of every State 
in the L'nion, and of the \\'est Indies, 
Sandwich Islands, and many foreign 
countries as well. 

Na2areth Hall and Linden Hall 

The boys' school, after various vicissi- 
tudes, grew into Nazareth Hall, whore 
since the reorganization in 1785 a similar 
work has been done for boys, equally im- 
portant and equally illustrious. 

Another girls' boarding school was 
added to the above when Linden Hall 
was firmly established at Lititz in 1794. 
It has since been carried on according 
to the same plan and in the same spirit 
as the two older kindred institutions. 

It would be most interesting to go 
further into the history of these three 
famous schools, in which so much has 
been done for the enlightenment and spir- 
itual betterment of our commonwealth 
during their long term of service in the 
cause of Christian education : but space 
and the purpose of this article forbid it. 
and the history of the church boarding 
schools of the Mi^ravians in Penn>yK"a- 
nia. unique as it is in many respects, must 
be left here, for a glance at their other 
church schools, their parochial day- 

Boarding-Schools and Day-Schools 

While in the boariling sclux^ls the 
studies pursued, even from the very be- 
giiming. were more various and ad- 
vanced, including besiiles the common 
school branches also instruction in Ger- 
man. French. Greek and Latin, thorough 
trainiiig in music, vocal and instrumental, 
and in art. drawing, painting, and art 
needlework, as well as such sciences as 
astronomy and botanv. the church dav- 



schools confined themselves more to 
teaching the common English branches, 
reading, spelling, writing, arithmetic, 
geography and history, though music 
and needlework were never forgotten. 
C)f course there was always study of the 
Bible, memorizing of hymns, and careful 
religious instruction, while no little at- 
tention was given to the formation of 
habits of cleanliness, tidiness in dress and 
politeness of manner. 

In the boarding schools, too, the ma- 
jority of the pupils have always been 
non-Moravians, who had to pay for their 
board and tuition ; while in the day- 
schools as a rule only the children of 
members of the church received their ed- 
ucation, and received it at the expense of 
the church. Still there were always many 
exceptions to this rule. Children of the 
community or neighborhood, who were 
not Moravians, were seldom refused ad- 
mission, and in some communities, like 
Lancaster, York, Lebanon, and later also 
Bethlehem, Nazareth and Lititz, a very 
considerable number of children of other 
denominations attended the Moravian 
schools. L'sually, however, these had to 
pay a small tuition fee. 

At first the boardinsr schools were also 

day-schools for the accommodation of 
such children as lived in the vicinity. 
Soon, however, the applications for ad- 
mission from other neighborhoods, States 
and countries, became so numerous that 
it was found necessary to open day- 
schools separate from the boarding 
schools even in Bethlehem, Lititz and 
Nazareth. Indeed as early as the middle 
of the eighteenth century there were as 
many as three or four different schools in 
Bethlehem, adapted to different grades 
of scholars ; and one at least specially re- 
served for unruly boys. While at Naz- 
areth the large stone "Whiteheld House*' 
was for a number of years used as a kind 
of infant school, for the quite young 
children of Nazareth and Bethlehem. Its 
membership was quite large. At the same 
time numerous day-schools were also 
opened in other places ; indeed wherever 
there was a settlement of Moravians 
there a school was opened, not only in the 
larger settlements already named, but in 
neighborhoods also like Oley. Tulpehock" 
en, Hebron, Heidelberg, !Nraguntsche or 
Salisbury, Allemangel. Fredoricktown, 
the ''Great Swamp" near Ouakertown. 
and others. In fact it is safe to say that 
during the second half of the eighteenth 




is^'"^- U- 

- ;c;:i \^^. 


Moravian boardinp-Srliixd for lU>ys, Kreotoil 1755 



century several thousand children of the 
white settlers of Pennsylvania received 
their education in the boarding or day- 
schools of the Moravian Church. This 
number was of course largely increased 
during the first half of the nineteenth 
century : after which it decreased consid- 
erably with the rise of the public schools. 
To-day the Moravian schools in this 
State educate about six hundred boys and 
girls every year, fully one-half of them 
children of non-^Ioravian parents. 

That there was no ulterior proselyting 
motive in the opening and conduct of 
these schools is proved conclusively by 
the fact that, as soon as the time came 
when the public schools were advanced 
enough in their teaching to approximate 
at least to the thoroughness of the church 
schools, the latter were discontinued, and 
the Moravian children themselves were 
sent to the former. At present there is 
cTnly one day-school in this State, the 
large and excellent one at Bethlehem. All 
the others have been discontinued. But 
the church still maintains her boarding 
schools, because they seem to have a dis- 
tinctive work to do which is not done 
anywhere else, the work of character-cul- 
ture, of makinof srood men and women, 

useful citizens of the State and of the 
kingdom of God. 

Theological School— An Educational Church 

In the foregoing no mention has been 
made of the Moravian Church's specific 
work of training young men for the min- 
istry. During the eighteenth century her 
ministers were educated in her theologi- 
cal seminaries in Europe, and some >A 
them still are. But since 1807 the church 
in America has maintained her own theo- 
logical seminary, an institution now als ■ 
having a college connected with it. and 
maintaining a very high standard. 

Enough has been said in this sketch, ir 
is hoped, to show that the Moravian 
Church's share in the work of education 
in Pennsylvania has been no inconsider- 
able one. In the early pionetr days she 
was for a time almost alone in this work. 
Always she has been a leader in it. both 
in the extent to which she engaged there- 
in, and in the high order of its quality. 
Indeed there is truth in the remark that, 
if the Moravian Church were not so 
widely known as the Missionary Church. 
she should be known as the Educational 
Church. Both titles are equally fitting. 

Moravian Influence in Founding the University of 



ON THE 17th of January, 1906, 
the Nation celebrated the two- 
hundredth anniversary of the 
birth of Benjamin Franklin, the greatest 
American statesman and philosopher, 
the inventor of many scientific appar- 
atus and the father of several of our 
greatest American institutions, among 
"vvhich are the American Philosophical 
Society and the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. These two institutions jointly 
celebrated the two-hundredth anniver- 
sary of their founder on the 17th. i8th, 
19th and 20th of April, 1906. 

The residents of Nazareth. Bethlehem 
and odier Moravian towns in .America 
will be interested to know that the early 
Moravians were lar(::el\' instrumental in 

bringing about the foimding of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. In the fall of 
1739 George Whitefield came from Eng- 
land and conducted evangelistic service- 
in Philadelphia similar to diose last year 
conducted by Torrey and Alexander. 
For the purpose of accommodating the 
thousands who wished to attend these 
services a subscription was started in 
Philadelphia, with which to erect a |vr- 
manent building, in which Whiiefield 
and other evangelists and nonsectarian 
ministers might preach, also to establish 
a free school for the education of pov'^r 
chilvlrcn. This free school was the be- 
ginning of the University of Penns>l- 
vania. and the building erected at that 
time was used by the University up to 



1802. The building was near Fourth and 
Arch streets, and was for many years 
ihe largest in Philadelphia. 

In his history of the founding of the 
College of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Prof. Cheney says that ''a group 
of men, several of whom were members 
of the Moravian congregation in the 
city, took the initiative in this subscrip- 
tion" — towards the building for the 
Evangelistic Hall and Charity School. 
Although Franklin was interested in "the 
movement from the very beginning, it 
was not until 1743 that he drew up a 
scheme for a College or Academy and 
communicated the plans to the Reverend 
Richard Peters. 

Althoug:h a number of denominations 

were represented among the subscribers 
to the original building of the Univer- 
sity, those of the Moravian faith seem 
to have predominated, and while they 
are not the actual founders of the Uni- 
versity, the Moravians may at least 
claim that they were largely instrurnen- 
tal in making it possible. It would seem 
fair, therefore, in writing up historical 
sketches of the Moravians and their 
work in America, to include the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania among landmarks 
such as Xazareth Hall, Moravian Sem- 
inary and College, and Moravian Sem- 
inary for Girls, all of which are among 
the earliest educational institutions in 
the United States and of which the Mo- 
ravians have many reasons to be proud. 

The Germans and the Charitv-School Movement 


UP to 1720 most of the German set- 
tlers in Pennsylvania were ^len- 
nonites, ^lystics and Dunkers. 
The large body of Lutherans and Re- 
formed came later, though these denomi- 
nations had made a few settlements. The 
Schwenkfelders and Aloravians came 
over in 1734 and 1741, respectively. The 
earlier German settlements embraced 
western ^Montgomery, northern Chester, 
eastern Berks and the broad plains of 
Lancaster and York counties. Later on, 
they included the counties of Lehigh, 
Lebanon, Northampton, Dauphin and 
Adams. Diffenderfer and Kuhns esti- 
mate the approximate number of Ger- 
man inhabitants in Pennsylvania, prior 
to 1727, at 20,000. 

So large was the army of Germans en- 
t^'ring the province each, year that the 
Pennsylvania Assembly passed an act in 
K~7 requiring all male ship-passengers 
above the age of sixteen to take the oath 
<'t allegiance to the King of England and 
to the Proprietor of the province. This 
nK'se German immigrants did willingly. 
' he successive lists of oath-takers, to- 
.s<-thcr with names appearing on the 
"figuial ship-registers, make it possible 
to determine approximately the number 

of German inhabitants in Pennsylvania 
when the "Society for the Propagation 
of Christian Knowledge among the Poor 
Germans'' began its labors in 1754. In- 
cluding the 20.000 German inhabitants in 
Pennsylvania pri(^r to 1727, there were 
about 80.000 German? in the province in 
1755. Taking Provost Smith's estimate. 
250,000, of the total number of inhabi- 
tants in Pennsylvania in 1759 as correct, 
the German population -comprised more 
than one-third of the total number. 

Germans Mostly Lovers of Peace 

The great body of these Germans 
were lovers of peace : some, profiting by 
their direful experiences in the mother 
country, for economic reasons, and some 
on religious grounds. About 1750. when 
it became a question as to whether the 
Quakers could maintain their former 
power of keeping the province peaceful 
in spite of the clamorings of an increas- 
ingly strong war party, the Germans, 
who, up to this time, hail taken little in- 
terest in governmental attairs. went to 
the polls and cast their votes on the side 
of the Quaker party. The man who was 
most inrtuential in making the Germans 
acquainted with the actual condition of 




things, and who warned them agahist a 
possible repetition of their experiences in 
the mother country where they had been 
oppressively taxed for war purposes, 
was Christopher Saur, from whose Ger- 
man press the bulk of German litera- 
ture read in those days emanated. 

This act on the part of the Germans in 
throwing their influence on the side of 
the Quakers so incensed the leaders of 
the war party that they brought all sorts 
of false charges against them. Provost 
Smith expresses the fear that the Ger- 
mans might unite with the French to 
eject all the English inhabitants. Franklin 
sees the downfall of the provincial gov- 
ernment and the suppression of the Eng- 
lish language. Again, the Germans are 
said by these men to be "utterly ignor- 
ant," "those who come here arcgenerally 
the most stupid of their own nation," "one 
half of the people are an uncultivated 
race of Germans, liable to be seduced by 
every enterprising Jesuit, having almost 
no Protestant clergy among them to put 
them on their guard, and warn them 
against Popery." To maintain the safety 
of the government and the integrity 
of the English language, Dr. Smith 
would educate the Germans to enable 
them to appreciate their true interests. 
"Give them faithful Protestant ministers 
and schoolmasters," says he, "to warn 
them against the horrors of Popish slav- 
ery; to teach them sound principles of 
government, to instruct their children in 
the English tongue, and the value of 
those privileges to which they are born 
among us." Parliament is advised to 
pass a law: (i) denying the right of suf- 
frage to the Germans for twenty years, 
until they have a sufficient knowledge of 
the English language and the State con- 
stitution ;( 2) making all bonds, contracts. 
wills and other legal writings void unless 
in the English tongue: (3) forbidding 
the printing and circulation of newspa- 
pers, almanacs, or any other periodical 
paper in a foreign language. 

One may easily imagine the probable 
effect that such charges and such 
schemes to rid them of their language 
had on the Germans. November 20, 

1754, they sent an address to Lieutenant- 
Governor Morris, reassuring him of their 
loyalty to the province and the royal gov- 
ernment. This address is signed by about 
three hundred representative German cit- 
izens. The charges of disloyalty went un- 
proven. On the contrary, as late as 174S, 
Governor Thomas pays them this tribute : . 

"They (the Germans) all take the Oath? of 
Allegiance to the King oi Great Britain in the 
presence of the Governor before they are per- 
mitted to make a settlement, and as far as I 
am capable of judging from nine years' resi- 
dence in that Country, are like to continue as 
true to his Majesty and as useful to the 
British nation as any of his Majesty's natural 
born subjects." 

Were the Germans so Grossly Illiterate? 

An examination of the lists of 
names on the ship-registers reveals the 
fact that more than seventy-five per cent. . 
of the males above the age of sixteen 
could write. When one considers the 
prevailing illiteracy in Europe at the 
time, the fact that Germany had been the 
battle-ground of contending armies for 
more than a century, and the additional 
fact that the Protestants emphasized a 
knowledge of reading rather than of 
writing, the percentage of literacy is 
very high. That the Germans could read 
and took an interest in books is attested 
to by the fact that they imported many 
books, such as the Bible, the Catechism. 
the Testament, the Prayer-Book and ti:e 
Hymn-Book. These were furnished, for 
the most part, by societies in Europe. 
Societies in Switzerland. Holland and * | 
Germany supplied those oi the Reformed 
faith. PVancke's institution, at Ha'.!e, 
supplied the Lutherans in a similar man- 
ner. The Dunker Brethren in Europe 
raised funds to send a printing press to 
Pennsylvania to be used for printing re- 
ligious books and tracts to bo distributed 
gratuitously among the poor Germans. 
This press, later on, became the famous 
Saur press, in Germantown. \ 

All of the different denominations rep- 
resented bv these Germans brought with 
them ministers. In many cases school- 
masters, also, came with them. W here 
the latter was not the case, the preacher 
was also the schoolmaster. Along with 



ilic rudiments of religion he taught the 
three K's. In many instances the settle- 
ments were so remote that no congrega- 
ii<.)ns could be organized to support a 
minister, to say nothing of supporting a 
schoolmaster. It had to follow, of neces- 
Miy, that the second and third generation 
(.1 such settlers grew up in ignorance. 
Their experience was similar to that of 
settlers belonging to other nationalities. 
I hit that the great majority of Germans 
were interested in the needs of education 
is evidenced by the number of books they 
imported, and by the support they gave 
to the Saur press after its establishment 
in 1738. The educational conditions 
which faced the Germans and their atti- 
tude toward this problem are clearly set 
forth in Saur's Almanac of 1752: 

"New Comer: A matter that is of very 
j.:rL-at importance to me is that, in Germany, 
one is able to send his children to school to 
have them instructed in reading and writing. 
Here it is well nigh impossible to get such 
in>truction; especially, where people live so 
tar apart. O, how fortunate are they who 
have access to a good teacher by whom the 
children are well taught and trained I 

"Inhabitant: It is true. On that account 
many childr-en living on our frontiers grow up 
hke trees. Btlt since the conditions are such 
tli;it few people live in cities and villages as 
tiicy do in Germany, it is natural that one 
"icL-ts with certain inconveniences. Where is 
there a place in this world where one does not 
iiK-et with some objectionable features during 
I'.i-^ natural life.'^ 

"Xew Comer: But this is an exceptional 
\'.ant. for if children are thus brought up in 
i;..:norance it is an injury to their soul's wel- 
larc, — an eternal injury." 

I" 1753, Franklin states that "of the 
^ix printing-houses in the province, two 
<ire entirely German, two half Gernian 
I'^df English, and but two are entirely 
^■-n^lish." Constituting less than half of 
'lie total population of the State, it is evi- 
••'•nt that the Germans were as well pro- 
v'.decl with this means of disseminating 
Knowledge as any other people in the pro- 
ymcc. TVior to 1754 more than two hun- 
'i^uidred ditferent publications were is- 
"'u-tl from the various German printing- 
I'J-esscs. Most of these were of a religi- 
"^'*^ order. The most productive German 
Wt "^s as well as the most influential was 
"■^•■'^"^ Chnstopher Saur. .\s early as 
'r^'^ there emanated from this press a 

German almanac and a German news- 
paper in 1739, both of which reached so 
large a circulation that they were said to 
have been "universally read by the Ger- 
mans." From this press also emanated 
three editions of the German Bible before 
any English press in America issued any 
edition of the English Bible. 

During this period there lived and 
taught two of the most famous school- 
masters in the province. Ludwig Haecker 
and Christopher Dock. The former is the 
real founder of Sunday-schools and the 
other is the author of America's first book 
on school management. Of the scholars 
known to this period the Germans need 
not be ashamed. Pastorius. Rittenhouse, 
Schlatter, Muhlenberg, Weiser, Peter 
2^Hller, Saur, Zinzendorf and Spangen- 
berg bear comparison with an equal num- 
ber of scholars among other nationalities 
in colonial Pennsylvania. 

In spite of all of these means provided 
to disseminate knowledge among the 
German people there was a considerable 
number who could not avail themselves 
of them. Remote settlements and lack 
of funds were frequently the cause of 
this. The supply of schoolmasters did 
not keep pace with the increasing num- 
ber of immigrants and the natural in- 
crease in the resident population. The 
school-houses built were too small to ac- 
commodate the pupils and funds were 
not forthcoming to build new and larger 
ones. ]\Ien like Muhlenberg wished for 
''but ten or twenty of the many hundred 
charity schools of England." When a 
movement was set on foot to establish 
such charity schools. Muhlenberg lent 
every effort to make it a success. The 
statements in the preceding paragraphs 
are all based on historical facts and con- 
stitute, I believe, a fair setting forth of 
educational conditions among the Ger- 
mans in Pennsylvania when the charity- 
school movement was begim in the early 
fifties. The Germans' political status 
would not have been mentioneil were it 
not for the important boariuij it has on 
the success of these charity schools estab- 
lished bv the "Society for the Propaga- 
tion of Christian Knowlediie among the 
Poor Germans in Pennsylvania." 



Origin of the Charity-School Movement 

In 1746, the Reformed Synod of Am- 
sterdam sent Rev. Michael Schlatter to 
America as ''church visitor." Most of 
the Reformed people had settled in Penn- 
sylvania, so that Schlatter's efforts were 
confined most largely to this province. 
After five years of labor in this appointed 
field he returned to Holland and reported 
the condition of the "more than 30,000 of 
the Reformed household of faith." In this 
"Appeal to the Synod of Holland" he 
pleads for the aversion of the future 
probable condition of his people if means 
are not provided to remedy present con- 
ditions. *'If this help is not extended, 
and hands and hearts are closed against 
them, they and their children, destitute of 
the means of grace, without the counsel 
of those who instruct, direct, exhort, 
edify and comfort them, must in 
time sink into pagan blindness and fear- 
ful ruin." The "Appeal" solicited the in- 
terest of David Thomson, a pastor of one 
of the English Reformed churches in 
Amsterdam. He took the aidins: of the 
Pennsylvania-Germans into his own 
hands, and may properly be regarded the 
originator of the charity-school move- 
ment. In ]vlarch, 1752, he left his own 
charge and went to England and Scotland 
to solicit funds from the various churches 
to aid this movement. The Church 01 
Scotland ordered a general collection to 
be made ''at the church doors of all the 
parishes in Scotland." On June 4. 1753, 
the Moderator of the General Assembly 
of the Church of Scotland read a letter 
he had received from Rev. Chandler, of 
London, in which the latter states that he 
and several other gentlemen had formed 
themselves into a board of trustees to 
conduct and finance this movement. The 
membership of this society consisted of 
fifteen of , the most prominent men in 
England: Ri^^ht Plon. Earl of Shaftes- 
burv, Rio-ht Hon. Lord W'illouehby. 
Rieht Hon. Sir Luke Schaub, Rioht 
Sir Josiah \'an Xeck. Thos. Chiddy, 
Thos. Fluddyer, Benjamin Amory. James 
Vernon, John Ranee. Robert Ferguson. 
Nathaniei Paice, Rev. Dr. P.irch, Rev. 
Caspar Weitstein, Rcz'. Da: id Thojuson. 
Rev. Samuel Chandler. Secretarv. This 

"Society for the Propagation of Chris- 
tian Knowledge among the Germans in 
Pennsylvania" proposed to correspond 
with the Church of Scotland, with that of 
Holland and of several German states, 
and with the emigrants in Pennsylvania. 
In reply to Chandler's letter Prof. Gum- 
ming, the ^loderator, wrote the follow- 
ing significant lines : 

''As the Protestants in Pennsyhania arc 
subjects of Great Britain, it zcoul'd be neces- 
sary in order to make them more so by their 
learning the British hinguage, to employ there 
some English school-masters for instructing 
their youth.'' 

Chandler approved of the proposal and 
a memorial was presented to the King to 
secure additional funds for the Society. 

On the 1st of December, 1753, Provost 
Smith, of the College and Academy of 
the City of Philadelphia ( now the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania), landed in Lon- 
don and soon thereafter addressed a let- 
ter to the "Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel," in which he commends 
the society for its plan to send instructors 
to teach these people the English lan- 
guage for the purpose of assimilating 
them with die English-speaking inhabi- 
tants. This suggestion was in line wiili 
Professor Cumming's suggestion already 
quoted. Schlatter's "Appeal" plead tor 
adequate religious instruction to prevent 
his people from falling into gross ignor- 
ance and paganism. The original ai:v. 
had now become perverted. Interests of 
government were to bo placed above the 
interests of religion. To carry out th:> 
new plan the London Society appointed 
the principal state othcers oi Pennsylva- 
nia : The Honorable James Hamilton. 
Lieutenant-Governor of Pennsylvani.i : 
William .Allen, Chief Justice; RicharJ 
Peters. Secretary oi Pennsylvania : Ben- 
jamin Franklin, Postmaster-General : 
Conrad W'eisor. Interpreter, and Rev. 
William Smith. Provost of the College < t 
Philadelphia. These men were known a< 
the trustees-general. .At one of their tlr-i 
meetings, .\ugust 10, 1754. they passed 
this resolution : 

"That schools should be established .it 
Reading. York, Easton. Lancaster, lla*'- 
over and Skij^pack. That for the better 
government of these schools, six. eii^ht "T 



ten of the most reputable persons resid- 
ing near every particular school should 
be appointed deputy-trustees, part of 
whom should be Calvinists, part Luther- 
an-Germans, and part Englishmen of any 
profession whatever." Rev. Michael 
.*^chlatter was appointed superintendent 
of these schools at an annual salary of 
iicx) sterling. 

The general plan had been carefully 
submitted to the society in London in a 
letter to them by Provost Smith. After 
lie had been appointed a member of the 
trustees-general he formulated a detailed 
course of procedure which was adopted 
by the trustees-general. The society in 
London was to be the financing body and 
general supervisor of the movement ; the 
trustees-general were to be the more di- 
rect general supervisors, with an appoint- 
ed superintendent as their agent. The 
communities in which such schools were 
established were to have their local dep- 
uties. The method and purpose of estab- 
lishing these schools, the course of study, 
tlic qualification of teachers, etc., w^ere all 
set forth in a pamphlet which Dr. Smith 
submitted for adoption by the trustees- 
general, December lo, 1754. The pam- 
phlet is entitled "A Brief Llistory of the 
Rise and Progress of the Charitable 
Scheme. Carrying on by a Society of 
Xoblemen and Gentlemen in London, for . 
the Relief and Instruction of Poor Ger- 
mans, and their Descendants, settled in 
Pennsylvania, etc." Of these pamphlets 
2.^00 were printed for distribution among 
those interested in this political and re- 
ligious problem. 

Schools Established— Dr. Smith's Labors 
To whom would this educational sys- 
tem appeal? We have seen that Muhlen- 
brrg. the leader of the Lutherans in 
Pennsylvania, longed for some of Eng- 
land's charity schools. Plence, the Luth- 
eran element would patronize the newly 
established schools. Besides, they were 
represented in the appointment of dep- 
niy-trustees. The Reformed or "Calvin- 
i-^ts" had similar local representatives. 
1 heir religious leader was the su^x^rin- 
t<-'n.lent of these schools. The Svnod of 
Holland and the Presbytery of Scotland 
were the first organized bodies to put 


forth efficient efforts to aid their people 
by sending them money and additional 
instructors. With these different sources 
of support the movement was inaugurat- 
ed. Schools were established as fast as the 
various communities applied for them. 
The original intention of the trustees-gen- 
eral was to establish twenty-five schools 
among the Germans in Pennsylvania. 
Eighteen petitions were received for 
schools, but the available records show- 
that not more than twelve were ever es- 
tablished. The report of the society for 
1759 gives the number of pupils en- 
rolled : 

Place. No. of scholars (boys). 

1. At New Providence, Philadelphia Co., 

almost all Germans 50 

2. At Upper Dublin, Philadelphia Co., 

one-third Germans 48 

3. At Northampton, Bucks Co., all Low- 

Dutch 60 

4. At Lancaster, Lancaster Co., nearly 

one-half Germans 65 

5. At York, York Co., more than one- 

half Germans 66 

6. At New Hanover, Berks Co., all Ger- 

mans 45 

7. At Reading, Berks Co.. more than one- 

half Germans 36 

8. At Chestnut Leach. Lancaster Co., 

Preslntery for educating the yoifth 
for the ministry 25 

■ Total 395 

N. B. — These numbers were taken just after 
the harvest, when the schools were but thin. 
In winter the numbers educated in this charity 
often amount in all to nearly 600. and have 
amounted to 750. before the schools at Easton 
and Codorus were broken up by Indian incur- 
sions. Upwards of two-thirds are oi German 

The maximum number oi pupils 
is further corroborated by one of 
the recommendations ott'ered by the Uni- 
versity of Oxford. March 12. 1750. in 
conferring the dec^ree of Doctor oi Di- 
vinity on Dr. Smith. 

The latter part oi I75(') Schlatter rc- 
si lulled as superintendent of the charity 
schools and Dr. Smith took upon himself 
almost entire su]KTvision oi these schools, 
in acUlition to his duties as Provost of 
the College and Acavlemy of Philadel- 
phia. The question naturally arises as to 
what motives impelled him to e.xcrt so 
cireat etYort to make this movement a 



success. Let us look for a moment at the 
existing political, educational and religi- 
ous conditions which confronted him. 
I. It is to be remembered that Provost 
Smith belonged to the war party, as op- 
posed to the Quaker party. Therefore, 
the proper education to make the Ger- 
mans aware of their civic duties would 
be to instruct them in a way that they 
would no longer be the tools of the 
Quakers, as he (Smith) complains of in 
several instances. 2. Teachers were 
needed in these schools. Where should 
they be prepared? Not abroad, for that 
would hamper the success of the move- 
ment from the start by reason of the fact 
that imported teachers would not under- 
stand the full import of the movement 
nor "the genius of the people." The 
place most suitable for their preparation 
would naturally be the College and Acad- 
emy of the City of Philadelphia, of which 
Dr. Smith was provost at the time. 
Teachers prepared in this manner would 
give the institution a permanent prestige 
among the German population in the 
province. Here lay his hope of building 
up a great state institution. He could not 
hope to draw students from the Quaker 
element in the province. They had their 
schools and were opposed to the prin- 
ciples of Smith's party. He had little 
more to hope for from the Presbvterians 
and kindred denominations. They pat- 
ronized the institutions of learning which 
grew out of the Log College. Aside from 
the Germans, the remaining element in 
the province was that belonging to the 
Church of England and these constituted 
a small part of the total popula- 
tion. 3. This movenient was secretlv in- 
tended to promote the interests of the 
Church of England. This is proven be- 
yond a doubt by citing a letter which Dr. 
Smith wrote to the Bishop of O.xford, 
November ist, 1756, in which he says: 
*'Yoi1r Lordship may depend, that they 
(the charity schools) shall always be con- 
ducted with *a due regard to the interests 
of the Church of England.' " For this 
reason, wherever possible, missionaries 
of the Church of England were to be 
employed either as schoolmasters or to 
be named as deputy-trustees and man- 

agers of these schools. That this motive 
was uppermost in the minds of the lead- 
ers of the Church of England in Penn- 
svlvania is further substantiated by the 
letters of Rev. Richard Peters, treasurer 
of the German fund, and Rev. Thos. liar- 
ton. Rev. Peters' letter is an introduc- 
tion of Dr. Charles Magnus \V range!, 
the provost of the Swedish churches in 
America, to the Bishop of London: "Dr. 
AWangel wants to take a just advantage 
of this general antipathy to the Presby- 
terians, and to unite the great body of 
Lutherans and Swedes with the Church 
of England, who, you know, are but few 
and in mean circumstances in this pro- 
vince, but, were they united with the Ger- 
man Lutherans, we should both become 
respectable. This Dr. Smith and I think 
may be done by the means of our acad- 
emy. \Yq might have a professorship of 
divinity opened in it wherein German 
and Encrlish youth might be educated. 
and by having both languages as a part 
of their education they might preach 
both in German and English in such 
places where there is a mixture of both 
nations." Rev. Thos. Barton goes even 
farther in his sug^restions. In a letter to 
the Societv for tlie Propagation of Re- 
ligion in Foreign Parts. 1764. he says: 

''The Germans in general are well affected 

to the Church of England, and might easily 
be brought over to it. A law obliging them 
to give their children an English education. 
which could not be deemed an abridgment 01 
their liberty (as British subjects), would soon 
have this effect." 

Why Did This Movement Fail 
At this point the question natural'^ 
arises, "Why did this movement, so au- 
spiciouslv begun, not become a pernia- 
nent educational system in the province.* ' 
The answer may be found by e.xamining 
the actual condition in the province. Sev- 
eral schools had to be abandoned on ac- 
count of Indian raids. But this factor 
cotild not become a permanent barrier to 
educational progress. The failure oi the 
movement can not be attributed to lack 
of interest in education on the part ot 
the Germans. Before they became sus- 
picious of the real motives back of the 
cliaritv-school movement they patronized 
these schools gladlv. This is evident in 



llie iinniber of pupils in the schools where 
such had been estabhshed. Again, it has 
boon stated that their patronage of the 
printing-presses in the colony was almost 
general. In such places where the vari- 
ous denominations established parochial 
schools for the education of their parish- 
ioners young and old attended them. 
Muhlenberg says, "The old were not 
ashamed to sit with the children to learn 
their letters." 

The printing-presses of the Christo- 
pher Saurs, of Germantown, senior and 
junior, were undoubtedly responsible for 
the sudden failure of this movement in 
1761. The hostility which this press 
constantly expressed toward the charity- 
school movement was in no wise due to 
its lack of sympathy for any means whose 
purpose was to bring about the general 
education of the whole people of the 
province. Quite to the contrary, as it has 
been proven conclusively in another 
treatise, the elder Saur anticipated the 
establishment of a state system of educa- 
tion ninety years before the first general 
school law for the State was passed in 
1.S34. There is ample evidence that the 
younger Saur was equally solicitous for 
the intellectual and moral improvement 
of his people. The Saur press was instru- 
mental in turning the Germans against 
this movement by bringing to their at- 
tention, through the writing of private 
I'-tters and through editorials, the real 
HKHives of the movement. The Saur press 
was identified with the Dunkers. one of 
tjic Quietisf s^cts. On the basis of re- 
litrious principles they were opposed to 
^\'ar. In this they were in harmony with 
the Quakers, who believed in the" same 
principle. Besides, they had the support 
^^t the other Quietist sects, the Mennon- 
ites, ^Foravians and Schwenkfelders. The 
inembors of these Quietist sects were not 
rococrnized in the appointment of the lo- 
cal deputies. To counteract the influence 
'"'f the Saur press the trustees-general 
l>urcliased a printing-press to publish 
tlu'ir books, tracts (among which were 
:u-ticlcs of war), ahiianacs and newspa- 
P<T<. The Saur press charged the lead- 
rrs of the movement with concealed mo- 
tives, one of which, it claimed, was to 

further the interests of the war party. 
Belief in the truth of such statements 
was suflicient to drive away probable 
patrons who belonged to any one of the 
Quietist sects. Among the Lutherans 
and Calvinists there were many to whom 
no war meant no tax. Their belief in 
the statements of the Saur press caused 
them to oppose the establishment of 
schools by leaders who were identified 
with the war party. Saur implicated 
Schlatter as a party in this attempt to 
further the interests of the war party. 
It is very probable that Saur's editorials 
were responsible for the hostility the 
Germans manifested toward Schlatter, 
and caused him to resien as early as 1756. 

Another potential cause responsible 
for the early failure of this movement 
was the belief which Saur instilled in 
the minds of his readers that the leaders 
of the charity school movement sought 
to rob the Germans of their languas:e. 
The Germans loved their language. To 
attempt to rob them of this heritage, 
which meant so much to them, was not 
likely to go unopposed. The minutes oi 
the Reformed Coetus, August 24. 1757. 
show clearly the general impression of 
the larcre bodv of Germans toward the 
possibility of having their language sup- 
pressed : "Xow with regard to the 
schools, we can do but little to promote 
them, since the directors try to erect 
nothing but Ens:lish schools, and care 
nothino- for the German language. Hence, 
now as before, the Germans themselves 
ousrht to look out for their schools, in 
which their children may be instructed 
in German." 

Adding to these major consideration? 
of increased taxation and suppression of 
the German language, the memory oi the 
charsres which some oi the leaders of the 
charitv-school movement had made 
against the Germans, which still rankled 
in their minds, and the fact that many of 
these Germans resented being made the 
objects of charity, one can find factors 
sufficientlv potent to cause the downfall 
of this educational system in 1 761. 

In spite of an existence of barelv seven 
vears. durincr which time the charity 
school movement finallv had to succumb 



to public opposition, the system was not 
without its good effects. To quote from 
a former treatise on this subject by the 
writer of this article: "It stimulated the 
Germans to maintain the integrity of 
their language and religion, to provide 
churches and schools for that purpose, to 
disprove the false charges affecting their 

loyalty to the government by the heroic 
part taken by them in the Revolutionary 
War." In making the Germans more 
conscious of their educational needs, "it 
broke the ground for the establishment 
of public schools by legislative enact- 
ment in 1834." 

United Brethren "Church-Schools" 


Opposition to Trained Ministers 

rnpMIE fact that the United Brethren 
Church' exclusively Germanic in 


its orig"in and largely 


up" in the Keystone State, now owns 
and operates fourteen institutions of 
learning in the various sections of the 
country, including a theological seminary 
in Ohio and an academy on the west 
coast of Africa, is a pleasing illustration 
of the educational interest and enterprise 
of the Pennsylvania-Germans, whose 
blood and spirit have found welcome and 
persuasive utterance in all the counsels 
of the denomination. This significant 
achievement in the course of a century is 
all the more remarkable and gratifying 
when we reflect that the life of the church 
found its earliest embodiment in the 
thought and feeling of a thoroughly 
rustic class of people, whose environment 
afforded no inspiration to educational 
sentiment, and very meager facilities for 
the acquisition of learning. ^Moreover, 
running through the pioneer body of our 
membership there was a bias, not against 
education or learning, but in opposition 
to a professionally trained niiiiisfry. sim- 
ply because sOme of its representatives 
took no interest in the poor and ignorant 
classes, while others lacked spiritual 
concern for the welfare of souls, or be- 
came indifferent to the obligations of a 
holy life. For instance, when the Alle- 
gheny Conference established our first 
institution of learning at Mt. Pleasant. 
Pa., it put upon record a resolution of 
censure upon any member who should 
hinder the collection of funds by oppos- 
ing the college movement. That action 
revealed the existence of two facts — the 

presence of a slight but silent influence 
against the college movement, and a fixed 
purpose on the part of the conference to 
suppress or destroy it. The silent oppo- 
sition uncovered by the action of the 
conference was not to the cause of educa- 
tion, but against the establishment of 
''preacher-factories.*' as colleges were 
called by some who clearly saw and deep- 
ly felt the weakness and ineft^ciency of a 
merely intellectually trained ministry. In 
its righteous recoil from excessive trust 
in theological training, which makes the 
ministry a mere "profession" instead of 
a diz^.iiic caUiiig. the pendulum of feeling 
swung to the other extreme, and thereby 
registered, not an aversion to education, 
but a failure to adequately estimate its 
supplemental value to the Spirit's call 
and equipment. Many pioneer ministers, 
able and eloquent expounders of the 
Word, including those of scholarly at- 
tainments, feared the substitution oi in- 
tellectual equipment for the life and pow- 


v;"" gg 




cr of t!ie Holy Ghost. They all recog- 
nized and protected the right of unedu- 
cated men , to enter the ministry, when 
they felt divinely called to do so ; but 
urged all such to acquire intellectual 
knowledge by private study and other- 
wise. However, the .Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man's constitutional love for lore, sup- 
ported and inspired by a rapidly growing 
educational sentiment throughout the 
State, soon removed the prejudice re- 
ferred to, and paved the way to the high- 
est culture, both of mind and heart, for 
all who really desire it. 

Mount Pleasant College 
C)nr first "church school"' for higher 
education was established at Blount 
Pleasant, Pa., by the Allegheny Confer- 

cate mazes of mathematics and natural 
science by Prof. S. S. Dillman. Miss 
Harriet P. Marcy had charge of the la- 
dies' department. Rev. J. L. Homes» 
Rev. J. B. Resler. David Kiester, David 
S. Cherry and Samuel Zuck. father of 
Rev. W. J. Zuck, D.D., a splendid teach- 
er and preacher, constituted the execu- 
tive committee of the college. They were 
all strong men in every high sense of the 
word; and the latter three were ideal 
representatives of a noble class of lay- 
men whose wisdom and consecration 
prevented disintegration through the 
transitional period of our church-life, 
when the English was substituted for the 
German language, and inspired an edu- 
cational campaign which resulted in the 






t-Hce in 1847. It was called Blount Pleas- 
am College, and enjoyed a fair degree of 
prosperity for a period of ten years, when 
il> life and influence became absorbed in 
a consolidation with Otterbein Univer- 
sity, Westervillc, Ohio. In a special 
'^•nsc this school was the child of the 
I'rnnsylvania-Germans, whose represen- 
tatives and descendants penetrated the 
\u-stt.Tn wilds of the State, and finally in- 
v^"<tcd their prayers and monev in Mount 
I'leasant College, whose hidden life still 
^■JJJoys their material and spiritual sup- 
]'yn. The first catalog of diat school 
-''■•ws an attendance of one hundred and 
'^■n students — seventy-four gentlemen 
•i!'d thirty-six ladies — who were helped to 
•i ^<n.)wle(lge of the Latin and Greek lan- 
-^-ivres and literature bv Prof. Win. R. 
'"■imth, .\.M., and led through the intri- 

establishment of Mount Pleasant College 
and Otterbein University. 

Cottage Hill and Lebanon Valley CoU'ege 

In 1866 the educational pulse of our 
Pennsylvania people began to beat with 
higher aims and larger purposes. This 
awakening resulted in the founding of 
two more schools — Cottage Hill College. 
at York. Pa., and Lebanon \*allev Col- 
lege, at Annville. Pa. Cottage Hill was 
for young ladies exclusively. It was ori- 
ginally established by Rev. John F. Hey. 
from whom it was purchased by r»ishop 
Krb. Christian Eherly and Rev. Daniel 
Kberly. D.D. The latter became presi- 
(.lent of the school, and finally bought out 
the Erb and Eberly interests and became 
its sole owner. Under Dr. Eberly 's man- 
agement the school enjoyed six prosper- 



v/. *- r 



^l: ilj. 


ous years and sent out five classes of 
graduates, plus many more whom the col- 
lege placed in the line of promotion to the 
same goal. Its student body was made 
up of representatives of many excellent 
families, not only of the United Brethren 
Church, from which its patronage main- 
ly came, but also of other denominations. 
both in Pennsylvania and in ^laryland. 
The buildings were beautifully located in 
a campus of nine acres on the Codorus 
creek. The grounds were well laid out 
and very attractively ornamented with 
shade trees pw^ shrubbery, as you see by 
the accompanying cut, which is a good 

In 1872 Cottage Hill was sold to the 
Episcopal Church. About this time Dr. 
Eberly, through whose influence and ef- 
forts it had been brought under the 
United Brethren auspices, was called to 
the presidency of Otterbein University 
at Westerville, Ohio. For a period of 
forty years Dr. Eberly has been promi- 
nently associated with the educational 
work of the church. He is a scholarly 
man, an able preacher, and one of the 
best instructors in the State. He is the 
chaplain of the popular Eighth Regi- 
ment, National Guard of Petmsylvania, 
and the ranking chaplain oi the State. 
He resides at Hanover. 

At this jj-Uicture of our educational 
work, when Cottage Hill passed into the 
hands of another denomination. Lebanon 
\'alley College entered upon the enjoy- 
ment of a larger patronage and a more 
imihed co-operation. Many patrons and 
punils transferred their interest and at- 
tendance from York to Annville. where 
the educational interest of the Pennsyl- 
vania-Germans is now materially em- 
bodied in six fine buildings, five of which 
are fresh from the hands of the architect, 
and constitute a lovely setting to the 
handsome campus. Aside from the self- 
sacrificing efforts of those who founded 
the institution, and hundreds of others 
who heroically siu^tained it from that day 
to this, Prof. E. Benj. Bierman, who pa- 
tiently and skilfully perpetuated its life 
through a financial crisis, and Dr. H. U. 
Roop, whose toil and tact brought a large 
student body to the class rooms and new 
buildings to the grounds, deserve grate- 
ful recognition. Moreover, this valuable 
educational plant is the embodiment of 
Pennsylvania-German soul and seniinieni 
on this subject. It is their plant from 
start to finish, and that in a certain and 
significant .sense. I simply speak the 
truth when I say that this school has ac- 
complished a world of good ; and the 
prospect is that, with its splendid student 




bodv, able corps of teachers, fine campus 
and' buildings, worth probably half a mil- 
lion dollars, its future life and labor will 
multiply increasingly the splendid 
achievements of the past. Rev. A. P. 
Funkhouser, A.M., is the president. 

Some Pioneer "Church-Schools" 
In tracing the educational acts and in- 
stincts of our people we must repair 
finally to the pioneer period of their ex- 
istence, when there was no organized 
expression of thought or feeling on the. 
subject, except as it appeared in the 
"community school," to which I must al- 
lude. Previous to 1847, ^vhen ]^Iount 
Pleasant College was established, we had 
no church schools for higher education ; 
but I know of instances in ^laryland and 
Pennsylvania where United Brethren, 
being numerous and influential in the 
neighborhood, built houses for divine 
worship and secular education combined. 
That was the case at the historic Antie- 
tam appointment, ^\'here the pastor. Rev. 
George A. Geeting, preached the gospel 
on Sunday and taught school through the 
week. Of course, the house was a hum- 
ble one, as you see, built of logs in 1780. 
It was the first church and the first school 
building that the L'nited P)rethren erect- 
ed; and in its use they wisely united the 
twin powers of reason and righteousness 
— a splendid and indispensable combina- 

\\'hen the society that worshiped at 
\'alentine Doub's, where the general 
Church was organized in 1800. transfer- 
red its services to Rockey Sprinof school- 
house, it entered upon the occupancy of a 
stone structure that was built for school 
and sanctuary purposes. For more than 
thirty years it served those two ends, but 
it is now used for educational purposes 
exclusively. The house was built largel> 
through the influence of the church. 
whose members were people of promi- 
nence in the community. 

Another ''communtiy school" estab- 
lished unrler the auspices of the church, 
stood on the Monocacy, near Frederick 
City. Md. It was built about 1830. and 
was called "Retreat Scholhouse.'' It 
was located at the entrance of a lovely 
trrove, most of which the woodman has 
failed to spare. Here **Uncle Peter 
Kemp," as he was affectionately called, 
taught school and conducted prayer and 
class meetings for many years. Joshua 
Doub. Jacob Perry, John Cronise. Peter 
Kemp and the Xeidigs. all prominent 
people in the comnumity and members of 
the church, came with their families and 
neighbors to worship in this place : and 
through the week, in winter time, their 
children attended school here. 

I will now call attention to a church 
and school buildinq: erected in 1707. near 
Shiremanstown. Pa., not by our people. 



except In an ancestral sense, but under 
the auspices of the Fricdoiskirchc, a 
Reformed congregation, of which Rev. 
Anthony Hautz was the pastor. Under 
his directing hand the people of the com- 
munity, Refornied, Lutheran and ^len- 
nonites, purchased "John Shopp's old 
house for a schoolhouse and to hold 
church therein," for fifteen pounds. John 
Eberly and ?^Iartin Hauser, who gave 
four and five pounds respectively to- 
wards the enterprise, were ^lennonite 
ministers. The former was the grandfa- 
ther of Rev. Daniel Eberly, D.D. Thus 
the old log house was purchased from 

John Shopp and taken down log by log 
and erectecl on a new site about one mile 
away. The school room or "auditorium*' 
was about thirty by thirty, plus a kitchen 
and anteroom, the former furnished with 
an old-fashioned fireplace of huge pro- 
portions, where the food was cooked for 
the hands who put up the stone church 
for the Friedens congregation in 1798. 
The schoolhouse, as I said, was a log 
structure, "chinked and daubed" after 
the fashion of those early days. About 
1846 the house was weather-boarded: 
and a little later on, sometime in the 
fifties, the board partitions, fireplace and 

f .-■-•^"'tii ,^*rf<*-^-rV^'SSf« 






chimney were torn out and the whole 
space put into one room. Then the old 
door at the corner of the building was 
closed and a new entrance provided in 
the middle of the front. For a time it 
was used for church and school pur- 
poses ; and for many years thereafter ex- 
chisively for secular instruction, both 
bein£>" originally in the German language. 
This was fifteen years before there was 
a house in what is now called Shiremans- 
town. In this humble but historic house 
John Eberly's children, seven sons and 
four daughters, including the father of 
Dr. Eberly, attended school, as did also 
the Shopps, the Sheelvs, the Martins, the 
Snavelys and the Rupps. ^Ir. I. D. 
Rupp, the historian, was a pupil and af- 
terwards a teacher in this house, which 
was torn down a few years a^^o, when a 
new brick building was erected on the old 

Some Scholars of the U. B. Church 
In conclusion, the Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man has been and still is conspicuous 
among the scholarly men of the Church, 
achieving success in various ways, and 
giving special attention to the cause of 
education. Among the number I may 
mention Rev. John Xeidig, born in 
Berks county in 1765 ; Bishop Henry 
Kumler. Lebanon, 1801 ; Bishop Jacob 
Erb, Lancaster, 1804; Bishop William 
Hanby, Washington, 1828; Bishop E. B. 
K^phart, Clearfield. 18^4: Rev. Daniel 
Berger. D.D., Berks, 1832; Rev. Ezekiel 
Light, D.D., Lebanon, 1834; R^v. Alex- 
ander Owen, Franklin, 1S34: Rev. J. P. 
Landis. D.D., Lancaster. 1844: Rev. T. 
W. Etter, D.D.. Dauphin. 1846, and 
Rev. Daniel Eberly. D.D.. of Cumber- 
land. BishoD Hanby's son. Rev. Benja- 
min R. Hanby. was the author of **Dar- 
ling Xellie Grav." both words and music. 


Dort auf der Hohe bauet 
Der ems'gen Lohner Tross 

Fiir einen reichcn Grafen 
Ein prachtig stolzes Schloss. 

Im Thai am Gottesacker 
Deckt man zu stiller Ruh' 

Die Leiche eines Bettlers 
]Mit kiihler Erde zu. 

Und in der engen Gasse, 

Dort vor des Schreiners Thiir, 

Fiir einen Neugebor'nen 
Sieht eine Wieg' herfiir. 

Drei Wohniingen fiir Menschen; 

Bald Ziehen alle ein. 
Wer mag von siesen Drei'en 

Der Gliicklischte won sein? 


On yonder heights the workmen. 

A large and busy throng. 
Build for a wealthy baron 

A castle fair and strong. 

Here, close beside the churchyard. 

A hasty grave is made. 
In which just now a beggar 

To his last sleep is laid. 

There, in a narrow alley. 

Fresh from the joiner's hands. 
A cradle for a baby 

Before his workshop stands. 

Three houses made for mortals: 
Soon each in his shall dwell. 

Now. of these three the happiest. 
Which is he — can vou tell? 

Amerikanische Redensarten und Volksge- 
braeuche. Mit dem Anhang: Folklorist- 
in Longfellow's "Evangeline." \'on Pro- 
fessor Karl Knortz. North Tarrytown. N. 
Y. Leipzig, Teutonia-Verlag. 8j pages, 
A large mass of interesting information con- 
cerning the origin and meaning of familiar 
^vords. phrases and pro\xrbs. as well as cus- 
toms, in vogue among the people of this coun- 
try and others, is here offered in an attractive 

form. To all students of language and folk- 
lore this little book will be refreshing and in- 
structive reading. Its only defect, in our 
judgment, is the want of subiiivisions and me- 
thodical arrangement, or even an index, which 
would enable the reader to refer readily to 
any particular word, phrase, proverb or other 
subject which he may desire to look up. This 
criticism does not apply to the second par:. 
which treats of the folklore alluded to in 
many passages of Longfellow's iK^autiful "Tale 
of Acadie." 



Our Superintendent of Public Instruction 

(See Frontispiece Port 

IT is a happy coincidence that in the 
year of this symposium on "The 
Pennsylvania-Germans in Their Re- 
lation to Education," one of their num- 
ber should be Superintendent of Public 
Instruction in the State. Seven men 
have held this office since its creation in 
1857. One of them was German on the 
maternal side and others may have had a 
strain of that blood ; but the present in- 
cumbent is of pure German ancestry. At 
the expiration of his present term, in 
1909, he will have held the office one 
year longer than any of his predecessors. 
When UTckersham's fifteen years ser- 
vice had closed, no one supposed that 
there was another man then living that 
could remain at the head of the educa- 
tional system of Pennsylvania as long as 
that. But there was one such. It was 
Dr. Nathan C. Schaeffer, of Alaxatawny, 
Berks county, than which there is no 
more unmixed German section in the 
State, the country, or even the Father- 
land itself. He has held the great office, 
too, when lesser men would have lost it. 
For, appointed as a Democrat by a Dem- 
ocratic governor, he has been retained 
for three successive terms under Repub- 
lican adniinistrations. So great has been 
the public confidence in Dr. Schaeffer 
that when Governor Stone wanted a 
Democrat to put on the Capitol Building 
Commission, he selected the State Su- 
perintendent of Public Instruction. 

In the older States of the Union, the 
predominating class of settlers quite 
generally became the brand by which all 
the other people of the State were known 

rait and Autograph.) 

and are known even to this day. The 
Puritan is the Xew Englander; the 
Knickerbocker is the Xew Yorker ; the 
Cavalier is the \Trginian ; the Creole is 
the Louisianian. \\ hile the Quaker suc- 
ceeded in stamping his name upon the 
Philadelphian, the "Pennsylvania-Dutch- 
man" is the Pennsylvanian. Whatever 
the speech or descent of a Pennsylvanian 
may be, outside of the State he is known 
as a "Pennsylvania-Dutchman." 

The Pennsylvania-Germans must have 
left their mark in other ways than mak- 
ing an X instead of writing their names. 

So they have. Rittenhou^e and Lick 
wrote their names as high as the starry 
heavens, where all the world can see 
them. Some wrote them on canvas, oth- 
ers in books, and still others in blood. 
Dr. Schaeffer wrote his on the school- 
boy's slate. In the field of education he 
has added new glory to the "Pennsylva- 
nia-Dutchman" at home and abroad. His 
profound and scholarly thoughts have 
been heard and read throughout the 
Union. This very month he travels 
across the continent to preside over the 
X'^ational Educational Association at Los 
Angeles. He fully measures up to the 
greatness and importance of the State of 
whose educational system he is the hon- 
ored head. While Pennsylvania has 
second place in the columns of the cen- 
sus, her Superintendeni of Public In- 
struction divides first honors with the 
greatest of other States. In ptiblic school 
circles, not to know SchaetTer or of 
Schaeffer, is a confession of ignorance 
of contemporary educational history. 

The Lutheran Quarterly. Conducted bv Jas. 
W. Richard, D.D., LL.D,, J. A. Sing- 
master, D.D., Frederic G. Gotwald. DT").. 
with special cooperation of other divines. 
Price, $2.50 a year in advance. 
The April issue, which is No. 2 of Vol. 
XXXVII of this periodical, comprises 154 
pages and contains, among other things, these 

articles of special interest : The Old Lutheran 
Doctrine of Free-Will : .\ Supplement, by 
Prof. J. \V. Richards. D.D.: Shall we Supple- 
ment the Catechism? by Adam Stump. D.D. : 
The Religion oi Palestine at the Time of the 
Israolitic Conquest, by Henry W. .\. Hanson. 
A. M.; Philosophical Conceptions of God. by 
Rev. A. E. Dietz ; The Miraculous Conception. 
by Rev. J. B. Thomas, A. M. 



Pennsylvania Historical Societies: 

Their Aims and Their Work 

Tho encourriRPTTient of historic research being: loj:i<jrilly a p^rt.of our dfsijritate<l fi«^l«i of latx-jf. vre open'With a department devoted chiefly thou^rh not ex'lusively to the interests of th»> s<x-ir-ties coustltutiuz the 
I'.-nrisylvania Federation of Historical Sfxi-ieiies. This department will jrive data relating: to the work of hi«- 
t..rl' al s(K-ieties — notable rneetin?;^. contributions, papers read. etc. As space permits, sh'Tt stkntcbes of Indi- 
vidual societies will be given, telling.' their history, objects, methods of wf»rk and the ri'suU." a^-bieveU. We 
...itlhilly tender the use of these columns to the societies for the expression and exchange of Ideas relatii:g to 
their work. 

'llie following: paper, read before the American Historical Association at Baltimore and Wa«hlnpton. De- 
r.uiber 20-29, lOO.j, by Dr. S. P. Heilmau. secretary of the Pennsylvania Federation of Historical Societies. Is 
offered as a fitting introduction to this department. — Ed. 

The Pennsylvania Federation of Historical Societies as 
Illustrating a New Phase of Cooperative Activity 


The P€nns\'lvania Federation of Historical 
Societies was organized at Harrisbiirg, Jan- 
uary 5, 1905, for the purpose, as stated in its 
trial organic law, of encouraging historical re- 
search relating to the Commonwealth of Penn- 
sylvania, especially the preparation of check- 
lists of publication and the collection of mate- 
rial for a complete bibliography of the Com- 

Of course, this is stating* it in very general 
terms, without precision as to methods and 
underlying possibilities. Owing to the new- 
ness of the idea of a federation, and the very 
short time at that first meeting available for 
discussion, it was felt as probably the only 
statement justified at that time. In fact, no 
one present at that initial meeting a year ago 
probably had a clear idea as to what should 
t'o the ultimate definition of the true and entire 
>cope of a historical federation. It is intended 
t<> accomplish this at the first annual meeting 
of the Pennsylvania Federation, to be held at 
ilarrisburg, January 4, 1906, when and where 
it is expected to more elaborately define its 
purpose to formulate plans for widening its 
H'ope and for a collective synopsizing, or in- 
dexing, of all the splendid work already done 
by the societies constituting the Federation. 

In the meantime, during the current year, 
«^Mir Federation has busied itself only along 
the line of strengthening itself numerically, so 
'hat, beginning with thirteen, it now num- 
bers twenty-four out of thirty-six known his- 
'"rical societies in the State among its mem- 
bers. In the meantime also its members have 
had time to think it over, and to study the 
proposition, and now will come to the mcet- 
"'s' better prepared to submit and intelligently 
dtH'uss plans toward accomplishing the true 
'«tul exact work to be done by the Federation. 

" c arc not here to discuss what an histori- 
cal society can do. nor to analyze what any 
o"v.' liistorical society has done, or all combined 
have done. There are said to be 420 histori- 
<-'al societies in this country. It goes without 
"•'.ving that they have been and are, splendid 
;»k'fncics for the collaboration and publication 

of local history, historical records and bio- 
graphical data, and for the collection and pre- 
servation of books, pamphlets, newspapers, 
relics, curios, which shed light, if not on the 
land, yet on that particular locality. So well 
recognized is the great utility of local histori- 
cal societies that the General Assembly of 
Pennsylvania, by an Act approved May 21, 
1901, entitled '\\n Act to encourage County 
Ilistorical Societies," empowers the several 
commissioners of the counties to annually ap- 
propriate out of the counry-funds the sum of 
?200 to the county historical society, if such 
there be., towards the payment of its expenses 
and to encourage historical research. 

But we are here to discuss, not individual 
activity, but federated activity, and by feder- 
ating we mean the voluntary coming together 
of a number of constituents in whose behalf 
some good, common to all, is to be accom- 
plished, or accelerated; in other words, to co- 
operate for the attainment of one or more 
ends reciprocally helpful to all the several con- 
stituents. This is the idea fundamental with 
us Pennsylvanians in federating our historical 

What then is to be the character oi this pro- 
posed co-operative activity? In other words: 
Why a State federation of its historical so- 
cieties? To this we venture in reply: 

First. To establish a central body, com- 
posed of active men. whereby to encourage. 
aid and direct historical research, and to foster 
the formation of local historical societies. 

Speaking for my own State, with which I 
am more familiar, there are sixty-seven coun- 
ties, some of them quite old. others of more 
recent organization. But whether old or new. 
all oi them have a duty to perform to posterity 
in making record of current events, a duty :iie 
import of which we of our own generation 
have often only too poignantly to realise when 
in search of past lore now almost forgotten. 
or altogether unrecorded. The mutations of 
generations are swift, and what in our day 
may seem trivial to us is nevertheless history 
for future generations. 



Of the sixty-seven counties in our State 
hardly one-third have liistorical societies, and 
in the other two-thirds hardly any historical 
work is b^ing done. In those counties which 
have historical societies a vast amount of local 
historical matter has been gathered and placed 
for preservation. This will prove of priceless 
value in proportion as the field whence it is 
gleaned recedes from the harvester's opportu- 
nity, in consequence of the destruction or scat- 
tering of private collections and the turning 
to oblivion of personal reminiscences. 

We also have in our State numerous histori- 
cal societies doing constructive work along dis- 
tinctively church or denominational lines, con- 
structing denominational church-history. Fur- 
thermore, we have a State Historical Society, 
and a State Library, into which has been gath- 
ered and is being gathered a vast ciuantity ot 
historical matter for preservation. 

It will be the province of our State Federa- 
tion to attempt to bring all these constructive 
activities into co-operative relationship, to- 
wards thoroughly elucidating the history of 
all and each of the localities of the State, as 
well as perfecting its own or State history; 
also to collect data relative to the growth and 
progress of population, wealth, education, agri- 
culture, arts, manufactures and commerce, to 
compile its traditions and folk-lore and to ac- 
quire and preserve tools, appliances and ob- 
jects illustrative of past generations, and of 
their modes of living and doing. 

Second. It will be the province of our 
Federation to induce in the counties of the 
State the discovery, construction and publica- 
tion of their bibliography, that is. a history 
of the literature produced by them_, and as- 
sembling the same from time to time into a 
general or State bibliography, for general ref- 
erence and information. Within quite a re- 
cent period several instances have come to 
my knowledge of a practical kind, showing 
what can be done along this line. Lancaster 
county, one of the oldx?st counties in the 
State, formed in 1729, has compiled a list of 
its publications, running up to over 1,550 titles. 
In Tioga, a younger county, formed in 1804. 
such a list was compiled, amounting to 145 
titles. There may be other counties having 
lists of publications issued within their terri- 
tory, but the point sought ht:re to be empha- 
sized is that, even though there exists a list 
of the publications made in a county, it is an 
isolated fact and under present conditions 
must remain such, so that of its bibliography 
there is absolutely nothing known in a distant 
part of the State, and quite as likely not even 
in an adjacent part. In fact, even within the 
narrow confines of a county its bibliography 
is often terra incognitii to its own people. In 
this mass of published matter no doubt there 
is a great deal of interest wider than its orig- 
inal confines, of which readers and writers 
would gladly avail themselves, if they had or 
could have any knowledge of it. It will be the 
province of our Federation to induct; local 

tabulation of all this local literature, wheth«-r 
transient, periodical or permanent, and in lurj: 
to assemble the same into a State or eencral 
index, for general reference and distribution. 

Third. In our State there are many his- 
torical societies, all, however, acting independ- 
ently of each other: the members unacquaintc«l 
with each other, though interested in the same 
themes: the work done by them of a miscel- 
laneous character, so that it is impossible ;.■» 
form a correct idea of what has been done. 
and what remains to be done. The work done 
by one society, and its publications, be thry 
ever so valuable, are practically unknown even 
to their neiglibors. ^Iany of these publicatir.ns 
are ideal specimens of research, of wider than 
local interest and would, if known, command 
a wide circle of students and readers; more- 
over, they would often supply data greatly 
needed by a searcher in some other section. 
The truth of this composite proposition could 
be shown, it required, by proof most abundant. 
I am tempted, however, to cite one case, and 
one only, taken at random from a mass of 
equally meritorious produciions. In May of 
this year the Washington County Historical 
Society published a paper bv Boyd Crumbine. 
Esq., of that society, on 'The Old Virginia 
Court House at Augusta Town. I776-I777-" 
This is an exhaustive presentation of a matte' 
of signal int\?rest, not only locally, but of State 
and even of National bearing; yet how many. 
aside of a few of the personal friends of the 
writer and a few libraries, know of this valu- 
able publication? The same can be said of 
numberless other valuable publications of his- 
torical societies. 

It will be the province of our Federatio'^ 
somehow, or in some wav. to bring these loca; 
workers and local activities into co-operative 
relationship, to bulletin their publications and 
to foster the communism of purpose. Alone 
this line it will also be the province of the 
Federation to list the names ot historical writ- 
ers throughout the State, or persons of a his- 
torical mind, especially expert students and 
writers in special lines, to whom to assicn 
certain special work to be done, whether by 
committee, commission or otherwise, and a!;«-"» 
to suggest to its component societies certain 
desired work in their respective localities or 
field of work. 

To summari;^e. it will be the province ci 
our Pennsylvania Federation : 

First. To organize historical activity in 
every part of the. State and to foster it. and 
to foster that already organized. 

Second. To act as a federation-biblio- 
grapher for its component societies. 

Third. At regular intervals or periods to 
bulletin the publications of its component so- 
cieties, and to conduct an exchange of said 
bulletins, and in all to act in all things his- 
torical and for all parts of the State historic- 
ally, like unto a clearing-house in the field oi 



This in short is a statement, possibly some- 
what crudely phrased, of the promptings un- 
derlying the federating of our hi'=torical socie- 
ties. If the points submitted, and the move- 
nicnt itself, commend themselves to your ap- 
probation, other States might be invited and 
urged to federate their historical societies, and 
out of these State federatioiis might be form- 
ed a National federation, auspiced by thi- 
grand American Historical As^^ociation, but 
with a field of operation disiinctively its own. 

In a letter lately received Dr. lieilman describes the 
rt'ieption of tliis paper and the work since done by the 
Pennsylvania Federation of Historical Societies as fol- 

That paper brought out a larger discussion 
than all the others read at that session of the 
Association. Its contents were both novel and 
suggestive to the hearers. I was especially in- 
terrogated as to the matter of county-com- 
missioners in Pennsylvania annually appropri- 
ating $200 to their historical societies. This 
was so new to members of the Association 
that it caused a genuine surprise, and much 
praise was awarded our State legislature for 
this provision. I was profusely thanked for 
the paper, which was read a week later, by 
rcfiuest, before the second meeting of our Fed- 
eration at Harrisburg and adopted as an ex- 
cellent general exposition of what our Federa- 
•.ion aims or should aim to do. It was pub- 

lished in full in the Transactions of the Ameri- 
can Plistorical Association and gave our newly 
born Federation an early introduction to the 
attention of eminent men. 

As far as I know, there is at present no 
other State with an organization just like ours. 
There is the Bay State (Mass.) Historical 
League, with purposes somewhat similar, but 
that League federates the historical activities 
of only two counties: Essex and Middlesex. 
Much inquiry concerning our purposes has 
come to me from other States, and I know- 
that our example has caused a movement to 
federate the historical societies of Xew York 
State. ^ The Bibliographical Society of Amer- 
ica, Washington. I). C, also evinces interest in 
our work and desires our co-operation. 

At our second annual meeting, held Jan. 7. 
1907, at Harrisburg, we effected a thorough 
organization and adopted a constitution along 
the lines of which we are to work. Standing 
committees were appointed on (a) biblio- 
graphy, (b) historical activity, (c) exchanging 
duplicates, (d) publication of lists, etc., (e) 
preserving manuscript records, and (f) State 
legislation. Twenty-eight historical societies 
are now members of the Federation. The suc- 
cess of this body is largely conditioned upon 
the work done b}' the several standing conmiit- 
tees, which will make their first reports at our 
next annual meeting. 

German Surnames: 

Their Origin, Changes and Signification 


III. Developmext of GER^[AX Xames 

How very close the Old German 
names were to the hearts of the 
Germans is shown by the fact 
tiiat in spite of many disturbing influ- 
ences, such as the s^reat migrations, the 
introduction of Christianity, etc., the 
< )Id (icrman names persisted for so many 
centuries. If we examine a list of the 
German kings beginning with Charles 
tlie Great we shall find that for six cen- 
turies the names of the kings are all pure 
German. Karl, Ludzi'i:^. Kounut Hciii' 
rich. Otto and Fried rich are the most 
comnuMi names in this list. Moreover, if 
^vc examine the names of the German 
arclil)isli(:)ps, bishops, monks and abbots 
"t this period, we shnll find that even 
d)o nanus of these church officials are 
Plainly (merman, though we should expect 


foreign names first introduced 
among the clerical orders. And not only 
did the Old German names persist in 
Germany, but also in France. Spain and 
Italy.. Long after the lan^ua^es of these 
countries had been Romanized, the Ger- 
manic names remained. \\*e need mention 
here only the names of leaders of the tirst 
Crusade, which are all Germanic : Gott- 
fried rou Bonillou. Robert :on Jcr Xor- 
numdic. F\iiiiii:tnd :on Toitloitsc. etc. The 
history of Frarce at this time contains 
more Germanic than Romanic names. 

The two pri"c"p^l causes wliich helped 
to make the (^Id Germanic na!nes persist 
<n Ion*:: were, firstlv. the creatly intensi- 
fied patriotic feelin^.^- on the part of t!\e 
inhabitaius of the various pcttv German 
States, and secondly, a patriarchal spirit. 



Considering first the latter cause we find 
that among the Germans of former 
years, as among the Germans of to-day, 
it was the custom for parents to give to 
their children their o\\n names or the 
names of their ancestors or relatives. 
The inhuence of the people's patriotism 
in helping to make the German names 
persist is likewise apparent even to this 
day. We find, for example, that in 
Swabia the names FricdricJi, Rudolf and 
Albert predominate, in Bavaria the 
names Lultpold and Dictpold, and among 
the Rhine Franks, Heinricli, Ludzcig and 
Konrad. ^Ve find also the germs of a 
national patriotism, similar to that which 
in 1898 caused the United States to have 
a little baby named George in almost 
every family. For it is told that on 
Christmas-eve, in 1171, the young King 
Henry, son of Henry H of Fngland. 
gave a feast, from which he ordered 
every knight whose name was not [F/7- 
hclm to withdraw. When the ro\aI or- 
der had been obeyed, one hundred and 
seventeen knights all bearing the name of 
Wilhchn remained in tlie banquet-hall. 

With the development of the language 
we find a most wonderful development 
of the (31d German names. In the first 
place we find a large number of abbrevi- 
ations wliich are due to corruptions oi 
speech. A few examples will serve to 
explain this class: ( i ) Rat^aiiluir, Rcgiji- 
Jiar, Rcgiiicr, Reiner; (2) Hntodperaht, 
Riiodpreht, FIniodbert, Rupreelit. Ru- 
peri; (3) Cariovalda, Heroald, Herald: 
(4)BeriiiIiard, Bernliard, Dernd. In ad- 
dition to tiiese a]il)reviations. which are 
due to c'-rruptions of speech, we have 
also a far larger class of abbreviated 
names which are terms of affection. ani,l 
in these abbreviations it is natural that, 
since the first sellable is accented in Ger- 
man, it is retained in the abbreviated 
name, while the second s}-llable is drop- 
ped. In the place of the sect^ul svllable 
so dropped we generally find the letter 
substituted. Examples: Kuonratrz^ 
Kitoiio, Sif^bert -- Si\:;o, Codberaht — 
Codo. In some names the second syl- 
lable was not discarded entirely, but its 
first letter was retained as in the exam- 
ples: Ratpoto—Ratpo, Sibert^Sibo. It 

is not always possible, when given one of 
these abbreviated names of afifcction, to 
determine the original name from which 
the given name is derived. Tlie abbre- 
viated name Godo, for example, is n«jt 
only the abbreviation for Codberaht. but 
it may also be the abbreviation for 
any name the first syllable of which is 
God, as. ff)r example. Godebald, Godu- 
frid, Godoinar. etc. 

The very simplest form of abbrevia- 
tion which we find is that formed by the 
addition of the letter /, as Kiiiti. It is in- 
teresting to note in this connection that 
this addition oi an / to the end of a wonl 
was the origin of the German Umlaut, 
Kuiii being later written Kiin. But mo- 
thers were not satisfied to call their chil- 
dren by a simplv^ term of endearment 
such as God'.. To show their motherly 
love they added another suffix of aflfec- 
tion and made the name Godilo or Godl- 
ko. Xor were they satisfied with these 
terms of endearment, but fr«.qucntly 
added the two suftixes (^\ endearment tu 
the same name, as Godlkilo or Godiliko. 
This reniinU n> of the reduplicated suf- 
fixes of endearment in Latin and in 
Spanish. In Latin we have the words 
puera, piiella and puelliila. while in 
Spanish the suffix of endearment /.^.y can 
be added to an\" word or name as often 
as the fervor of the writer's emotion may 

\\'e can see from the larc^e number of 
possible forms of endearment in Gor- 
man, how great was the p">wer of auv:- 
mentation wliich the Old Gernnn names 
possessed. Herr Paiili. who. with llio 
exception of Fr>rstermann. has done 
more than any other German in the ficM 
of onomatoletcy-, has taken the nanx* 
Gode-'er('bf as an example and has traced 
six thousand ("ierman names to this one 
name. r>ei:innin'Z with the simple abbre- 
viated form Gndo. and the comi-HHind 
f<^rms Godbo. Gobbo and Gobo. he has 
fiVjiul twenty-one simple names formed 
from tliese names hv means oi the suf- 
fixes -Ho. -ico and -iko. and forty-nine 
compound names, each of which is form- 
ed b\ the ;'dditi«>n of two of these suf- 
fixes oi endearment. We have thus tar 
discovercil seventv-five names deriveil 



from the name Godchcraht. Each of 
these seventy-five names has at least one 
(Halectic variation,- since d may be chang- 
ed into /, b into p, z into /, and k into ch. 
We thus get seventy-five more names, or 
a total of one hundred and fifty. G and ; 
are often interchanged in German names 
and thus we get one hundred and fifty 
mure names, or a total of three hundred. 
Tlie Old High German o appears in Xew 
High German as o, o or //'. Each of these 
three hundred names may therefor have 
four possible variations, which gives us 
a total of twelve hundred names. Each 
of these twelve hundred names may form 
patronymics in one of three ways — by 
means of the genitive, or by adding -iiig 
or -sen. We thus derive thirty-six hun- 
dred more names or a grand total of six 
llmusand names, all of wliich are direct- 
ly or indirectly derived from the name 

In spite of the great vitality of the 
German names, which we have just con- 
sidered, it was inevitable tliat foreign 
names be introduced into Ciermany. F.e- 
f'>re the middle of the twelfth century the 
iinmher of these foreign names was ex- 
ceedingly small, but after that time the 
•ncreased intercourse with Italy brought 
a nnich larger number of foreign names 
into the German language. The first 
foreign names so introduced were those 
of the Apostles: loliaujics, Pctrus, Paitl- 
'!s\ Jacobus and Philip pus. Soon after- 
wards the names of the saints, Chrisfoph, 
Martin and Gcori^ and the name of the 
:»rchangel Michael were introduced into 
' 'vrmanv. Afany of these names, whicli 
bear t'.ie external stamp of Christianity. 
h-A(\ a perfect heathen ct.^inotation for the 
^ Md Germans. Christ ^p!i, for example. 
\v!i<) bore the child Christ across the deep 
n\er, was to the old Germans simply 
the god Thor, wlio carried Oervandil 
'i!-''n his shoulders acr(^>s tlie river. 
M'»reover, both Thor and Christ«:^ph had 
ie<l liair and were invoked by the people 
♦'••^ the patrons who protected all good 
•I'en from thunder antl lightning. St. 
' T. T r was to the Germans the national 
hero Siegfried, who in turn was W'uo- 
tati clothed in human form. The reader 
5nay in(|uire why Michael became sucli a 

popular German name, while the names 
of the other archangels, Raphael and Ga- 
bnid were hardly used as personal names 
at all. There are two reasons for this 
fact: the first is because the name Mi- 
chael sounds so much like the Old Ger- 
man Michel, which meant great, while 
the second reason is because the archan- 
gel IMichael, who leads the departed souls 
to Paradise, was so much like the Old 
German god W'uotan, who led the fallen 
heroes to W'alhalla. 

Iri addition to the foreign names of 
which we have made mention, there were 
two otner classes of foreign names in- 
troduced into Germany at about this 
time thrcu;4h the infiuence uf the Chris- 
tian Church. These were the names oi 
the local saints and the names of the pa- 
tron saints. Among the names of local 
saints thus introduced we may mention 
Gall us and Coluiubaii in St. Gallen. Ste- 
pJianus in Austria. Kilian in W'iirzburg, 
Martin in ^lainz, and Plorentius in Hol- 
land. Of patron saints those whose 
names became most common as personal 
names in German}- were St. Georg. who 
was the patron saini of the knights, be- 
cause he slew the dragon, and St. Xico- 
laiis, the patron saint oi merchants, be- 
cause Italian merchants in the eleventh 
century saved his remains. The number 
• if foreign names introduced into the 
f -erman language grew larger and larg- 
er, but the high tide of this ni(n-ement 
was not reached until the time ci the Re- 
formation, in the sixteenth century. The 
common people were then for the first 
time enabled to read the Bible in thtir 
own language, and after reading it lliey 
cave iluir children ahnost no names oth- 
er than those found in the Hible. The 
Thirt\- Years" War. which had such a 
Iv^rbarizing infiuence upon literature and 
upon the lairj^uage. tended to have a sim- 
ilar i'uluence upon German names. But ir.lluence was iirreaily lessened by the 
fact that in the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries famih-names had been intro- 
duced. The general introduction of for- 
eign names during the Thirty Years' 
War accordingly had but little influence 
and couUl not work as much havoc as 
if tliere had not been anv familv-names. 



Myles Loring: 

A Tale of the Tulpehocken 


Chapter IX. 
The "Shining Saints" 

IN the enumeration. of the ecclesiasti- 
cal sects of Womelsclorf we have 
hitherto omitted all mention of the 
^'Shining Saints." In strictness of inter- 
pretation these pious luminaries can not 
be included in the catalog of actual 
churches, for they acknowledged fealty 
to none, and were not even a churchly 
law unto themselves ; like their predeces- 
sors of long ago, "each man did that 
which was right in his own eyes." They 
constituted a motley company whose 
chief stock in trade, besides an ardent 
admiration of their own spiritual at- 
tainments, was the criticism of the relig- 
ious life — or rather the lack of it — of 
the membership of the various churches 
in the town. 

Forgetting the impressive portraiture 
of the Pharisee and the publican, they 
indulged freely in comment upon the cus- 
toms of their brethren of the Lutheran 
and Reformed faith, bewailing their "for- 
mal worship" and lack of true godliness, 
and intimating that those of the Evan- 
gelical Association had broken away 
from their first principles of sober and 
devout practice. The name which they 
bore was not a corporate one, but, hap- 
pening to be conceived in some nioment 
of ecstasy by one of their number, speed- 
ily proved attractive and eventually be- 
came the accepted title by which they 
were known. 

Having no means to build an edifice 
for worship, they were fain to throw 
themselves upon the generosity of the 
few lingering members of the Presby- 
terian church, and use the little brick 
structure which had fallen into the con- 
dition naively described by a certain 
Chief Executive as ''innocuous desue- 
tude." Doubtless they would have criti- 
cized their benefactors just as merciless- 

ly in the direction both of faith and prac- 
tice, had they been numerous enough to 
excite their attention. 

The "Shining Saints" were not indig- 
enous to the soil of old Berks. Some of 
them indeed were citizens of the county 
from birth, but there is no community in 
which some converts can not be gathered 
to the standard of a new "ism." Blown 
about by every wind of doctrine, such 
persons furnish a fair mark for the 
apostles of spurious religions, and fall an 
easy prey to the machinations of immoral 
teachers who wear robes of sanctity. The 
wildest and most absurd tlieorics are 
eagerly accepted, and crack-brained en- 
thusiasts find a liberal following:. 

The leaders of the society had been at- 
tracted to the region by the reports oi the 
existence of gold and other precious met- 
als in the leads of the South Mountain. 
Diligent efforts had been made to dis- 
cover the auriferous vein, and a company 
had been formed with a view to profit by 
the discoveries. The South Mountain 
Gold ^[ining Company glittered in the 
sight of not a few capitalists who read its 
dazzling prospectus. Thev did not pause 
to inquire as t*'* the reputation of its offi- 
cers, who resided in New York. and. 
forgetting the wisdom dearly bought a 
decade and a half before in connection 
with speculati(Mis in oil-wells, they em- 
barked eagerlx- upon new and perilous 
waters of venture. 

The agent of the company was Cap- 
tain Timothy r>randers. a man of mar- 
velous military deetls, who captured 
many an old soklier in his mining-net by 
tales of "the service." He had indeed a 
military air. but there were two or throe 
quiet heroes oi the town who fancied that 
his service had been confined to the bar- 
racks rather than done in the fiel.i. T'"* 


them and to some others the captain was 
quite a problem. A man of medium 
size, with closely cropped whiskers and 
head slightly bald,- he wore an appearance 
of cunning-; but those who studied him 
attributed it rather to his own opinion of 
his merit and a certain carelessness about 
exact honesty, than to a high grade of 

But the captain 'was certainly a very 
shrewd man in the commercial field, cap- 
able of ''turning a penny," as he express- 
ed it, and always to his own advantage. 
His financial acumen was only exceeded 
by his religious zeal and readiness "in 
the service of the Lord," as he familiarly 
put it. Never failing during the day to 
utilize his laborers to the utmost in his 
mining-operations, he was equally dili- 
gent in conducting religious exercises in 
the evening gatherings of the "Shining 
Saints." Yet he w^as not the real leader 
of the meeting; that post was held by a 
self-constituted "preacher" of eccentric 
manner and expression, although withal 
most devout in practice. 

Reverend Brother Hodges usually pre- 
sided in the assemblies of the "Saints" 
and threw into the exercises a personality 
that at least commanded attention. 
"Brethren," he would say, as he sat with 
his limbs crossed, ''how are you prosper- 
ing spiritually? It is good for us to ask 
each other how we are getting on. Too 
many, when they meet, say : 'What is 
the weather, and the weather, and the 
weather?' instead of inquiring how their 
souls prosper. Salvation is confined too 
nuich to the four walls of a church ; what 
we need is practical Christianity. Xow 
there was Dunstan Dole : he went out 
riding with a man, and when they passed 
a fine old oak-tree he said: 'Do you see 
that old oak-tree, sir?' 'Yes, sir.' 'Well, 
to-morrow morning at nine o'clock, sir. 
I II be under that tree, sir, praving for 
you, sir.' " 

Then Brother Llodges would swing 
lii*^ leg, loosen his artificial teeth and 
Pother up his loins for another exhorta- 
tion upon the follies of the church. A 
-Stranger hearing him for the first time, 
iniglit regard him as a little erratic in 
manner, but verv much in earnest. But 

upon hearing him twice and recognizing 
to his astonishment the very same exiior- 
tation and illustrations, he would be in- 
clined to smile, and afterwards actually 
to roar, at the oddity of the repetition. 
But this almost ungovernable propensity 
would yield in time to the third and fixed 
stage of apathy, if not of a little disgust, 
at the monotony. 

Brother Hiram Xobble, although not 
awarded the high position in the ranks of 
the society to which he aspired, was not 
in his own estimation less than the least 
of all saints. It was his well recognized 
propensity to "lead the meeting" in the 
absence of Brother Hodges ; nor would 
it far transcend the bounds of charity to 
remark that he was rather glad to find 
the worthy brother detained from a 
gathering, since it permitted him to exer- 
cise the important part of leader. 

"I will read to you out of General 
John," he said, one evening, "where he 
says : 'Take heed that ye do not your 
alms before men.' " It was one of the 
few injunctions that he zealously heeded, 
but he explained the word "alms"' as "the 
money given to the preacher." It was 
evident that he was referring to the Gen- 
eral Epistle of John, although the refer- 
ence to alms was sadly misplaced — and 
that he conceived the former "son of 
thunder" to be a military man. The edi- 
fication resulting to a promiscuous con- 
gregation may be imagined. 

Sister blinker's "experience" did not 
pursue an even tenor, for it varied from 
raptures to the lowest degree oi humili- 
ation. There were occasions when her 
transports knew no bounds and when. 
leaping into the air. she ascended so high 
that Sister Diener felt it incumbent upon 
her to seize the skirt of her fellow-saint's 
dress, to prevent an inordinate flight into 
the upper regions. 

Perhaps the chief character, however, 
was Brother Billy Pickering, a man who 
seemed capable oi extraordinary spiritual 
insight and experience, combined with 
singular frailty oi fiesh. Sometimes. 
looking disdainfully around upon his 
brethren, he would remark: "I've seen it! 
If you only knew the power and depth of 
this spiritual life, you'd be searching at- 



ter it with all your souls. Xow you're 
carnal, but I'm spiritual," And his frame 
would tremble and his voice take on a 
mellow pathos, as he half chanted his 
experience of the ''deep things." Unfor- 
tunately some grievous habits of his 
early life would occasionally overcome 
him; but to the protests of his more con- 
sistent fellow-members he only replied: 
*'My soul is feeding on the green grass 
of the heavenly pastures ; it's all right, 
but my body gets overtaken in a fault. 
My soul hasn't sinned, it can't sin; it's 
only my body." Thereby he was merely 
repeating a theological postulate nearly 
as old as the hills — at least as old as hu- 
man nature. 

Since the "Shining Saints" were eclec- 
tics, they borrowed with characteristic 
freedom from all denominations. Al- 
though they might not have admitted it. 
they probably considered that the\' — and 
it is to be feared, they alone — had been 
**chosen unto eternal life." They had 
patterned after several sects in non-be- 
lief in "the support of the gospel" ; from 
the Methodists they had selected a cer- 
tain demonstrativeness and heartiness of 
expression : from the Baptists they had 
borrowed their mode cf baptism, revised 
considerably and accompanied by the 
beautiful but rarely practiced rite of 

In the latter service it was presumed 
that each member of the societv would 
take an active part, but Captain Timothy 
Branders, who entertained an inexplic- 
able antipathy to tliis simple symbol of 
humility, was invariably shrewd enough 
to evade its performance. Whether an 
artistic eye was otTended or an esthetic 
sense of propriety' wounded, was never 
known ; yet, as it seemed, this truly af- 
fecting token of lowliness of mind never 
successfully impressed one who was 
proud of his humility. 

As therefore a few lingering elements 
of the carnal mind may be presumed to 
have slightly shadowed the piety of this 
eminent "saint," we need not be surpris- 
ed that others of the society, who sought 
to obey the injunction "to watch over 
each other in love." observed this pecu- 
liar antipathy, and endeavored to correct 
it with heroic measures. For even among 

these "perfect" disciples the seeds of that 
ambition which manifested itself among 
the earliest followers of the Founder of 
the Gospel showed a vigorous growth. 
Brother Hodges determined to teach the 
captain a much needed lesson and. with 
that plainness which is thought to be ob- 
ligatory among humble professors of re- 
ligion, told him that upon the next occa- 
sion of feet-washing he must take part 
in the service. 

The ca])tain's nianner was certain!) 
marked by cheerful acquiescence, but 
one who knew him well, both in and out 
of meeting, might have observed a mean- 
ing twinkle in his eye, which slic:htly 
negatived the apparent promise. Singu- 
larly enough, when the rite was again 
celebrated and the watchful Hodges re- 
minded the worth\' captain of this duty. 
the latter meekly assented, but recom- 
mended that Brother Hodges, who could 
not sing in German, should commence 
the service, while he led in an appropri- 
ate German hymn. When that erratic 
but sincere nian fell into the trap, the 
diplomatic captain selected the longest 
hynm he knew and sang it in such slow 
and dignified measure that it outlaste.l 
the feet-washing — the ''Saints" being far 
from numerous. 

We nuist not omit a reference to Bro- 
ther Bettler. the captain's partner in a 
little side-business. A store-property in 
the borough becoming suddenly vacant 
by die death of the merchant, the cap- 
tain, who had many irons in the tire. 
leased it for a limited season and stocketi 
it widi very cheap goods, putting out a 
huge, coarse, red flag with the attractive 
words "Cheap John." His own atten- 
tion being engrossed with mining-mat- 
ters, he introduced Brother Bettler to the 
community as his "active" associate. 
r>argains were to be had in second-hand 
as well as new gcxxls. and in fact the 
business was so prosperous that die roc- 
ular merchants of the town exhibiieil a 
marked antac:onism to the innovation. 

Brother Bettler, however, although 
a constant attendant upon the meeting'^ 
of the "Saints," seemed not to have de- 
termined his course of action relative to 
some disputed theological and ecclesias- 
tical points : he was therefore content t'^ 



listen meekly to the ''experiences" of the 
other disciples, rather than to tell of his 
own attainments in spiritual things. Be- 
in f;- a man of business, he was naturally 
selected as treasurer of the society, to 
hold such moneys as were raised by pen- 
ny-collections for the purchase of oil for 
the lamps, and fuel. 

A more ephemeral and less useful 
member of the little band of the faithful 
was Sister Hepsy Barker ; ephemeral be- 
cause she traveled a wide circuit in her 
visits among her Frcnndscliaft and was 
usually absent from the meeting. Inva- 
riably, when she came she arrived late ; 
she attracted attention b}' dusting the 
pew in which she sat widi a leaf from a 
dilapidated hynm-book and by her rest- 
lessness and change of pew twice or 
thrice during the meeting. 

Sister r>arker. who seemed never to 
have had a parentage and a home, but, 
like Topsy, merely to have "growed'' 
and itinerated, was conspicuous for her 
aversion to anything that savored of 
work and for her fear of dampness and 
dust. In those households where even 
the proverbial Pennsylvania-German hos- 
pitableness was taxed to its utmost, there 
was but one method of disposing of her : 
a vigorous application of the broom and 
a free use of water upon the floor routed 
her from the field where her laziness and 
spiteful criticism had made her unendur- 
able. If only the cracks between the 
boards were slightly moist, she would don 
a pair of overshoes and. throwing a 

Nectar and 

EFFIE FIDLER had emphasized 
her ''Come early!" and early it 
was on Fridav afternoon when the 
good people of Franklin street observed a 
couple coming in from the country on 
their way to the center of the town. It 
would scarcely have exemplified human 
nature not to cast another glance at them 
or, when the inspection had identitied 
them, not to indulge the curious thought 
expresseil by a well known village beau- 
ty : "Fll bet they'll make a match, now 
see if they don't." In that frank, famil- 
iar fashion characteristic of country- 

broom upon the floor, walk on the handle, 
to avoid the dangers of the "damp." 

A carriage was ever at her service, 
even in harvest-time, to take her away, 
anfl the meeting-house was ever a con- 
venient place to drop her in. for few 
cared to take her directly to the houses 
of friends, lest the sweet bond of friend- 
ship might be strained. Wearing her 
overshoes in the dust of midsummer and 
using heated sticks of kindling-wood in 
the carriage in winter, her entry into the 
church was always somewhat sensation- 
al. The shoes were exhibited under the 
arm. and the wood was dumped behind 
the stove with a clatter befitting the ap- 
pearance of so important a member oi 
the society. 

In case of dixies Loring's accepting 
the call of the Presbyterian congreiia- 
rion it would l)e necessary to divert the 
little brick edifice from die use to which 
it had been put in the interim to its ori- 
ginal purpose. This would be quite a 
damper on the "Shining Saints." who, al- 
though they had enjoyed the use of the 
building on the gospel terms, "without 
monev and without price." were likely to 
criticize their benevolent brethren un- 
graciously. Besides the query was : 
\\'ould the '"Saints" be inclined to unite, 
to anv extent, with the regular body of 
Christians ? Umloubtedly there was much 
chaff in die irretrulars. yet the curious 
granarv also contained some very fair 

ER X. 


towns the fact that the you.ic: minister 
that was to be and Miss Caroline Filbert 
were visiting the town, was communicat- 
ed in a few minutes, at least along the 
northern end of street: and it is 
safe to aver that their destination was 
kninvn within a few minutes more. 

When they knc>cke(l at the (Kx^r of Dr. 
Fidler's High street home, they were 
not detainetl long: hurrying footsteps 
were heard in the hall, and in a moment 
a cordial shake oi the hand was given 
Myles by I'.ffie. and a hug and kiss of no 
uncertain character bestowed upon Caro- 





,.^•^1 -^ 

line, while the young hostess said: "I'm 
so glad you Ve come." She escorted the 
company into the parlor, which was a lit- 
tle darkened and quite cool in contrast 
with the heat outside, and the cheerful 
chatting which embraced inquiries about 
the health of various members of both 
families and, for that matter, of the en- 
tire Freiindschaft — began with many a 
pleasant banter. Under the genial influ- 
ence of such agreeable fellowship sly 
Effie was disposed to insinuate, in the 
most delicate manner, that a veil of ro- 
mance rested upon the occasion, just a 
little to Caroline's confusion, until an 
hour later another knock at the portal 
and a certain something in Effie's appear- 
ance and prompt movement led her 
guests to suspect that the young gentle- 
man now ushered into the parlor was a 
favored caller upon the fair hostess. 
Effie's behavior, after introducing Doctor 
Reed and explaining that she had plan- 
ned this meeting for the sake of the mu- 
tual pleasure of her guests, was a model 
of Spartan abstinence from teasing; 
both Myles and Caroline well under- 
stood that they would have her at a de- 
cided disadvantage, if they cared to re- 

Myles soon caught sight of an album 
and. hoping that it might contain the por- 
traits of old companions, he turned over 
its pages with evident interest. It 
chanced that amons: the art-treasures of 

the volume were antiquated photographs 
of both the girls. These e.xcited consid- 
erable merriment, which was heightened 
when Effie showed a daguerreotype of 
herself at the age of six: her position 
was decidedly constrained, owing to her 
head being seized h\ a pair of iron nip- 
pers to keep it steady during the long 
exposure necessary in the early days of 

It has long been observed that such 
pleasant hours speed on rapid wings : in 
fact, the afternoon nielted away almost 
unconsciously. Finally, when Efne be- 
came a trifle restless about the prepara- 
tions for supper, she invited the com- 
pany to step up into the yard ; then M>le5 
remembered that the rear yards oi prop- 
erties in that part of High street were 
ouite elevated and there flashed upon 
him the vision of the old "seek-no-fur- 
ther" tree in the doctor's yard. Asccnil- 
ing the steps, the famous tree was found, 
and the garden was examined with its 
varieties of flowers and its wholesome 
vegetables, some oi which had just been 
plucked for tea. At the odier end oi the 
vard was the barn which sheltered liio 
doctor's horses and vehicles : this barn 
opened upon the lane on the corner of 
which and I'one street stood the little 
church of the Presbyterians. 

.-\fter a brief outing beneath the trees 
and a breathing of the sweet air. the 
company again entered the parlor, where 



Doctor Reed proposed that Miss Filbert 
should sing and play. But Caroline, who 
was not a singer, declined and the duty 
was laid upon Myles. He, too, was shy 
musically, but yielded at last to the urg- 
ent entreaty of the doctor and of Effie, 
who chanced to enter the room. He sang 
one or two of the latest songs, 
quite to the gratification of his friends. 
P.ut, warming up under old recollections, 
his skilled fingers soon touched familiar 
chords that awoke responses in the hearts 
of his auditors. Indeed, carried away 
for the moment and forgetting the sol- 
emn nature of the office to which he 
would probably soon be ordained, he rat- 
tled off with eclat the music universally 
admired by all Berks county, "Fisher's 
Hornpipe," which temipted the young 
physician to fling his heels about the 
room. Caroline sat quiet, not being 
moved in the same way. However, when 
another mood came upon tlie performer 
and he played "Greenville." singing the 
words of "Lord, dismiss us with Thy 
blessing," a casual glance showed tear- 
drops on her face. It was the dismission 
hymn invariably sung in the schoolrooiii 
where they had been companions. 

The doctor's back was turned toward 
Caroline, and he did not observe the 
traces of emotion. Warned by the cir- 
cumstance, Myles changed to another 
song associated with those cherished 
days, but merry in its character, and 

I will give you a paper of pins 
If you will tell where love begins. 
And you will marry me, me. me — and you will 
marry me. 

Merrily he sang the response : 

I'll not accept your paper of pins, 
And I'll not tell where love begins; 
And I'll not marry you, you, you — and I'll not' 
marry you. 

The doctor clapped his hands — it was 
new to him — and Myles quoted again: 

I will give you a new silk dress. 
! rimmed all round with a golden thread. 
•• >'>u will marry me, me, me — if you will 
marry me — 

t'> which the maiden responded as before. 
Tlien came the oflfer : 

I will give you the key to my chest, 
That you may have gold at your request, 
If you will nrirry me, me, me — if you will 
marry me — 

with a similar refusal. 

But love triumphed in the final stanza : 

I will give you the key of my heart, 
1 hat you may lock and never part, 
If you will marr\- me, me. me — if you will 
marry me. 

For the maiden sweetly responded : 

I will accept the key of your heart, 

That I may lock and never part. 

And I will marry you, you, you — and I will 

marry you. 

The doctor shouted in the excitement 
of his enjoyment of the rich voice and 
the tender sentiment, with its amusing 
expressional features : but Caroline 
blushed a little, unseen by all but Myles. 

Philosophize as you will and prate of 
conventionalities, that mysterious senti- 
ment we call love has its own laws — and 
obeys them. Theoretically two or three 
years of fellowship should be necessary 
for the growth of genuine atTection, but 
practically there is much "love at first 
sight." And whether it be of slow de- 
velopment or matures rapidly, like plants 
in the tropics, there must be a time when 
its consciousness becomes distinct. Two 
conditions of our sense-perception are 
enigmatical, love and homesickness: and 
these two were beginning to affect our 

For several days Myles had watched 
the figure of Caroline flitting about the 
house in the performance oi her prosaic 
duties. Somehow he craved her pres- 
ence, and was at unrest when >lic was 
out of his sisrht. A strange sense oi valu- 
ation of little things belonging to her 
possessed him. and a slip of paper con- 
taining a memorandum in her Iiandwrit- 
ing had been carefully put away, that 
when absent from W'oniclsdort he might 
refresh himself with the memories it 
would be sure to recall. Alas, that he 
must 2:0 so soon ! Well tlid he remember 
a spoil of homesickness that he experi- 
enced upon his first removal from Wom- 
elsdorf : now he recogniz-ed the premoni- 
tion of a similar feeling at separation 
from his restored friends. 



Fidlcr himself, who had only executed 
one of his well known freaks for the 
amusement of the company. 

Vacu Effie had nof been al)le to pene- 
trate his disguise. But she roundly 
scolded her jocose father for havinj^: dis- 
turbed the meal, and more particularly 
for frightening his estimable sister. But 
the doctor was callous to all such lec- 
tures — they were an old story. 

Though teasiugly declaring that he had 
no appetite, having had a good supper 
already, the tricky physician sat down at 
the table and helped to demolish the des- 
sert of custard, cake and jelly. The meal 
was finished without further incident ex- 
cept occasional bursts of laughter from 
the young men at the recollection of the 
audacious pretense, a merriment scarce- 
ly restrained by the ruffled countenance 
of Aunt Fanny. 

The doctor being called away again. 
the young people spent the remaining 
part of the evening in pleasant converse 
and music. When the parting-moment 
came, Effie earnest! v besou:;'ht the chief 
guest to send her his photograph, at the 
same time freely transferring one of her 
own into his keeping. He was also giv- 
en her album with the request to write 
therein and return it by Caroline's hands. 

The good-byes were spoken with many 
expressions of pleasure at the meeting 
and invitations for the future. Then, 
while Doctor Reed lin-j^ered behind for 
some reason, ]\Iyles and Caroline turned 
their faces toward the Tulpehocken. 

It was at first a little difficult to see 
the way, the streets being unlighted and 
the foliage thick. But soon. ^^lyles's eyes 
became accustomed to the gloom and. 
stepping carefully over the curb at the 
corner, they ascended Bone street to 
Sfjuire Wambach's. Flere they turned 
«lt»wn the sidewalk toward the button- 
\voods, and being now out of the shade of 
the trees, a view of the starry heavens 
was disclosed. 

It was a calm and cloudless night. The 
pole-star shone high above the Blue 


>untaui, a trace ot which was dimlv 

J!sible on the horizon. The sinuous 
yrag(Mi and die Little P.ear surmounted 
^"^* "star of the north." The frlitterimr 

chair of queenly Cassiopeia was ascend- 
ing on the east; the familiar outlines of 
the **Dij)per" in the Great Bear guarded 
the pole on the west. The great square 
of Pegasus loomed above the eastern ho- 
rizon, and Andromeda stretched awav in 
her fascinating lir.e of silver suns. The 
softly shinin-j: constellations of the souili 
were hidden by the background of houses 
and trees, but the blush of the Milky 
Way superbly set off the bright stars of 
the Swan and lustrous first-mafrnitur'e 
\'ega. which shone near the meridian. 

As they slowly sauntered down the 
sidewalk, Myles recollected how his fos- 
ter-mother once held him in her arm-. 
while through the very window now be- 
fore him the brilliant moonlight streamed. 
as she sang hymns of deep devotion. All 
was hushed as they approached th.e 
house, except the ceaseless songs of noc- 
turnal insects, for the dwellers in the old 
weather-boarded houses had gone to 
rest. ]Myles leaned for a moment on the 
okl gate, and then softly said to Caroline: 
''Let us sit down on the porch." 

It was a hallowing moment. Caru- 
line's tender, sympathetic spirit easily de- 
tected the tide of feeling sweeping over 
her escort : in silence she gently obeyed 
his wish and stepped upon the familiar 
porch, where with niany other girls siie 
had often played in childhood. Myles 
unconsciously, as it seemed. ttx)k a place 
at her side and gave himself up to his 
memories. If ever his soul was thrilleti 
with religious influence, it was then, and 
the puri)ose to consecrate his life to ser- 
vice to his fellowmen received unwonted 
strength. Men who make no pretensions 
to religion are often nearer to God than 
they think, in the impulses of their better 
nature, just as die love that little ciiil- 
dren feci is akin to the divine emotion. 

Caroline continued her absoiuie si- 
lence. Did she feel that a crisis was ap- 
proaching in her own life, or merely 
that Myles was carried away by tender 
recollections which would subside short- 
ly ? Who can tell if she had detected his 
eager pleasure at her company, or a mod- 
ulation in his voice in a^ldressing Iier? 
r>ut we may be sure that she recalled his 
abrupt reference, a few evenings before. 



to his childish fancy of companionship in 
the little hut, or playhouse, and — was it a 
dream? — she felt an arm stealing: about 
her and her hand grasped tremblingly, 
while a voice husky with emotion whis- 
pered: "Caroline, I love you with my 
whole being, which cries out for you ; 
dare I hope that you will be mine ?" And, 
dark as it was, Caroline knew that his 
face was wet with a flood of tears. 

Caroline never could understand it. al- 
though she often pondered upon it : but 
in the agitation of the moment she did 
not withdraw her hand, or remove the 
manly arm. Rather she crept a little 
closer to Myles (if that were possible) 
and received the kiss which his quick in- 
tuition taught him would not be a tres- 
pass — not only received it, but bestowed 
one in return, the bliss of which seemed 
to bring the very heavens down to earth. 

Blessed be God for the pur^ love that 
young men and maidens may feel. Xever 
does the soul entertain holier purposes or 
more exalted ideas of dtity than when 
the spell of this sweetest passion is upon 
it. The young man beset by the un- 
avoidable evils of life can have no great- 
er talisman than the consciousness of a 
noble affection. With this he conquers 
temptation with ease and esteems the 
heavy burdens of life but light, for the 
love of her who has plighted her sweet 
faith to him forever. 

How long ^Mylcs would have remained 
upon the old porch, now doubly precious, 
can never be known. But he clung to 
Caroline as though life or death shonM 
never part them. She. feebly struggling 
to be free, knowing that it was time to 
return home, was reinforced by a ludi- 
crous incident which greatly startled 
Myles. A button-ball from the old tree 
nearest the porch fell upon his face and 
alarmed him with the thought that good 
]\Irs. Bennethum might be surveying the 
imusual scene from an upper window 
— which, everybody would agree, would 
be decidedly too good to keep. Caroline 
could scarcely control her mirth as they 
walked homeward out the sandy road, as 
she thought of Myles's dismay ; but pos- 
siblv some of her unwonted glee was also 
due to the deep emotion which had come 
to the surface of her own tender heart. 

But the walk was all too short for 
Myles. When they had crossed the canal- 
bridge and opened the gate that led to the 
house, he would not let his gentle com- 
panion hasten to the door: but this once 
reached, after a renewal of vows, every 
word of which was rehearsed again and 
again in his dreams, he claimed a lover's 
right to a good-night kiss — singular or 
plural I will not say — before Caroline 
turned the knob. 

(To be continued.) 

The Home 

Tbis department is In charge of Mrs. H. H. Funk, of Springto^vn. Fa., to whom all commanicmtlons In- 
tended for It should be addressed. 


Extract from a Pennsylvania 

\ans letter in the Xew York Ezening Post. 

My home was in Dauphin county, and on 
my mother's side I claim descent from good 
old Palatine stock, pre-Revolutionary in its 
American date and proud of its service in the 
war for the colonies and iis adherence to na- 
tional 'traditions. 

As a very little girl, Pennsylvania-Dutch 
meant for me the vision of a big farm, not 
far from my own town, the home of kindly, 
slow, hopelessly unprogressive Gern\ans. where 
one was sure of a warm welcome and good 
things to eat in plenty. Bountiful, indeed, was 
the table and delicious the cooking. espv\:ially 
when it concerned native dishes. It was there 

that I saw my first apple-butter boiling, and 
ate my first ' sauerkraut dinner— sauerkr.iui 
cooked as only the Pennsylvania-Dutch know 
how. I've eaten it since on its native heaih 
and cooked by metropolitan chefs, bu: never 
again will it taste so delicious as when pre- 
pared by the deft hands ot Annie Shadel. of 
Lvkens \*alley. 

To the Pennsylvania- Dutchman such a din- 
ner always means sauerkraut, boilevl with a 
goiHl-sir.ed piece oi fresh p^^rk. pretVrably._ riuJ 
served with mashed potatoes and Kuel*. Kraut 
and meat are boiled together until the meat 
is tender, then it is removed from the kettle 



and the dumplings are popped in and boiled 
briskly with the kraut. Browned butter is 
poured over the Kiiep on the hot platter, and 
1 can fancy no more tempting table than one 
with plates of meat and deliciously light dump- 
lings at top and bottom, while deep tureens of 
kraut and mashed potatoes flank the sides. 

How often we used to beg for milk potato- 
soup, or. better still, for brown-flour potato- 
soup! The former is merely milk boiled, to 
which have been added potatoes sliced thin 
and boiled soft, and Riwcla, with seasoning to 
taste, but the latter is entirely unique in the 
history of soups. The recipe is this: . 

Pare and slice thin some white potatoes, 
then put them on to boil in a kettle with plenty 
of water. While these are cooking tender. 
brown in a pan six teaspoonfuls of flour with 
butter enough to make a rich, golden brown. 
Thin this with water before stirring into the 
potatoes, to prevent the soup from becoming 
lumpy. Then add finely cut parsley, pepper, 
salt and the inevitable 'Vivels." If the soup 
is too thick, thin it with water, boil hard for 
five minutes and serve. Not even the be=t of 
French bisques has ever tasted better to me. 

It was while visiting my grandmother. 
whose big, brass-clasped German Bible still 
holds a recipe or two. that 1 first tasted "farm- 
er's dumplings," or Baiicraknep. In vain one 
tries to get proportions for these dishes. The 
nearest approach to a rule that the family 
possesses is to this effect : 

Put the amount of flour you decide to use 
into a bowl, and scald with enough boiling 
milk to make a batter. Then break in as 
many eggs as are needed to make the baner 
.'^tilT enough to drop without breaking. The 
more eggs are used the lighter will the Knct> 
bo. When the batter is just right, the dump- 
lings are dropped into boiling fat, and emerge 
a few seconds later, round, puffy balls, eaten 
with sifted sugar or with salt. 

.Another recollection of those Dauphin coun- 
ty days is that of a big dining-room, heated 
by an iron stove, where, over backs of chairs 
nnd on the long extension-table, were spread 
sheets of yellow noodle-dough. How often 
Were my sister and I set to work rolling the 
^b'^-Tts into long, thin tubes, and then cut'ing 
them as fine as possible into the finished 
■ ^utlcla! ^ Supper on such a day had usually 
lor its piece de resistiuice a huge dish of boiled 
J''>'>(lles, dressed with brown butter and bread- 
crumbs.^ also browned to a turn with the but- 
'^7- This dish rejoiced in the name of 
K uhmelcta Xudcln. Again and again have I 
''*'"ght to find its equivalent in German, for 
• -• »li>^cover how to spell a word in Petmsyl- 
\;mia-Dutch is well nigh a hopeless task. 

1 He most pretentious Pennsylvania-Dutch 
'h^ii I know is f:'^llta Kiiep, or filled dump-^ 
|''"g'^. Into a big frying pan are put plenty of 
b-rter and a finely minced onion. Before 
«':t:ier can brown, mashed potatoes and bread 
^"vu fitie are added, with parsle\. pepper and 
'••i*. aTid sometimes sweet marjoram, an herb 
';mi takes the place of the New Englander's sage 

in their cookery. Stir this mixture constantly 
till healed through and throuch. Break over 
it eggs enough to make a slightly moist paste 
and heat over a slow fire. While thi- is heat- 
iner. the cook makes a dough only a little less 
stiff than that for noodles. Roll out some of 
this dough into the shape of a small saucer. 
Place on it some filling and fold it together 
into a half moon, pinching the edges tight 
shut as for pie. Lay them on a floured 
platfcr until all the Kiief are ready. Mean- 
while a large kettle has been filled with water. 
well salted, and allowed to come to a l>jiL 
Into this the Knep are phmged. not too many 
to crowd the space, the cover is put on tight. 
and they are allowed to boil about fifteen 

In the meantime the cook is busy making the 
dressing. Bread-crumb-, browned in butter. 
are sprinkled over the half-moon dumplines. 
To about a pint of boiling water has been add- 
ed some of the "filling." Seasoning has been 
tested, and a raw ejjg has been stirred into 
the gravy. This is poured over the dumplines. 
and properly made is is a dish fit for the gods. 

Every properly regulated Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man home celebrates each recurring Shrove 
Tuesday by making Fasnaclitkuchn. The^e 
are a kind of glorified doushnut. Bread-dough. 
made richer by the addition of an egg or two 
and some butter or lard, is set to rise. Then 
it is cut into small squares, each with several 
slashes through the middle. These are again 
allowed to rise and dropped inro boiling lard. 
Whether or not the shape improved the taste. 
I can not say. but it is certain that no other 
"fat-cakes." as I've heard people call them. 
ever tasted so good. 

The absence of fresh meat from the cuisine 
of the Pennsylvania-Dutch is noticeable. Even 
today it is a luxury, for it is expensi\-e and. 
except in the case of veil, hard to Jiet. So 
they grew skillful, as did the Xew England 
country-people, in utilizing salt pork and h.-im. 
making splendid sausages and pudding-meais. 
Whenever I see string beans served with a 
thin milk or water dressing, my thoughts go 
back to the bean dinners of the days of lonj? 
ago. Then a big piece of ham. the middle 
cut. was put in to boil. When just alx^ui 
done, beans and potatoes were added. Before 
serving, the ham was often taken from the 
pot. spiced with cloves, sugar and vinegar, and 
browned in a hot oven. The resulting dinner 
was a delight. Even more t>pically "Dutch" 
was the addition oi browned tlour to the liquor 
in which the vegetables cooked. "Brown-llour." 
:\s they c.ill it. is the basis for many of their 

But how empty all these attempts at repro- 
duction seem compared with the actualities! 
The rosy-cheeked bins and girls, and the 
ruddy old men and women 'o be found in the 
trim farmh(->u<es in miildle Pennsylvatua. bear 
witness to th.eir nourishing qualities, while 
those who have eaten as strangers in the hos- 
pitable kitclun> can bear testimony to the en- 
joyment of the palate. 



Literary Gems 




Walmer's Church and the Old Schoolhouse 


^Twelve miles northwest of Lebanon. Pa., in 
Union township, three miles west of Lickdale, 
stands a snbstantial brick church-buildin.ij, 
called Walmer's Church. It was so calk-d 
after a man by the name of W'almer, who 
purchased this land from ihe proprietors of 
Pennsylvania, August 14. 1751, and at once 
proceeded with his si.x >ons to cut down tiie 
trees and erect a church-br.ildin;; ,^,0 by 32 feet 
in size, of heavy logs. This bijildi^'g was useJ 
for a long- time in an u-.ihiMshed condition, 
having neither lloor r^.ir suue. 

Soon afterwards the Shue^-. Gorborichs, 
Hetrichs, Deckers, ])it!<. r.oeshr.ros and 
(ithers moved intt^ i\v.^ C(:nmin-:i >•. Th.e 
church was h.nished. and was u-od fc^r a cer.- 
tur\- b}- the Lutherans and the Reformed as 
their r^-gular place of worship. 'l"he tirst mi:'.- 

ii p 


were Ke\ 

oil \ 

isters in this churv 

Casper Stoever tor the I.uihorans and Rc\, 
Conrad Templeman for the Re'.'ormetl. I'lu 
writer remembers luuing attendeil public 
worship in this church just before it was di««- 
placed by the snb.>ia;uial brick builiiimi- on 
the opposite side ot the -treet irc^-m where the 
first church >tvtod. The brick buildii'.ii was 
erected in 1850. The accompanying picture 
shows this building as then erectecU which h:>s 
not been .changed in its external appearaix^e. 

A few hundred feet we-t of this churclv 
buiiding by the roadside stands the old 5chcK.>I- 
house. built oi heavy logs, which were e.\f»o?eil 
both on the outside and the inside at the lime 
tiie writer atiended school there. It is now 
weather-boarded, as the accompanying picture 
-hows. On acount of a steep decline no iron: 
view of the building could be obtnit^cil. anJ 
this picture shows the west e:id in an unsaii*- 
factory manner. The windows also have been 

F'efore the system oi tree schools wa* in- 
troduced into Penn<ylvar: •. thi'« scl:^- 'I'lou^c 
was used for a parochial .-ch"»oI by the ch::rch. 
The was owned by iho church, and 
contained both the schoc^IriXMH ar.d the -ex- 
ton's re-idence. During ihii a?c the <e\i«wi 
had many duties to perform, tie was <cho«»l- 
teacher. i'orsiiii:cr and >e.\'on. and in church- 
es wiiii organs he w,is a!.>o the orjj.uii>l. 

\\ hen the free-school system was intro- 
duced, the church kindly consented to JS^ve 
the use 01 the schoolroom to the district. rvMU- 
frec. This old schoolroom remained in u-o 
for school-purposes until the vear iS7a when 
the district erectcil a new -iclux^lhou-e aUmt 
halt a mile east of the oUI huildinir. 

The oKl schoolroiun had a ri^x^r laid with 
oak planks, e.xcept the rear part, which ha«l 



but an inch-board floor, leaving an offset over 
which many a child stumbled and fell. A 
heavy log extended through the room, on 
which the joists were resting; the ceiling was 
nnplastered, and the upper floor had no less 
than five pipe-holes, made probably on account 
of moving the stove from place to place at 
different periods in the use of this room. The 
partition between the schoolroom and the 
kitchen was of boards; all kitchen-conversa- 
tion could be distinctly understood by the 
scholars and often caused amusement. The 
front door, leading from the porch lo the ves- 

tibule, was in two halves, the upper half being 
usually open. But two rows of desks were in 
the schoolroom, and six or seven pupils were 
crowded on one bench behind each high desk. 
It is not known when this building was erect- 
ed, but it is supposed to be about one hundred 
and fifty years old. When in 1870 the new 
schoolhouse was erected, the writer was spend- 
ing his vacation with his mother just west of 
the old schoolhouse and in a meditative mood 
wrote the following lines in Pennsylvania- 
German now offered by request a> a small addi- 
tion to the literature of that dialect. 


Ganz neekscht wu ich mei Heemet hab, 
Xot weit vum neia Wangnerschop, 
Sehnscht du en Haus ganz iwerzwerch — 
Sel is 's Schulhaus an der Kerch. 

Die Schuler viel. die SchuUchtub klee. 
Wer sich net b'heeit, muss in's Eck schieh. 
Sel war die Rule, un wer's net duht. 
Der krigt sei Buckel g'hackt recht gut. 

Dart schteht's alt Backhaus. dart der Schtall 
I'n darch da Busch gebt's oft en Schall, 
Wann juscht die Kinner schpicla drin. 
P>is dass der Teacher ruft: ""Conie in I"' 

Die Desks sin lang. die Fenschtra klee:. 

Der Off a duht dazuischa schteh. 

Der Wasserkiwel dart im Eck; 

Ju^cht Eens kann dra'. .-o blcib mer weg. 

Die Porch is schlccht, die Bank schteht druf 
.\n jedem End gehn Treppa nuf. 
Die Bump is juscht drei Schritt vum Haus; 
Dart krigt mer's Wasser frisch heraus. 

Du frogscht villeicht : Was duhn der Schtall. 
Des Backhaus. Bump un Porch un all? 
Des Dau< is doppelt — sehnscht du net? 
Der Teacher wohnt dart, wie er set. 

Die Kerch, die schteht Schtick draus am Weg 
\*um Schulhaus. wu mer krigt hen Schlag. 
Der Kerchhof uf dor ann'ra Seit. 
Die Krick for Schkeeia ah net weit. 

Kr ziegt die Glock un halt die Schul. 
Singt vor in der Kerch — sel war die Rule. 
Er hot da Kerchaglawa g'lehrt. 
Un Tcdes hot en hoch geehn. 

.V -»..xjJ'-i-i«.»jKJ'- .^IK;.-- >-<a,>^^VkA. .iii<i 

01, T) S(HooT.ii()r."<i; .\i:ak walmkus rm ki 11. v.^^ it ai'Imivu^ r»>i.\v 



Die Biwcl hen sie g'lesa all, 
Vun Christiis iin viin Adams Fall; 
Hen lerna kenna Recht un Letz, 
Wie's g'schriwa is in Gottes G'setz. 

Ich weess ganz gut — ich war juscht so 
En Biuvele in dcr Schul do — 
Wie mir hen g'lesa, g'schpellt, gelernt 
Un oft da Teacher wiescht verzarnt. 

's hot uns gepliest, uns junga Leit. 
Wann's g'heessa hot : 's is Schulgehzeit. 
Der Teacher hot oft sehver g'lacht, 
Wann mir juscht hen viel G'schpuchta g'macht. 

In der Chrischtdagswoch, grad margets frih, 
Sin mir an's Schulhaus ganga hi'. 
Hen Dihr un Fenschtra zugemacht — 
Des war en Luscht, was hen mir g'lacht ! 

Nau hot er kuaft paar Daler wert, 
Noh wara mir recht gut un schmart, 
Bis dass's Candy war verzehrt; 
For langer war's ah net dawert. 

Nau hen sie's Schulhaus naus ans Eck 
Ganz nei gebaut — ach, geh mer wegT 
Des guckt jo gar net wie daheem. 
Ich meen, es war gewiss en Shame I 

Die Walmer. Shuey. Gerwich dart 
Sin ganga in die Schul als fart, 
's sin juscht noch paar do vun da Lei:. 
Wu Schuler wara selle Zeit. , 

Die Glock ruft als noch wie sie hot 
Es Volk herbei mit Dank zu Gott. 
Die Vegel fliega wie sie hen. 
Der Hahna kraht im Scheierdenn. 

Der Teacher kummt — er kann net nei ! 
Was is dann des? Er guckt ganz schei. 
For abzuschrecka, hot er g'wisst, 
Wann er's prowirt, het er's gemisst. 

Er schteckt sci Bee zum Rohrloch nei ; 
Noh schpringa mir mit Wippa bei. 
Hen drufgelascht dass's hot gekracht. 
Am End hen mir'm doch ufgemacht. 

Doch mir guckt's nau ganz iwerzwerch : 
's is nimme's Schulhaus an der Kerch. 
Es duht mir leed for sel alt Haus. 
Wu als noch schteht am Weg dart draus. 

Die Schuler kunmia nimme nei : 

Sie hen all g'saat ihr Ictscht Good-by. 

So geht's in dera Sindawelt. 

Nau haw ich eich vum Schulhaus g'meldt. 



An der Lecha haw ich g'sotza 

Un in die Wella g'schaut. 
Um mich rum hen Vegel g'sunga 

Un Neschter sich gebaut. 
Ihra Schatta, wie die Wolka, 

Sin g'schwumma uf der Krick. 
Dann in weiter Fern verschwunna ; 

Doch ihr Lied, des blieb zurick. 

So sitz ich doch gar mannichmol 

Un schau mit triewem Blick. 
Die Erinn'rung ruft mer Scharte bei. 

Mei Gedanka sin die Krick. 
Wu die Schatta driwer schwewa 

Bal hier, bal do. bal dart : 
Dann verschwinda sie im Wasser, 

Un der Schtrom, der tragt sie fart. 

So mancher macht mer Freeda. 

Un mancher duht mer weh. 
En mancher klingt as wie en Lied 

Vum a Schatta as ich seh. 
Er schwebt dart uf da Wella. 

Er sinkt dart in die Krick: 
Der Schtrom. der tragt das Bihi mer fart 

L'n losst mei Schmerz zur'.vK. 

Wie werd es dann niiu mir mol geh. 

Wann ich ah nimme bin. 
Wann ich muss hcemwarts wand'ra 

Ins Schattaland weit hin? 
Werd ah mei Bild so scluvewa, 

Dann versinka aus'm Blick? 
Der Dood. der dann mei Schmerz tartnemmi 

Losst er mei Lied zurick? 



Weil ich schun lang nimme in Fildelfy war. 
hen ich un die Polly ausgemacht. mer wetta 
mol widder nunner. un wie em Billy Bixler 
sei Frah ausg'funna hot. dass mer gs^hna. hot 
sie druf insist, sie wet mit. So 'm Dunnersch- 
dag en Woch sin mer g'schtiirt. un weil mer's 
ganz Johr hart schatTa missa. hen mer ausge- 
macht, mer wetta geh in aller Schteil. un hen 
eens vum Pullman seina Schlofcars getuuuma. 

Nau die Schlofcars sin a wennig artlich 
zanmia geduh. Die Better sin in do zwee Seita 

vum Car un gucka uf die Art wie Hinkcl- 
neschter im a Geilsdrog. Vorna an jedcm Bctt 
is en Hap for dahinner schluppa. Dio Ccih'ni? 
is 'uscht abaut drei Fuss hoch un"> Be:t ncninit 
die ganz Schtub uf. Ich hab en erhartn^o 
Zeit g'hat for micli ausduh. Allemol as ich 
mich ufg'hockt hab. haW ich mei Kop wrfddrr 
die Ceiling gebumpt. Endlich haw ich mich 
uf der Rick gelegt. mei Galluses lo^sjcniach: 
un bei Degrees mei Hossa abc'schafft. wie en 
Schlam: ihra Haut. Darnoh hen mer pn^vin 
zu >chlofa. awer sel war aus der QweslJon. 




Die Cars sin g'schprung-a wie alia Sapperment 
— darch Berg un Dal, TTiwel nuf un Hivvel 
rumner, um Ecka rum, dass's em schier aus'm 
Rett g'schmissa hot, un alia Gebott hot dcr 
I'lngineer marderlosig geblosa. 

Margets haw ich drei Vertelschtimn 
g'schafft, bis ich mei Hossa widdcr a'g'hat 
hab. Wie mer endlich uf wara, is en Niger 
rum kumma un hot g'saat, 's Margaessa war 
reddy. Dann sin mer in die Dining-Car un 
hen uns an 'n klce Dischle g'hockt. Es war 
ken deihenkers Ding druf as en Bottel Wasser 
un Messera un Gawela. Glei is der Niger zu- 
rick kumma un hot der Polly en Kart gewa. 
Sie war all ladeinisch gedruckt un mer hen 
ken Wart davun lesa kenna. Endlich haw ich'm 
Niger g'saat, wann er so gut sei wet. dann 
set er uns ebbes zu essa bringa. Er hot g'frogt 
was mer wetta, un weil ich gewisst hab wie 
seiisch as sie tschartscha an so Platz. haw ich 
Butterbrot un Kafl'ee b'schtellt. Un denk amol 
dra' ! der schwarz Schelm hot uns en Dahler's 
Schtick getschartscht for so'n Margaessa. Am 
Hasaberg kann ich en gut Essa uf Siesskraut 
odder Schnitz un Knep kriga for'n Vertel. 

Endlich sin mer dann in Fildelfy kumma. 
Mer hen so viel vum John Wanamaker seim 
Schtor gelesa g'hat as mer agried hen mer 
deeta geh 'n sehna for's erscht Ding. Mer 
sin in sei Schtor, un ich hab g'frogt. wu der 
John war. Sie hen g'saat er war draus am 
Molassig zappa. ?vTer hen en Weil gewart. 
un wie er net kumma is, sin mer mol darch sei 
Schtor naus. So en Schtor hoscht du awer 
(lei Dag un's Lewes net g'sehna ! Er is wahr- 
haftig so gross as en kleene Bauerei. 

Die Polly hot en Gown kaafa wella. Sie hot 
da Klerrik g'frogt. eb*s bleecha deet : er hot 
g'saat 's deet net. "Teh glaab as 's duht." 
hot sie g'saat. "Do, Gottlieb, schtell dich her 
un kau des, for sehna eb die Farb rauskummt. 
bis ich geh un sehn eb ich mich net besser 
suhta kann." Nau denk amol, en alter ^[ann 
vun dreiunsiwazig Johr, am a Counter schteh 
un Duch kaua wie en Kalb, wann's ma Gaul 
da Sohwanz abfresst ! Awer ich hab's geduh, 
for Frieda halta. un endlich kummt sie zu- 
rick un agried des Schrick zu nemma. wann 
dcr Klerrik en Venelyard abschmeissa. deet. 
wu ich dra' gekaut hab. 


I'^or drci sclige Scluun bin ich donna Weibs- 
leit nohgaloffa, wie dcr verlora Suh. bis sie 
fertig wara "schoppa." Es war schun drei 
I hr im Namiddag, wie mer widder naus- 
g'schtart sin, for noch meh vun Fildelfy sehna. 
Am llasaborg duht jeder ebber nanner die Zeit 
biota, er mer die Leit kcnnt oddc»r net. Do in 
l"ildclfy hen mer glei ausg'funna dass mer sei 
'lot dub kann. wann mer sich unnig da Fiess 
haus halta will. 

Mer sin die Schtross gelotT.i tor'n lanco 
'^oif, un endlich sin mer an cu gri^<s Wa^ or 
kumma. wu grossa Schiff drut wara. An oem 

Platz hot's gelesa: "Ferrv to Camden." Die 
Bixlern hot g'saat "Camden" in Engli.^ch war 
"Canada" in Deitsch, un weil mer so \ii\ 
gelesa hen g'hat vun Canada darch da Krieg. 
wu die Leit anna sin wu gcdraft wara, an- 
schiatt sich da Finger abhacka. hen mer aus- 
gcmacht mer gingta mol niwer. Ich bin nei 
un hab drei Tickets kaaft for fufzeh Sent. Mer 
hen uns in en scheene Schtub g'hockt un ge- 
wart for's Boot, un glei sin die Leii nei kum- 
ma so dick as mer net nau^ gucka hen kenna. 
Wie mer abaut en Vertelschtun do nei §e- 
kraud wara wie Schof in ra Ben, hot en Bell 
a'fanga tola un die Leit hen a'fanga naus 
schpringa. Ich hab g'saat. 's war creets en 
Fcier un ich deet ah mitgch helfa ausmacha.- 
awer die Polly hot g'saat: •'Gottlieb, du 
blcibscht 'uscht grad do. Du hoscht ken Kiwel 
for Wasser traga. un bis du anna kummscht, 
is's ennihau aus." 

Wie mer 'n Weil ganz mudder.-elig allce 
g'hockt hen, is en Kerl rum kumma mit ma 
bloa Rock un get;la Knep un hot un? g'frogt. 
eb mir net runner wetta. Ich hab'm g'saat. 
mer hetta finf Sent 's Schtick bczahlt^ tor'n 
Ride un mer dceta net naus geh bis mer sie 
hetta. Er hot a wennig aus eem Aag gelacht 
un is fart '^einra Bisness noch. Glei war die 
Schtub widder voll Leit, un wie sie 'n Weil 
drin wara, hot widder die Bell getolt un sie 
hen widder a'fanga nausschpringn. wie die 
Ochsa. Ich hab da Kerl mil da SoIdat:>kleeder 
sehna kumma. bin ufg'schtept un hab en 
g'frogt, was all des nieent. Darnoh haw ich. 
behold you, ausg'fuima. da<s mer in Canad.T 
wara un widder zurick, un hen's net cewiN^r. 

Was ich g'sehna hab vun Canada, deet ich's 
gar net gleicha. Ich hab's ah an ra schlechta 
Zeit g'sehna. Sie hen schwera Rega g'ha:. 
un's war schier alios untier Wasser. 


Darnoh sin mer ausg'schtart for der Bi.vlern 
ihra Brudor sucha. wu mer gezahlt hen ufzu- 
schtella for die Nacht. Die Bixlern is en 
IX)chter vum alta Sanuny Sentapet/cr. un der 
Meik. ihra Bruder. hot selle Fildelfy Fran 
g'heiert. wu ich davun g'schriwa hah in meim 
Buch. Endlich hen mer dn Plat/ c'funna un 
die Bell gerunga. En kohl schwarz Xicemicdol 
is raus kumma un hot uns in en Schtub neicc- 
wissa. Darnoh is sie ufgelorTa zu niir un hot 
die Hand nausg'schtrockt. as wann sie Hand- 
scheeka wet. Ich liah ihra Hand ccnumm.i 
un hab g's;iat : "Wie geht's? N der Mei'«c 
daheem?" Sie hot gclach: un hat g'saat: 
"Card, please." Dann haw ich ihr ausgeieg: 
in Englisch. so gut ich hab kenna. das< ich net 
Karta schpiela deet. Siv is noh nans, ho; 
ihra Schnupduch ans Maul g'huw.t un hot 

"Do geh ich naus." haw ich e'-^aat. **Mer 
kumma widdor in en dunner^e Schkreep." Die 
\\'oib<loit hen awer drul insist, jnor dtcta 
bloiwa bis der Meik kamt. 

(To be concluded in August) 




A Symposium in Instalments 

FOR valid reasons that need not be 
discussed in this connection we 
have decided to depart from our 
announced plan of .^ivint;]^ in the present 
issue all the articles constituting]^ our 
Symposium on Education. While this is 
a disappointment to us and probably to 
some of our readers, we know that the 
change of program will prove of advan- 
tage to all concerned — editor, publisher, 
contributors and readers. 

Our educational Symposium will ap- 
pear as announced, with only this differ- 
ence : instead of being given in one issue 
it will come in instalments, running thro' 
successive numbers. The first instal- 
ment, dealing chietl}- with the "church- 
schools" of the various denominations 
represented aniong our people, appears 
in this number. We doubt not that the 
several articles here published will be in- 
teresting reading to all concerned in the 
educational history of our State. 

A Fact We Should Never Forget 

The great central fact which shines 
forth conspicu(3Usly from these opening 
contributions, and which we desire to 
emphasize right here, is that the Ger- 
mans of Penns\lvania. as a class, were 
always in favor of education and never 
opposed thereto. Sufficient proof of this 
is found in the universal ])ractice of our 
pioneer forefathers to build churches and 
schoolhouses side bv side, the latter for 
secular and religicnis instruction on 
weekdays, the former for public worship 
on Sunday. Occasionally the same 
building was made to serve both pur- 
poses. Amid their rude and savage sur- 
roundings our ancestors felt the need of 
education and often made heroic sacri- 
fices to obtain it. Eet this concern atid 
care, which was certainly one of their 
noblest traits, never be forgotten. 

Trtie, the Germans, many of them, 
were not in favor ot certain school-move- 
ments. They did n^n take kindly to die 
charity-schools which well-meaning re- 
formers and authorities sought to estab- 
lish among them during the decade pre- 

vious to the Revolution. They did op- 
I)Ose. to a considerable degree, the intro- 
duction of the free-school system in 1834 
and succeeding years. Rut when wc 
come to consider their reasons, as set 
forth in the proper place in our Sympo- 
sium,, we find they were of such a nature 
that we r.u edit rather to respect than to 
<lenounce them. 

Respectable Reasons for Opposing Schools 
These reasons, briefly stated, were: 
unwillingness to be made the subjects of 
official charity ; unwillingness to yield 
up their parental authority : iiTiwilling- 
ness to divorce religious instruction, ever 
deemed of paramount imp(jrtance. from 
secular training : unwillingness to forego 
their mother-tongue. A'erily these seem 
to us the best reasons they could have for 
whatever resistance they oft'ered to char- 
ity-schools and free State-schools. They 
show manly self-reliance, strong relig- 
ious conviction, veneration for anc<.siral 
customs and deep love of their native 
language — qualities that are always con- 
sidered praiseworthy in any people. On 
this last point especially, the desire to 
preserve a language that both in vocabu- 
lary and literature is one of the richest 
ever known aniong mankind, much niiijht 
be said here, if space permitted. What 
a ct^ntrast between those German fore- 

fathers of a few 

generations ago and 
st^me of their descendants to-day. who 
are reallv ashamed y^i their German de- 
scent and consider it a badge of merit to 
be i'znorant oi "nutch"! 

To sum ujK The rennsylvania-Gier- 
mans were alwavs in favor of p«"»pular 
educatiiMi : the\ !ia\e done and still are 
doing tor its avlvancejuent as much, pro- 
[)ortionately, as any other class of Amer- 
ican citizens. l\verv page oi our educa- 
tional .'^\-mpo>inm furnishes proof ol 
these assertions. 

Growth of Genealogical Study 
The interest in matters genealogical is 
still growini^ among our people. -\s wc 
learn from Utters and conversation. 
main oi our readers find their chief de- 
liv;ht in our faip.ilv->kelclies and gcnea- 



l()<;ical notes, and a number of new ones 
have been attracted to our ranks by the 
rcading--mattcr furnished along- this Hne. 
Tho' genealog:}' is but one of several de- 
parthicnts that constitute our field, we 
shall endeavor to make it as full and sat- 
factory as possible, and to this end again 
invoke the aid of our readers. Some 
time ago the New T^ngland Historico- 
Genealogical Society issued a list for 
i()o6, containing over six hundred names 
of genealogies in preparation. We shall 
be pleased to give public notice of all 
efforts being made in this direction in be- 
half of Pennsylvania-German families. 
Meeting of Lehigh County Historians 
The Lehigh County Historical Society 
held its regular half-yearly meeting on 
Aiay Ti. Work on the preparation of the 
county's history, to be published in 191 2, 
was advanced by adopting the recom- 
mended outline of township-sketches, 
which covers every necessary topic, and 
appointing a committee of five to collect 
the needed data. The roll of active mem- 
bers was increased by eight names, and 
IL W. Kriebel, of East Greenville, was 
elected an honorary member. Several 
historical publications and two maps of 
Allentown, dated 1853 and 1850. w^re 
received and acknowledged. 

William E. Martman. editor of the 
Daily City Item, read a carefully pre- 
pared sketch of the fifteen mayors Allen- 
town has had since 18^)7, and Secretary 
C. R. Roberts offered a paper on the 
early settlers of Whitehall tov»n.>h:p. ac- 
companied with a map. The question of 
holding a midsummer ojien-air meeting 
at Emaus was left with the executive 

Dedication of Bucks Historical Museum 
The new $20,000 museum of the Bucks 
County Historical Society at Doylestown 
was formally dedicated May 2S. Ad- 
dresses were made by General W. H. H. 
Davis, president of the society : Louis 
Richards, president of the Berks Histor- 
ical Society; Ex-Supt. W. W. Wodrutf. 
Ex-Rurgess C. H. Pennypacker. of West 
Chester, and others. A novel feature of 
the day was an exhibition of breaking, 
hatcheling and spinning flax by Grier 
Scheetz and ^Ers. ^Taria Fornernian, of 
Perkasie. the latter 76 years old. The 
building, which is of red brick with 
marble facings and purely colonial in 
style, stands on a seven-acre tract, which 
the society hopes eventually to convert 
into a botanical garden. The collection 
of "Tools of the Xationniaker" housed 
within it numbers ab(nit two thousand 

Clippings from Current News 

An Old Stone Bridge 

The diree-arch stone bridge o\ er the Jordan 
at Kernsville, Lehigh county, was built in 1828 
by J. Ringer, J. Gruenewald and J. Erey, Com- 
missioners, whose names are cut on oblong 
marble tablets afluxed to die wall. 'Ilu- tablets 
also contain these directions: "To Harrisburg. 
70 miles." 'To Easton, 22 miles." The stone 
mill nearby was erected in 1S08 by Peter Kern. 

New Branch of German-American Alliance 
A Lehigh Valley branch oi the German- 
Anierican .-Mliance was rec\MUly organized at 
Allentown with John Graetiin. of th*t cit\ . as 
pri'sident. Its otticers will be delegates to the 
State convention of the Alliance at Wilkes- 
Harre Junt: S-g, just before the State Sanger- 
fevt. The German-American .\lliance. whose 
president is Dr. lle.\amer. oi Philadelphia. ha<^ 
i.5oo.(xx) members and has branches in Phila- 
<ielphia, Johnstown, .\llcghen\. Scranton and 
Allentown. The Lehigh \'alley branch num- 
bers about 5000 members. 

An Old Homestead Razed 

The old Glick homestead Hilltown. 
Bucks county, has been ra^ed. The log house 
was built about i8jo by John Glick. who ownej 
all that section from the Cedarville road to 
:he Huckleberry hill. .About 18J5 he 5o!d the 
property to Daniel I'\>ciu. wlu^ iivt-il tiiere U!i- 
lil 1S70 and had thirteen chi'ilren iMrn to him 
in the old house. I\»'l>ert R. Rilicr. ihc pres- 
ent owner, wants to add the property to his 
adjoining farm. 

An Allentonian's Success in Arizona 

Charles O. Schaiuz. Jr.. an .\ilc:uov\n boy. 
wh > grailuated from the city hisih school in 
iS^^j at the age of fifteen and a half years and 
has been in the employ of the Governracnt 
>ince u.»5. is now superiniondent i^^i the ce- 
ment mill at Roosevelt. Ariz. He ha< held 
the position since last summer and :hc succcs> 
oi tile cement-mill is largely «luc to his efton-i 
The cement is used f<>r ImiMinp a bij; irriga- 
tion ilam at RiK\<evell. 



To Study Folklore in Germany 

Prof. E. M. Fogcl Ph.D., of the University 
of Pennsylvania, sailed May i8 for Europe, 
where he expects to stay until fall. He will 
spend most of his time in the Palatinate and 
southern Germany, gathering material for his 
forthcoming work on the folklore of the Penn- 

State Meeting of German Catholics 

The fourteenth annual meeting of the Ger- 
man Catholic Association of Pennsylvania was 
opened at South Betlileheni May 27, with 250 
delegates, representing 25.000 members. Rev. 
John Otten, of Sharpsburg, was met with 
shouts of approval when he urged the dele- 
gates to perpetuate the fatherland customs in 
the society and the home, and to stand by the 
German language. 

An Allentown Painter in the South 

Miss Ella Hergesheimer. daughter of C. P. 
Hergesheimer, of Allentown, and great-grand- 
daughter of Charles Wilson Peale, the great 
painter of colonial days, has gone to Xashville, 
Tenn., to paint a portrait of Bishop McTyeire 
for Vanderbilt University. She has been very 
successful in portraits, landscapes and other 
work. AmiOng her best known pictures are 
Rosarita (a Spanish woman), A Xigiit on the 
Harbor at Marblehead, Mass., Meditation and 
a portrait of Martha Malone Hobson, an old- 
time belle of Xashville. Vanderbilt has also 
commissioned her to paint John Wesley in 
life-size for Wesley Hall. 

A Monument for the Hoeth Family 

The Moravian Historical Society has erected 
a monument on ^larshaU's Creek, in Monroe 
county, marking the spot where in December, 
1755. Tioga Indians destroyed a small settle- 
ment of pioneers, murdering Frederic Hoeth, 
his wife and son-in-law, and carrying his 
daughters into captivity. In 1760 the place 
was bought by the Moravian Church, and in 
October of that year Bernard Adam Grube 
settled there with some Christian Indians. The 
settlement was abandoned in 1763. The monu- 
ment was dedicated May 31, Bishop J. M. Lev- 
ering delivering the historical address. 

A Gala Day for the School Children 

On Whitmonday, ]May 20, Allentown wit- 
nessed a novel and beautiful procession, when 
nearly five thousand school-children and their 
teachers marched tip the main street to Center 
Square, to greet Governor Stuart. Admirals 
Schley and Forsythc, Bishop Talbot and other 
distinguished visitors placed on a platform 
erected at the northwest corner of the square. 
Every pupil carried a tlag, and it was a truly 
inspiring view to see the multitude of little 
ones, waving their flags to the music of the 
Star Spangled Banner, which they sang to the 
accompaniment of the Allentown Band. Thous- 
ands of enthusiastic spectators crowded the 
street and the balcony of the Hotel Allen op- 
posite. Judge Trexler presided and each of 

the visitors named made a short address to 
the school-children. 'I'he idea of turning out 
the latter^ is said to have been suggested by 
Admiral Schley himself. Tlie visitors came as 
guests of Allen Commandery. Xo. 20. K. J. 

Lafayette's Diamond Jubilee 

Lafayette College, at Easton, celebrated 
its diamond jubilee in connection with h< 
commencement, June 16-19. 

May 9. 1832. Lafayette College opened it« 
doors with forty-two students. Its founding 
was the work of such men as Governor George 
Wolf; Samuel Sitgreaves. Commissioner to 
Great Britain under President .Adams: James 
M. Porter, Secretary of War under President 
Tyler ; Andrew H. Reader. Governor of Kan- 
sas ; U. S. Senator Richard Brodhead, and 
Joel Jones, later Mayor of Philadelphia. 

A charter was granted in 1826. but not until 
February. 1832. did Rev. George Junkin. A.M.. 
then head of the ''Manual Labor Academy of 
Pennsylvania." at Germantown. accept the first 
presidency of Lafayette. The fir>t college-buiid- 
ing, now known as "'Old South." was formally 
opened two years later. 


David F.aust, president emeritus of the 
L^nion Xational Bank, in Philadelphia, died 
there May 9. He was born Oct. 27. 1814, 0:1 
a beautiful farm on the Lehigh river, near 
Catasauqua. He had meager school-advant- 
ages and at fifteen became clerk in a country- 
store. His first posirion in Philadelphia wa- 
with the hardware firm oi Reeves, Buck & Co.. 
of which he became a member in 1S3S. Later 
he entered business for himself and advanced 
step by step until 1864. when he retired. He 
served forty years as director and president 
of the L^nion Xational Bank. 

Rev. Gotti.ob F. Krotel. D.D., pastor of the 
church of the .Advent in Xew York and editor 
of The Lutheran, died May 17. He was born 
Feb. 4, 1826, at Ilsfeld. Germany, and came 
to America as a child. He held many posi- 
tions of honor in his Church and was a man 
of great intluence throughout the countn.-. He 
was the last surviving founder of the General 
Council of the Lutheran Church. Ho was a 
brilliant orator and author of many religiou* 

Thf.oporf. .a Sn'vpkr. a prominent teacher 
and lawyer, died at Lohighton May 16. He 
was born at Strondsburg April 15. 1857. and 
began to teach at sixteen. He became princi- 
pal of the schcx^N of Lehighton in 1877 ami 
later served three terms as county-superirten- 
dent oi schools. Since 1893 he was prac:icing 
at the bar. 

Dr. Willi.\m F., the oldest prac- 
ticting physician in Pennsylvania and a son 
of Dr. ilenry Dotweilcr. who was the pivt'.cer 
homeopathic physician oi Lehigh county. du*<! 
June 8 in Hellertown. He was 83 year- 
old, a bachelor and amassed half a million 



Chat with Correspondents 

Thinks Our Field is Broad Enough 

A reader and contributor in Lancaster, Pa., 
has frvcly spoken his mijul in the following 
welcome and interesting letter : 

In the May number of your magazine 
you put the query : "Shall it be The 
American-German?" As a subscriber and 
as one interested in his own people, I 
wish to say decidedly No to this query. 
In my opinion the magazine will reap the 
best success and perform the greatest ser- 
vice if it remains true to its original pur- 
pose. Are not ninety-nine per cent, of your 
subscribers Pennsylvania-Germans? No 
doubt they are not all in Pennsylvania, 
but many of them, I presume, are descend- 
. ed from Pennsylvanians. 

The field suggested by "an esteemed 
subscriber" is entirely too broad for one 
magazine. It would have to be so broad 
that it would not interest the people of 
any particular section. In it you would 
have to compete with the German-Ameri- 
can Annals and other periodicals ; in your 
present field you have no competition at 
all. It is the only magazine of its kind, 
and there is need of such a magazine. We 
wish it to succeed, but we are not very 
much interested in the later German ar- 
rivals of other States. They have maga- 
zines adapted to their wants; let us have 
one suited to our needs. 

You need not wander over the continent 
for material. If you want Pennsylvania- 
Gt^rman subscribers, confine yourself to 
their history, biography, genealogy, folk- 
lore, literature, etc. The material at hand 
is unlimited. Think of the old churches 
whose history is not yet written, the towns 
and townships and valleys, the buildings, 
families, etc. These should be written up 
continually, not only for Symposium num- 

In my judgment the magazine has taken 
too broad a field already- Other sub- 
scribers complain of the same thing. In 
the May number, for example, the ar- 
ticles on Easter-observance in Germany. 
Lines on a Head of Cabbage. Association 
of German Writers in America, General 
Lee's Headquarters at Gettysburg, though 
not without interest, are not relevant to 
jPcnnsylvania-Germans. .\rticles concern- 
ing the latter are more interesting to your 
class of subscribers. 

But I do not wish to indulge in any 
niore destructive criticism. I am willing 
to do constructive work for the maga- 
zine. Last year you published tombstone- 
records of an old church near Hernville. 
Pa. I wish vou would continue the work. 
The old inscriptions are rapidly being ob- 
literated, and what a loss to family-his- 
torians this will be! 

I am in a position to furnish you with 
tombstone-records of a ftw old churches: 
the hi.-toric 1 fain's church near Werner?- 
ville, Pa., built in 1735, the North Heidel- 
berg church, built in 1744, and others. I 
intend to note the epitaphs of persons born 
Ijeforc 1800 and can furnish you with lists, 
if you desire to publish the same. No 
doubt it would be valuable for family-his- 
torians in the eastern counties, and inter- 
esting to the people who have migraied 
from this section. 

I want the magazine to succeed. It hn^ 
a noble purpose, treats of a goodly race 
and deserves abundant results. 

P. J. B. 

We certainly owe you thanks. Brother B.. 
for your frank and full criticism, your goo<l 
.opinion of our work and your kind wi^he-. 
Undoubtedly there is material enough in Penp- 
sylvania-Germandom to fill a larger magazine 
than ours from month to month, if somebody 
will kindly collect it for us. As a matter of 
fact, we have material enough on hand and 
in sight to keep us supplied for the rest of 
the year. However, we are always on the 
lookout for more and shall thankfully accept 
whatever tombstone-inscriptions you have to 
offer, promising to use them as soon as we 
can find room for them. You no doubt per- 
ceive that we are trying to have every depart- 
ment of our field represented in ever\ issue. 

But there is another side from which our 
field must be viewed. We can not aiford to 
do indefinitely all the work we are doing tor 
our fellow-Pennsylvanians of German birth 
for the mere good of the cause or for glory. 
as we are practically doing it now. We ha\-e 
a friend and adviser, who is somewhat c>*n!- 
cal. but whose candor and good intentions 
toward us can not be questioned. When, a 
year ago. we decided to advance from bi- 
monthly to monthly issues, this friend discoun- 
tenanced the idea. We were enthusiastic and 
said: "But look at the vastness of our field. 
its almost inexhaustible stores of material!" 
"Your field may be ever so large." was the 
answer, "it will not grow enough for you to 
live on."' He did not doubt the profusion of 
material, but he doubted that cur patronage 
would'warrant the increased expense. We re- 
gret to say that we have not yet been able :o 
disprove our cynic friend's doubt. 

Here then would be a go«">d business reason 
for going outside ox the limits oi Pennsylvania- 
Gerinandom. in order to draw support ironi 
the wider circles of our Gennan-.-Vmerican 
pi^pulation. But really this phase oi :he ques- 
tion was not considered when we admitted the 
articles which you deem i>u: of pl.icc. From 
the beginning of our enterprise we have con- 
sidered the customs of the fatherland from 
which our ancestors came, the histor>- of the 
State in which our people have played so im- 



portant a part, and the writings and doings of 
Penns\Ivania-Gcrnians everywhere, legitimate 
subjects of inquiry and information. These 
things are relevant to our Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man people, though not a part of their immedi- 
ate history as a class. They are of secondary 
importance, yet not outside our original scope. 
However, the immediate history of our people, 
in communities, families and individuals, their 
traditions and literature, shall ever continue to 
be the chief object of our labors and contri- 
butions thereto ever the most welcome to our 

Fishing for Subscribers 

In sending us the name of a new subscriber, 
our old friend. Dr. E. K., writes in faultless 
German what we translate as follows : 

Quite unexpected and even unsought 
this pretty little fi^h took hold of my hrx)k. 
and I landed it safely. In truth, ihi- i, 
the delightful fi-hing-season. during which. 
in my golden \-'outh, I «b often and S'- 
eagerly indulged in this fascinating pas- 
We heartily thank Dr. K. for the "fish" he 
has caught for us and sincerely wish h^ might 
catch ever so many more, both in season an<l 
out of season. But we regret that we can 
not .share his fondness of the real tishing-'-iHjri. 
Even in our golden youth, though ever so fond 
of "going in for a swim." we never had pa- 
tience enough to sit for hours by the side of 
the stream, to watch the baited hook. As for 
fishing with the dragnet at night, one trial 
satisfied our curiositv for all the rest of our life. 

Genealogical Notes and Queries 

This department is open to all our subscribers. Contributors will ple.nse strite their questions an-l informn- 
tion as clearly and briefly as possible, being particularly careful in writing names and dates. For the benefit 
of readers generally it is desired that answers to the questions under this head be addressed to the editor of 
this magazine. 

Who Was Tamar Mickley? 

Tamar Evans went with her father. William 
(?) Evans, from Philadelphia to Westmore- 
land county, Pa. Mr. Evans was a millwright 
and had four sons and one daughter. 

Tamar Evans married first, at Greensburg, 
John Kinsey, who died when he had been 
married thirteen months. They had one child, 
a girl. Tamar Evans Kinsey. widow, marrfed, 
the second time, Daniel Mickky, with whom 
she moved from Greensburg. Pa., to Seneca 
county, N. Y. After his death she moved to 
Michigan. They had seven children. 

Tamar Evans Kinsey Mickley was married 
the tliird time, in Michigan, to George Pon- 
tiac, with whom she had no children. 

Daniel Mickley was the sixth son of John 
Jacob Mickley and his wife Susanna Miller. 
of Whitehall, Leliigh county. Pa. (See Gene- 
alogy of the ]Mickle;y Family in America, pp. 


Mickley's R. F. D. 3. Allentown, Pa. 


Gilbert Genealogy 

My genealogical rambles in 189S. while writ- 
ing the Wagenseller and Orwig histories, 
brought me in touch with Conrad Gilbert, be- 
cause both Wagensvllers and Orwigs married 

Conrad Gilbert is represented as a ''taylor" 
who bought. January j;.. 17(^1. from Ludwig 
Herring, of Douglass township. Montgomery 
county, Pa., 23 acres and 32 perches oi land, 
situate partly in McCalFs Manor. Conrad 
Gilbert and his wife. Anna Elizabeth, had 
eight children, as follows: 

1. Mary Magdalena, born Aug. 10, 175S. 
baptized by the pastor of the Xew Hanover 
Lutheran church. Sept. 3. 175S: sponsors. 
Adam P>robst and wife. She married George 
Orwig. youngest son (born March 11. r7-U<) 
of Gottfried Orwig. a soldier of the Revolu- 
tionary War. She died Jan. 30, 1841. 
■ 2. Catherine, borp Sep:. 2. 1760. baptized 
Sept. 28. i7(So. Sponsors. Andrew Yerger and 

3. .\nna Eli:zabeth. born Aug. 25. 1762, bap- 
tized Sept. 12. 1762. Sponsors. .Andrew Yer- 
ger and wife. 

4. Andrew, born Sept. 26. 1764. baptized 
Oct. 21. 1764. Sponsors, Andrew Yerger and 

5. John Peter, born July 25. 1766. baptized 
August 17. I7t>(,>. Sponsors, John P. Steltz and 
Susanna Kiihle (Keely). 

6. Anna Maria (?). born Dec. 2},, I/TO. 
baptized Jan. 13. 1771. Sponsors. John George 
Schweinhard and wife. .\nna Maria. 

7. Salome, Lk^^rn Dec. 9. 1772. baptized Dec. 
2^. 1772. Sponsors, George Gilbert and wiie, 
Maria Salome. 

8. Christina, born Sept. 29, 1775. baptize*! 
Oct. 15, 1775. Sponsors. Henry Gilbert and 
wife, Christina. March 3. 1705. Christina mar- 
ried Michael Sweinhart. 

The Gilbert family in Falkner Swamp wa< 
numerous and for mo a dit^cult one to trace. 
To make matters wi^rse. there were two per- 
sons by the name oi Bernard Gilbert. I d*^ 
not know how these were related to Conrad. 
but perhaps; the following items may open ii 
to some one. 

C<»nrad and Bernard Gilbert both took the 
oath of allegiance the same day. Sept. 23. I7«*- 
but the Bernard here mned must have been 
I'ernard Gilbert. Sr.. married to Mary'-^- 
beth Meyer. This couple are the parents oi 



Bernard Gilbert, born March g, 1766, and bap- 
tized by the pastor of the New Hanover Lu- 
theran church, ]\Iarch 30, 1766; sponsors, 
Henry Scliiren rnd wife, Magdalena. Ber- 
nard Gilbert, Jr., married Susanna , 

perhaps Mornetter, as Andrew Hornetter had 
a daughter, Susanna, and Bernard Gilbert and 
John Wagenscller (who married Margaret 
Hornetter) -were his executors. Bernard and 
Susanna Gilbert had children as follows : 

1. Henry, born Sept. 24. 1791, baptized by 
the pastor of the New Hanover Lutheran 
church October 9. 1791. Sponsors. . Bernard 
Gilbert, Sr., and wife, Mary Elizabeth. 

2. Magdalena, born Feb. 7, 1797, baptized 

I'^cb. ir. 1797. Sponsors, Bernard Gilbert, Sr.. 
and wife. 

3. John, born Nov. 7, 1801, baptized Jan. 3, 
1802. Sponsors, John Adam Gilbert and wife, 

4. George, born Nov. 8. 1803, baptized Jan. 
29, i<So4. Sponsors, John Gilbert and wife, 

The aljove lead= the writer to believe that 
the WagenscUers, Orwigs and Gilberts of that 
period were closely related. The undersigned 
married into the r)rwig family and revelations 
along this line would be interesting. 

Geo. W. Wage .v seller. 

:\Iid(l!cburg. Pa. 

Our Book-Table 

Any book or pamphlet reviewed in these columns will be sent to any .i<ldress by the Publisher of The Penn- 
sylvania-German on receipt of the published price. Postage must be added when it is mentioned separately. 
.\ny other book wanted by our readers may be ordered through us at the publisher's price. Inquiries will h* 
promptly and cheerfully answered. 

Standard Edition of Luther's Works. The Pre- 
cious and Sacred Writings of Martin Lu- 
ther, the Mero of the Reformation, the Great- 
est of the Teuton Church-Father? and the 
Father of Protestant Church-Literature. 
Fdited by John Nicholas Lenker. D.D., in 
connection with -leading scholars in all 
parts of the Church, and published by Lu- 
therans in All Lands Co.. Minneapolis. 
Price to advance subscribers. $1.65 a 
The ' great enterprise of publishing a com- 
plete English translation of Luther's writings, 
which has been repeatedly noticed in our re- 
view-colunuis, is still progressing. Vol.^ XII 
of this series, lately received, is the continua- 
tion of Luther's Church-Postil. of which it 
constitutes Volume Third. It covers the pe- 
riod from the second Sunday after Easter to 
Trinity Sunday and contains twenty-six ser- 
mons based on the gospel-lessons of this pe- 
riod. The volume comprises 454 pages and is 
introduced with a Foreword by Dr. Lenker. 
Luther's Brief Instruction on What we should 
Seek and Expect in the Gospel. Luther's Pre- 
face to the New Edition of his Church-Postil, 
edited by Dr. Casper Creuziger. in 1543. and a 
page of reasons for reading Luther, .\ppended 
to the volume is a page of Protestant Ecu- 
menical statistics, in which the total num- 
ber of Lutherans in the world is given at 71.- 
.^09.852, of which 11.730,016 are credited to 
NIorth America and 272.500 to the British Isles. 
The great majority of these latter twelve mil- 
lions speak the English tongue, and to them 
Dr. Lenker is rendering an inestimable ser- 
vice by offering them this new translation oi 
the great Reformer's works. 

The Charity-School Movement in Colonial 
Pennsylvania. 1754-176^. A History oi the 
Educational Struggle between the Colo- 
nial Authorities and the German Inhabit- 
ants of Pennsylvania. By Samuel Edwin 
Weber. Ph.D. '(U. of P.V 74 pagos octavo. 

This is an interesting and valuable mono- 
graph treating a phase oi Pennsylvania's colo- 
nial history which in recent years has become 
a subject of special attention among students. 
It is divided into four chapters, discussing suc- 
cessively educational conditions in the colony, 
the formation of the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of Christian Knowledge among the Ger- 
mans in Penn.Nylvania. the estal)li>hment of 
charity-schools, their failure and the causes 
thereof. To these is added a bibliography of 
authorities consulted. 

The Travel Magazine. A Continuation of the 
Four-Track News. Published at 333, 
Fourth Avenue. Xew York, a: $1.00 a 
The May issue of this elegant and useful 
periodical is a sixx'ial number o\ 4S pages. 
.Among other good things it otTers these: 
Sports and Games on an Ocean-Liner: .\ Year 
in Capri ; Byways of London : From the Latin 
Oii;irter to St. Cloud, with a full-page map 
of Paris: European Landing-Points of Steam- 
ers; Sailing-D.ites to Europe. May and June. 
1907; Six \\'eeks in Great P.ritain. for $300; 
.\ Walking Trip in Wales, etc. Every article 
is attractiveh written ant! finely illustrated. 
The Travel Magazine is intvrcsting not only 
to those who tr.ivel. but al.<o to the stay-at- 
homes, by enabling them to make delightful 
•rips in imagination. 

The Youth's Companion. .\n illustrated wcek- 
Iv paper iov all the family. Publislwd by 
Perry Mas<in Comp:\ny. 201 Columbus 
.\venue. Rost(M\ at $175 a year. 
Tlunigh rightly claiming to be "a paper tor 
all the family." The Youth's Con^p.inion has 
e\ er been of special interest to the boN's and 
uirN oi our land. It is now runm'ng in its 
eieht\-tirsl volume and has lopg ago estab- 
lished a good name throughout the country. 
Its stories, while often dealing with war and 
the adventures of pioneer>. oowN-»\< and the 
like- themes alwa>» fa.^cinatitig to the boyish 



niitid — are always clean and elevatin? in tone. 
However, it oft'ers much more than wholesome 
fiction. On its editorial nage current topics 
are discussed in brief and pithy paragraphs 
and a vast deal of useful information is of- 
fered in condensed form under separate heads. 
The Youth's Companion is a companion whose 
conversation older people will find worth their 
The American Catholic Historical Research?s 

Edited and published quarterly bv ]\Iartin 

I. J. Griffin, Ridley Park, Pa., 'at $2 a 

The April number of this periodical, which, 
is Xo. 2 of the twenty-fourth volume (new 
series. Vol. HI), contains on its 96 pages a 
great deal of historical information. We quote 
some of the headings: The Canadians Friend- 
ly to the Colonies. Commissioned Officers of 
the Xavy of the Revolution, Pope Day in the 
Colonies, How Canada was "Lost." Commo- 
dore Barry's Memorial (with full-page por- 
trait and autograph). Errors Corrected, Arch- 
bishop Carroll's Defence of the Circus. .-\n 
Apostato Jesuit Among the Indians of New 
York, ^^en and Matters. Several other illus- 
trations are found in this issue. 
German-American Annals. Co-^Minntion of the 

Quarterly Americana Gennanica. A Bi- 

monthly of ^)4 pages, devoted to the Com- 
parative Study of the Historical, Literarv. 
Linguistic, Educational and Commcrciai 
Relations of Germany and .Xmcrica. Or- 
gan of the German- American Historica' 
Society, the National German-Amcricu- 
Alliance, and the Union of Old Gcrmm 
Students in America. Edited b>- Prof. 
Marion D. Learned. University of Penn- 
sylvania, with a large number of contribu- 
tors. American and foreign, and published 
bv the German- American Historical So 
ciety, 809 Spring Garden St.. Philadelphia 
Price. .$3 a year. 50 cents a number. 
The >Larch-April issue of these AnnaU. 
which is No. 2 of Vol. V of the new serie- 
contains an inreresting study of Dialectal Pe- 
culiarities in the Carlisle Vernacular, by Wil- 
liam Prettyman: Pafriotische Bctnuhiun^cn 
by Otto Heller: Berlin, a German Settlement 
in Waterloo County, Ontario, Can., by C. L 
Nicolay: Reviews and a Bibliography of Ger 
man Americana for 1906. by William G. 

The Alumni Register. A monthly periodical. 
issued by the University of Pennsylvania. Th- 
.Vpril issue (\'ol. XT, No. 7) contains th- 
Provo>=t's Report and an interesting artici- 
(^oncerning "Pennsylvania-Dutch" Novels, b 
Cornelius Weygandt, class oi '91. 

Calendar of Pennsylvania History 

MAY, 1907 

1. Gov. Stuart vetoes bill to recognize oste- 
opathy. — Temporary adjournment of Capitol 

2. Union bricklayers locked out in Phila- 

3. Gov. Stuart signs bill appropriating 
$2,500,000 for the indigent insane. 

5-7. American Therapeutic Society meets 
in Philadelphia. 

6. Eleven of thirteen Italians convicted of 
Black Hand crimes in Wilkes- Barre. — United 
G'as Improvement Co. of Philadelphia opposes 
charters to rival companies. 

7. Sixty-second annual State Council of 
U. A. M. in Harrisburtr. — Fifteenth animal 
meeting of Woman's Missionary Society of 
Lutheran General Synod in Philadelphia. 

10. Travelers' Protective Association of 
Penna. meets at Leban(-»n and .\ssociation of 
Secondary-School Principals in the University 
of Pennsylvania. 

lO-Ti. Severe cold in western Pennsyl- 

11. Nineteen Penna. Shriners killed in rail- 
road wreck at Honda. Cal. 

13. Tenth State convention oi Knights oi 
Columbus in Philadelphia. — Order of Flound- 
ers and Patriots moots at Indopondoncr Hall. 

14. .\nnual mooting o\ Xow Jorusalem 
Church in Philadolplii'r - "^.-huvlkill 1\<>'. .rnu-d 
Classis meets at St. Cinr. Grand Commandcrv 
of Knights of Malta in South Bethlehem.— 
Dedication (-.f St. Patrick's cathedral at Har- 

16. Legislature adjourns, having appropri- 
ated $57.000.000. — .\merican Cotton Manufac- 
turers' Association meets in Philadelphia. 

17. The Duke d'.\bruz/i, head of Italian 
navy, visits Philadelphia. — Henrv Whelen. Jr . 
president of Philadelphia .\cademy of Fin- 
.\rts, dies at Devon. 

20. Allentown school-children greet Gov 
Stuart, Admirals Schley and Forsythc, an»i 
other visitors. 

21. Fatal explosion at furnace of Jones & 
Laughlin Steel Co.. at Pittsburg. — America^ 
I'oundrymen's Assi>ciation meets at Ph'' ' 

22. \\'oman*s Medical College ir Phil.v 
dolphia gradu.ates 2q students. — Opening oi 
Pliikulelphia &• Western Railu.iy.— Luther.iM 
(loneral Synod t^pens in Sunbur\. — State cti 
c:nnpment oi Odd Fellows and Daughte<"s o: 
Rebekah at Reading. 

2^ Lutheran ^Ii^li.<terium oi Pennr ' ! 
\djacent States opens i<'>oth meeting at Read 

27. German Catholic .\ssociati<"tn of Pcnn.i 
meets t South Bethlehem. — Dall's Sander-. 
''•ned Philadelnhia lawyer, dies ^t'" 
Citv — De<*ructive rainstorm i-» Pittsburg — 
Sivrh I'Miual Horse Show in Philndc'oh" 

jS. Fi ft V- fourth annual Stale oonclaxt >">' 

'is'hr^ at ll.irri^lniri;.— I'uv 

.- ( 

' 'i-forici| Societv «lodioale^ nui-emn at l>i»yio- 
town.— Penna. Retail Coaldcalers* .\ssocialio'i 
meets at Reading. 

20. State Xur^cs' .\ss.viation meot'« ■>' 


VOL. VIII, No, 8 AUGUST, 1907 Vi>)CK IZ CenJs 





^'W^ " 


"SfcirJ; -i) 

^ tl l W W 


The Second Inslalment of Our Illustrated Symposium 


CouiprisinLi- Articles ''U (iKR-NTax Luthkrax •'CiiURLii- 
ScHooi.s." Edl'ca'hox ix tul-: E\'axgi-:lic.\i 
C^MURCir .\.xi) Amoxg .'iHi-: Sch\\i:xk!T.i.df.ks and 
Earl\- School.^ (j:-- tkh: (^ii:km.\n Ri-:!-(>RMr.;) 
Cml"Rch. AI-o: 

R!£vr,Ri:;x{)]:!. K. L>Rc>!;sr. Sun lay-SciiMol I'onndor, 
Minister and Editor (Illustrated Biograijliicnl Sketch; i 

Tn3ii^,si(K\p:-LxscRii'Tiuxs ix Tnr: Oid IIiwimki.stuwx 
Li'TriERAX CfU'RCnVARi; I \vitli Illu-trations ) 

Till-: IWrth of Tin; Amiikicax Army 

Mrs. S.xllii: Shirey. tih-: rxcoMrARAiu.K (with Tor- 

Ahi.KS EoRiXu: .\ Tale M the Tulpehockcn ( llhistratcd 
Serial St-.M-y^, Ch.ipter XI 

ElTKRARY ("i;-:.\fS. Ei:iT.)RlA!. C^^MMKXT. XkW S-CuT I'PI N«:>. 

CoRR::sri.ixr'[:x rs' Chat, (ir.xi-: ai.diucai. X«>ti-:s a\i» 

Oi;!:kii:s. i-yrc. r.'i'iA 

Fiill Table of Content: bick ot Front 


AUGUST, 1907 



Frontispiece — Portrait and Autograph of Rev. Samuel K. Brobst . . 346 

The PEN^'SYLVA^-IA-GER.^rA^- ix his Relation to Education — A 
Symposium (continued) 

German Lutheran ''Church-Schools" — By Rev. J. W. Early . . 347 

Education in the Evangelical Church — By Rev. A. Stapleton. 

A.M., M.S 350 

Education Among the Schwenkfclders — By H. \V. Kriebel . . 355 

Early Schools of the German Reformed Church — Bv Rev. James 

I. Good, D.D '..... 35S 

Rev. Samuel K. Brobst. Sunday-school Founder, Minister and Editor 360 

Tombstone-Inscriptions in the Old Hummelstown Lutheran Church- 
yard — By E. M. Eshelman 365 

Six Great-Grandparents Living — By James J. Hauser 370 

The Birth of the American Army — By Horace Kephart. Reprinted 

from Harper's Magazine 372 

Mrs. Sallie Shirey, the Incomparable— By J. O. K. Robarts . . . . 37S 

An Old-Fashioned Witch- Story— Extract from Dr. W. A. Helffricirs 

Autobiography 379 

Pennsylvania Historical Societies: Their' Aims and their Work 

The Bucks County Historical Society and Its Unique Museum . 3S1 

Myles Loring: A Tale of the Tulpehocken— By Rev. Alden W. 

Quimby. Chapter XI 3^"^ 

The Home: Oldtime ?Iome Superstitions— Bv Julius F. Sachse. 

Litt. D 389 

Literary Gems • • . 

The Light of the Old Home— By H. A. S 39* 

Unschuldig g'schtroft — Die Singschula im Land 39-2 

En Trip noch Fildelfy un Canada— By "Gottlieb Boonastiel" 

(concluded) 393 

Die Mary un ihr Hundle— By "Wendell Kit.-miller" .... 304 

Editorial Department 395 

Clippings from Current News 390 

Chat with Correspondents— Genealogical Xotes and Queries . . 39S 
Our Book-Table— Calendar of PennsyKania History. June. 

1907 399-400 

• % P^ <^^ fT^^ 


1 fiv?% \V' '"- 


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V. •^.^u.u, . ■■i---'-^^;^' . - v,N 

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./\ ._.._._.._-^ 

SI|F J^j^nnsgluama-^^rmciu 

Vol. VIII 

AUGUST, 1907 

No. 8 

The Pennsylvania-German in His 
Relation to Education 

A Symposium of Historical and Descriptive Articles 
Edited by Prof. L. S. Shimmell, Ph.D., Harrisburg, Pa. 

German Lutheran *'Church-Schools" 


ECAUSE of the difficiiltv in fixin 

jTj limits and bounds this is a sub- 
ject not easily treated. In the 
first place, the number of exclusively Lu- 
theran schools was not very large. Yet, 
the schools under Lutheran influence 
were quite numerous. But the children 
of all who paid their tuition were re- 
ceived by them.' Outside of the city and 
the large towns, the great majority of 
the schools were under the joint control 
of the Lutheran and the Rtforined 
Churches. In Berks county, e. g., there 
was but one exclusively Lutheran church 
erected, outside of Reading, from the 
time of the Revolution until the middle 
nf the nineteenth century. Throughout 
this entire period all the churches erected 
for the use of either of these denomina- 
tions were the joint property of the two. 
Tliis was very generally the case in all 
those sections in which the Pennsylvania- 
< icrnians were located. This makes it 
very difficult to get at die facts. 

Lack of Records— "Evangelical" 
The lack of satisfactory records and in 
many instances an absence of all records, 
:-^ another great hindrance in the treat- 
HKiU of this subject. In fact, very little 
'iiat is reliable bearing on it is to be 
i-'und anywhere, except in the incidental 
•iHusions and statements found in the 

minutes of Synod, conferences, etc. 
Papers containing the names of contribu- 
tors, and the amounts they gave, for the 
building of school-liouses, found at 
Selinsgrove, at St. Michael's in Berks. 
and at other points, form an exception 
to this statement. ^lany of the congre- 
gations, as well as the pastors serving 
them, kept very indifferent ' records. 
Quite a number apparently kept none at 
all. Probably it is mainly owing to this 
fact that, when sonie ministers report two 
or evep. half a dozen schools in their par- 
ishes, it is impossible to locate them. As 
far as the report goes, except for the tact 
that the minutes are those of the Minis- 
terium of Pennsylvania, the schools 
might have been located in South Africa. 
Another matter which has caused con- 
fusion and difHculty among outsiders is 
the indefinite use of the term Evangeli- 
cal. It is generally, although not always. 
used to indicate Lutherans. In some in- 
stances we find the terms Evangelical 
Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed 
used to distinguish the two churches. 
But in the large majority of instances. 
when that term is used during the 
eighteenth century and the first quarter 
of the nineteenth, without any special 
qualification, it is used as the equivalent 
of Lutheran. \\ hen, e. g., the deacons 



of the Tulpehocken church in 1742, in 
their account of the disturbances (con- 
fusion) there, say that Evangehcal min- 
isters advised certain things, they mean 
Lutheran ministers, for they afterwards 
say it. 

Community and Congregational Schools 
In addition to all this, a large propor- 
tion, and we think in this case we would 
be safe in saying the larger number, 
of the so-called independent, neighbor- 
hood or community schools, such as had 
no direct connection with any congrega- 
tion or denomination, were under Church 
influences. These were generally con- 
trolled by a committee or trustees, who 
were selected from the neighboring con- 
gregations, almost invariably either Lu- 
therans or Reformed, or some members 
of each. Church schools were found at 
Molatton where the Swedes predominat- 
ed, at Tulpehocken, both Xorth and 
South, at Moselem or Ontelaunee, In- 
dian for ^laiden-Creek, at Allemangel, 
in Richmond township, at Rockland, on 
the Oley Hills, at New Hanover, at the 
Trappe, at Muddy Creek, at York, at 
Lancaster, at Bindnagel's, at Elizabeth- 
town, at Selinsgrove, at Hummelstown, 
in short, at almost every point where Lu- 
theran pastors or congregations were 
found. Frequently several additional 
schools were organized on the intermedi- 
ate territory. 

With reference to this matter and the 
independent schools. Dr. Lochman, sec- 
retary of Synod, 181 3, in his explana- 
tions appended to the parochial reports, 
makes this statement : Finally it should 
be observed that there are many more 
German schools in this country than are 
here indicated. Those ^iven here are 
congregatio)ial schools, under the direct 
superi'isioji and control of the cojigrega- 
tions. There are }nany other scJiools es- 
tablished and maifitained by the fartners 
of a ccrtai)i neighborhood, under their 
ozvn control. TJiese are not included in 
this report. 

Some of these schools attained a high 
degree of efficiency. The writer himself 
received his rudimentary education in 
one of them. This school at Palmvra 

was afterwards merged into the common 
school at that place. That a good founda- 
tion was laid, and that the training was 
thorough, is evinced by the fact that two 
of the pupils prepared themselves for 
college in a single year. This was owing 
more to the fact that the young men, or 
boys of sixteen and seventeen as they 
were, had received a thorough primary 
education, than to any other cause. It 
was not necessary for them to take up 
anything besides Latin, Greek and alge- 
bra. In the English branches they were 
prepared for college. Another pupil of 
the same school was county superinten- 
dent of common schools for a number of 
years, and for many years has been dep- 
uty State superintendent. 

In the line of studies and text-books 
the two classes of schools did not differ. 
Indeed, it might be said that, except in 
the mere fact that the congregational 
school was controlled by an individual 
congregation, there was no difference be- 
tween them. 

An Estimate of Numbers 

Whilst it may not be possible to give 
the exact number of German schools, 
counting both classes, we think a pretty 
fair estimate can be made. But that the 
records are very imperfect will be seen 
from the following. During die period 
from 1781-87, when the annual roll of 
ministers numbered about a score, hardly 
two-thirds oi the entire number, from 
seven to ten reported the number of com- 
municants, of baptisms and of burials. 
During the five succeeding years there 
are no reports. In 1703. at Philadelphia. 
22 out of 25 pastors on the Parochial Re- 
port give /S congregations, with 5.500- 
6.000 communicants, and 54 schools. For 
ten years there are no further reports. 
Then, in 1802, 33 pastors with iii coti- 
gregations and 15.000 to n'\ooo com- 
municants — but unfortunately one pastor 
reports over 4,000 as having cominune<l. 
so that probably 12.000 to 13.000 wonltl 
be a fair average — report /J schools. In 
1807. five years later, 33 out of 37 jvist.^rs 
on roll report 07 schools, and five years 
later. 1812. 51 out of 67 pastors rciMrl. 
but only 43 have full reports. These icU 



US they have i6i schools. A fair esti- 
mate would give not less than 240 or pos- 
sibly 250 congregational schools. From 
this on until 1836, when common schools 
had already been introduced in some sec- 
tions, the number does not vary much. 
Wc think it would be fairly safe to say 
that from 1793 both kinds of schools had 
increased from between 75 and 100 to 
between 400 and 500. While the Ger- 
man schools had probably increased five- 
fold, the German population had not in- 
creased at the same rate. This would 
certainly show that the Germans were 
not opposed to education. 

Quality of Schools, Students and Teachers 

But it may also be well to consider the 
character, quality, standard, or grade of 
these schools. It will hardly be neces- 
sary to state that they were mostly of a 
very high grade. The fact is, they were 
about all the churches and the entire 
communities in which they existed had 
to depend upon for the education and 
training of their ministers, lawyers, phy- 
sicians and business men. We have 
never found that they fell behind others 
in this respect. 

We have already referred to the iilde- 
l)cndcnt school at Palmyra, as well as -the 
training it furnished. It was two miles 
from Campbellstown, where the nearest 
lAitheran and Reformed church was lo- 
cated, and three miles from Bindnagel's, 
the parent church, a Lutheran church, al- 
though the Reformed also were privi- 
leged to worship in it. This church also 
had its school. A young man who had 
received his early education in these two 
schools, went to Gettysburg when the 
seminary at that place was founded. His 
career was suddenly cut short by his sud- 
den and unexpected death. He had ex- 
pected to return to preach his first ser- 
mon before his parents and friends in 
i^2j. Instead, his funeral services were 
held at almost the same hour. 

Here was a young man, only in his 
twenty-third year, but his books, contain- 
ing his exercises in Hebrew, his astro- 
nomical calculations, as well as those in 
surveying, his notes in historv and the 

other lectures of his professor, show a 
training in both English and German 
which would do no discredit to a college 
or university graduate. The writer has 
those books in his possession, and wher- 
ever the early career of Benjamin 
Oehrle and hundreds of others like him 
is known, no one will doubt that our Ger- 
man church schools did their work well, 
and that those who maintained them were 
not opposed to education. 

As already intimated, the entire 
Church was dependent upon these schools 
for the men who supplied its pulpits. 
With but few exceptions, the men who 
were the teachers and leaders of the 
Church and of the communities in which 
it was found, received their education and 
their entire preparatory training in these 
schools. Possibly if it had not been for 
their conservative influence, the ravages 
of an insipid rationalism on the one hand, 
and of a devastating fanaticism on the 
other, would have been still greater. Al- 
though we shall not enter into theological 
discussions, we are perfectly justified in 
saying that these schools did much to 
prevent both these evils. 

The character of the teachers em- 
ployed also was a guaranty of their ca- 
pacity to furnish the needed training. 
The reputation of some of the teachers 
at Strausstown, a village near the foot 
of the Blue Mountains, extended beyond 
the limits of Berks and Schuylkill. There 
were others in some of the country dis- 
tricts along the borders of Berks and 
Lehigh equally known. 

Between seventy and eighty years ago 
a man who had been a teacher in the 
church schools of St. Michael's and 
Zion's, Philadelphia, became pastor of 
St.* John's, at Hamburg, and four other 
congregations of the vicinity. That man 
published one of the best "Explanations 
of die Calendar" ever issued. If that 
country pastor had been a professor at 
Yale, or some other prominent institu- 
tion of the country, all manner of titles 
would have been bestowed upon him for 
his verv learned book. But Rev. Ludwig 
Walz was only a Lutheran pastor oi a 
small country village in Berks county, 
and his name is unknown to fame. His 



work, published in 1830, is still a rich 
storehouse of astronomical and other in- 
formation, fa'r surpassing many of those 
of the present day in the amount, value 
and variety of the information which it 
imparts, as well as in the style in which 
it is written. 

A Wrong Impression — Much More to be Said 
But the impression seems to have pre- 
vailed in certain quarters that the Ger- 
man citizens of Pennsylvania, especially 
during its provincial existence, were op- 
posed to education. The facts and inci- 
dents already cited should convince al- 
most any one, that this is a mistake. It 
is true, the Germans generally were not 
disposed to favor the so-called charity- 
schools, which the English seemed dis- 
posed to force upon them. We are 
strongly inclined to think that, if any one 
had tried to press upon the Quakers, or 
any one else, schools or any other kind 
of institutions for their supposed advan- 
tage in the same patronizing way, they 
would have demurred also. They too 
would have said : "We are not beggars, 
and we will not be treated as such. We 
can provide our own schools. Rather than 
be treated as beggars, we will maintain 
our own." 

Possibly, too, there may have been 
more of politics than is generally attri- 
buted to it, in the entire movement. Dr. 
Bolles in his lectures suggests that not 
only Benjamin Franklin, but other lead- 
ing men of his day, were afraid of Ger- 
man preponderance, since the Germans 

numbered about one half of the entire 
population of the ])rovince, about the mid- 
dle of the eighteeinh century. The same 
writer even credits Michael Schlatter, 
whose svmpathies were always supposed 
to have been with the charity-schools, 
with the statement, that the motive for 
the founding of those schools was main- 
ly political, and that the object was "to 
acquire more complete control of the 
Germans," thus to weaken their political 
power and wrench the government from 
tliem. ^fuhlenbcrir's premonition that 
the Germans would look upon the move- 
ment as a reproach certainly came true. 
Much might also be said about the 
books used in these schools — concerning 
the fact that in those days writing was 
not considered necessary for girls, that 
frequently, and we might say generally. 
the text-books were books of devotion, as 
much as samples of literature and 
learning — also concerning the introduc- 
tion of politics into them, a trick which 
seems not yet to be entirely forgotten. 
We close with an illustrative quotation 
from the ninety-eighth edition of Thom- 
as Dilworth's Spelling Book, which also 
contained a small elementary grammar, 
omitted in the Lancaster edition, until 
the time 

"when peace and commerce shall again smile 
upon us, and when, in spite of Britain and a 
certain evil one surnamed Beelzebub, we shall 
have paper and books of every kind in abun- 
dance, and science shall once more shooi up 
and rtourish in the country." 

Education in the Evangelical Church 



A Necessary Explanation 

BEFORE elaborating our subject an 
explanation is necessary as to the 
term ''Evangelical." \Ve use this 
term, not in its theological sense, but as 
designating two religious bodies known 
as the "Evangelical Association," and its 
lesser member, ''The United Evangelical 
Church." These people are commonly 
denominated '"Evangelicals." 

The original body in 1S94 suffered a 
division, at which time fuUv three- 


fourths of the membership in Pennsylva- 
nia entered the new or "United Evangel- 
ical" organization, hence we use the term 
as indicating both bodies as a whole. 

The "Evangelicals" now constitute a 
verv aggressive element in the Protest- 
ant Church, having some thirty annual 
conferences in America, three in Europe. 
one in Japan, besides prosperous missions 
in China. 

American in its origin and German m 
its constituencv. this Church has never 



received the attention of ecclesiastical 
writers which its importance deserves, 
and we believe that a close study of its 
history, like that of others of German 
origin recently explored, will afford 
manv agreeable surprises to the investi- 

For many years but little notice was 
taken of these people by writers. They 
were supposed to be drawn from the 
lower and ignorant classes. The founders 
were supposed to be obscure men, and the 
ministers crude and ignorant. In many 
localities they were called ''Dutch Meth- 
odists'' and **' Albrights" (Albreclifs- 
Lcutc), after their founder. Rev. Jacob 
Albright. They were generally supposed 
to be antagonistic to education, and par- 
ticularly to a learned ministry. 

All this is erroneous, as may be readily 
shown. Ta her ministerial ranks are 
many men noted for their eloquence and 
pulpit accomplishments, and others en- 
joy a national reputation for learning, 
and bear titles derived from the fore- 
most institutions of the world. 

Their Origin 

The denomination arose in the general 
evangelistic movement which stirred the 
old German churches of Pennsylvania 
(especially the Reformed), at the close 
of the Revolutionary War. Among the 
leaders of this movement were Ofterbciii, 
of the Reformed, and Boelun, of the 
Mennonite Church, who, with their fol- 
lowers, in 1789 formed the ''United 
Brethren in Christ." Other German "con- 
verts," as Elenry Boehm, Jacob Gruber 
and Peter Beaver (grandfather of Gen. 
James A. Beaver), identified themselves 
with Bishop Asbury, and were the van- 
guard of German ^lethodism in America. 

This movement was wholly among the 
Pennsylvania-Germans, and had little or 
-no connection with the labors of the 
Methodist pioneers. 

iHiring this general evangelistic move- 
ment Jacob Albright, of Lancaster coun- 
ty, was spiritually enlightened through 
the preaching of' an evangelistic Re« 
I'Tined minister, named Anthony lloutz, 
in i7(jo. After a brief connection with 
a Methodist society. Albright, in i/C^^ 
started out as an independent evangelist. 

He soon attached other workers to 
himself, so that in 1807 he organized 
them into an annual conference. Al- 
bright died in 1809, but his work went 
on, until it has spread over the continent. 
and established itself in Germany, Switz- 
erland, China and Japan. For many years 
the movement was exclusively German, 
and is still so in many sections of the 
Evangelical Association. In Pennsylva- 
nia, its stronghold, the transition into 
the English language is now almost com- 

Educational Literature 
In 1 81 5 the infant denomination al- 
ready erected a printing-establishment 
which issued, besides doctrinal books, a 
vast number of educational books, which 
were scattered into the interior and the 
distant West. Several ministers of con- 
siderable literary attainment appeared at 
an early day. Among this number was 
John Conrad Reisner, who in 1835, '^^^- 
directed by the General Conference, the 
highest legislative body of the Church., 
to prepare a scJwolbook. This work, a 
i2mo of 150 pages, made its appearance 
in 1838. rapidly passed through many 
editions, and for several decades was 
a standard work in German schools. 
Closely following Reisner's ''Schitlt- 
Bnch," came a Gennan grammar, or 
''Sprach-Lchrc," by Rev. J. \'ogelbach, 
also by authorization of the Church. On 
the whole, many educational books were 
published for general distribution, all of 
which unmistakably shows an enlight- 
ened and progressive spirit. 

The Voice of the Fathers 
Because of the prevalent opinion that 
the Evangelicals opposed education, the 
General Conference oi 1843. which met 
at Greensburg. Ohio, expressed itself in 
a remarkable manner on the subject.* 

We were told by several delegates who 
were present at the Conference, that 
these public utterances in favor of educa- 
tion were prompted by the venerable 
Rev. John Dreisbach, the last surviving 
colleague of Jacob .\lbright. the founder. 
Dreisbach had himself in early life 
(1815-18J5) been the leader of tlie 

• Soc "F.vap.gclical -\nnals.*' by the present writer, 
p. 193. 



The interest in the cause of education 
was conspicuously shown by Father 
Dreisbach, when in 1845, he pubHshed 
an address intended for the ministry, en- 
titled ''Ministers and Teachers Should 
Not be Ignorant."! 

At the General Conference of 1847 
Father Dreisbach was again present, and 
introduced the first resolution looking to 
the founding of an institution of learn- 
ing in the denomination of which he was 
one of the pioneers. No immediate re- 
sults followed this action, but the agita- 
tion ripened into a rich fruitage in later 

The Period of Founding 

At the opening of the quadrennium of 
185 1, an educational spirit seized the 
Church with such a furor as we have 
never seen manifested in the old-line de- 
nominations. With a membership of only 
21,000, three institutions of learning were 
projected at one time. 

The General Conference at this junc- 
ture made the serious mistake of not con- 
trolling and guiding the movement. Dis- 
astrous consequences followed this lack 
of centralized effort, as we shall see. 

t See the Christliche Botschafter, 1845, P. 118. 

At the session of the West Pennsylva- 
nia, (now Central) Conference in 1854, 
active steps were taken to establish an 
institution to be called Union Semi- 
nary, at New Berlin, in Union county. 
A financial agent was put in the field who 
solicited funds on the ''scholarship 
plan," a scheme which has almost invari- 
ably wrecked every institution that ever 
tried it. Fine grounds were secured, and 
a substantial and imposing edifice, cost- 
ing $20,000, was erected thereon. 

In 1856. the Seminary opened with 
Rev. W. W. Orwig (afterwards bishop), 
as president. • 

The scholarship plan proved a failure, 
and disasters came apace. In 1863 the 
property was seized by the sheriff, but 
was rescued by a syndicate of ministers 
who bought it. It was reopened in 1865. 
and had a most useful career until 1902. 
when it was consolidated with Albright 
College, at Myerstown. as we shall pres- 
ently see. In 1887. it obtained a collegi- 
ate charter as "Central Ptrnnsylvania 
College." Its presidents, besides Bishop 
Orwig. were Prof. H. Hendricks, A.M., 
D.D. ; Prof. A. S. Sassaman. who later 
was judge of the Berks county courts ; 





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Prof. J. H. Ceas, A.M.; Prof. F. C 
Hoffman, A.M. ; Prof. D. Denlinger, 
A.M.; Prof. F. C. Baker, A.M., D.D. ; 
Prof. A. E. C7obble, A.M., D.D. The lat- 
ter took charge in 1880, and went with 
his institution into Albright College in 

The Pittsburg Conference in 1852 
founded Albright Seminary, at Berlin 
Somerset county. It promised well, but 
failed in its finances. The two adjoining 
conferences being engaged in similar en- 
terprises, it was deemed best to accept an 
invitation given by the Ohio Conference, 
in 1856, to unite its educational interests 
with that conference, and Albright 
Seminary was consolidated with the 
Greensburg Seminary of the Ohio Con- 

This latter seminary was founded by 
the Ohio Conference in 1S55. on the 
same erroneous plan as the eastern 
schools, with like results. They were all 
pretty well patronized, but had no money 
behind them. Good old Bishop Long 
saved Greensburg Seminary repeatedly 
from the hands of the sheriff, and finally 
had to take title to the property, as his 
loans covered its value. The bishop 
bravely bore the burden until 1862, when 
he closed the school and sold the prop- 
erty. Prof. W. J. Hahn, a noble man, 
who for some time had been its head, re- 
moved to Iowa, where he interested the 
Iowa Conference in educational matters. 
This eventuated in the establishment of 
Blairstown Seminary in 1S67, which 
after a brief career also succumbed for 
want of financial support. We have giv- 
en the story of these defunct institutions 
to ' show the educational spirit of the 
Church. Her sad experience in establish- 
ing schools on the "scholarship plan" 
taught her wisdom, and caused her to 
build on better foundations thereafter. 

The Permanent Institutions 

In 1 861 the Illinois and Wisconsin 
Conferences united in establishing 
Blainfield College, at Plainfield. Illi- 
nois. Prof. A. A. Smith. A.M., LL.D.. 
formerly at the head of Greensburg 
Seminary, took charge of the new in- 

stitution, and remaining its efficient head 
a quarter of a century, lived to see it 
grow into one of the finest institutions in 
the West. 

In 1870 the college was removed to 
Xaperville, near Chicago. Its charter was 
enlarged, and its title changed to North- 
western College. 

In 1875 L'nion Biblical Institute, a 
theological school, was connected with 
the college. Both institutions are heavily 
endowed, and all the western confer- 
ences of the Evangelical Association aid 
in its support. 

The East Pennsylvania Conference in 
1881 established Schuylkill Seminary, 
at Reading, Pennsylvania. In 1882, Col. 
J. H. Lick, a munificent citizen of Leba- 
non, donated eight acres as a site and 
$24,000 in money, on condition that the 
institution be removed to Fredericks- 
burg, in Lebanon county. The proposi- 
tion was accepted, and a large additional 
sum was raised by the conference. The 
buildings were erected, and the school 
was removed thither in 1S86. It had a 
most prosperous career until the sad di- 
vision of the Church in 1894. As already 
noted, the vast majority of the members 
of the Evangelical Association in Penn- 
sylvania became constituent members of 
the L'nited Evangelical Church. 

The title being vested in the Associa- 
tion, almost the entire faculty and stu- 
dent body, holding to the newly formed 
denomination, withdrew from the semi- 
nary, which caused its ruin. After brave- 
ly " but vainly trying to maintam the 
school, the Evangelical Association wise- 
ly concluded to relocate in Reading. A 
suitable property was purchased, and the 
school reopened under favorable 
auspices, and is now growing in both 
patronage and favor under the efficient 
presidency oi Prof. W. V. Teel, Ph.M. 

In addition the Xorthwestern College 
at Xaperville. 111., and Schuylkill Semi- 
nary at Reading, in the East, the Evan- 
gelical Association has a flourishing 
seminary in the city oi Reutlingen. Ger- 
manv, which was founded by the Gener- 
al Conference in 1S75, ^"<^^ ^ training 
school in Tokio, Japan. 




^ \ 


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Education in the United Evangelical Church 

The United Evangelical Church was 
formed in 1894 by dissentient members 
•of the Association, who constituted fully 
one-third of the original body. Educa- 
tion became one of the first concerns of 
the , newly formed body. Immediately 
•after the division, the East Pennsylvania 
Conference leased the property of the de- 
funct Palatinate College at Myers- 
town, near Lebanon, and thither almost 
in a body the faculty and students of 
Schuylkill Seminary, already referred to, 
removed, and a charter was obtained 
, under the title of Albright Collegiate 
Institute. In 1896 the property was pur- 
chased, and additional grounds and 
buildings were added, making it a most 
desirable educational plant. In 1895 ^^e 
charter was greatly enlarged and the title 
changed to Albright College. 

Upon the division of the Church Cen- 
-tral Pennsylvania College, already de- 
scribed, remained wholly under the con- 
trol of the new organization. The three 
Pennsylvania conferences, namely, the 
East Pennsylvania, Central Pennsvlvania 

and Pittsburg, after many conferences 
through committees, concluded to con- 
solidate all their educational interests and 
make one strong and efficient institution 
to represent the Eastern portion of the 
Church. Accordingly in 1902 Central 
Pennsylvania College was merged into 
that at Myerstown. 

Prof. James A. Woodring. A.M., D.D.. 
is the efficient head. Among the educa- 
tional staff are Prof. C. A. Bowman. 
Ph.D., the former head of the colleere. and 
Prof. A. E. Gobble, A.M., D.D.. formerly 
of Central Pennsylvania College. The 
consolidated college has a respectable en- 
dowment. In the West the same policy 
of concentration was followed. The 
various conferences united and founded 
in 1 000. in the city of Le Mars, Iowa. 
Western Union College, with Prof. H. 
II. Thoren, Ph.D.. as its head. Soon 
after its opening the building was acci- 
dentally destroyed by fire. With true 
Teuton fortitude and determination, the 
building was replaced on a larger scale, 
and the institution is now in a prosper- 
ous condition under the able presidency 
of Prof. C. C. Polini:. Ph.D. 



On the Pacific slope the same policy 
of centralization obtains. The division 
found the dissenters in possession of La- 
fayette Seminary, at Lafayette, Oregon. 
A change of location became desirable, 
and accordingly under very advan- 
tageous conditions the institution was re- 
moved to Dallas, Oregon, and raised to a 
collegiate grade. Prof. C. A. Mock. 
}*h.D., is in charge of the institution. 
Having a much smaller constituency 
tlian the eastern colleges, it has hardly 
passed the precarious period of its exist- 
ence, and is in a measure dependent on 
the East for its financial support. 

Marching in the Van 

With the presentation of this educa- 
tional record we are quite willing to sub- 
mit to the intelligent public the question 
of the attitude of the two Evangelical 
bodies toward higher education. There 
are many eminent men — men known 
throughout the length and breadth of the 
land — who received their educational 
equipment in her institutions, who will 
stand by us if we state that the ''Evan- 
gelicals" are not plodding in the rear, 
but marching in the zaii of the educa- 
tional procession. 

Education Among the Schwenkfeldcrs 


IX studying the history of secular ed- 
ucation among the Schwenkfelders 
as a body, one finds comparatively 
little material relating to the first thirty 
years after the immigration. It seems 
that about the year 1764 there was con- 
siderable deliberation with respect to the 
<istablishment of a school system for and 
by the Schwenkfelders. The necessity 
for such schools was laid before the 
heads of families in a series of questions. 
A meeting was thereupon held on the first 
of March, 1764. and money pledged for 
the support of the schools. In June an- 
other meeting was held, when articles of 
agreement were adopted and the system 
was inaugurated. 

Establishment of a School-System 
In the deliberations of June the follow- 
ing principles were agreed to, written out 
at length and illustrated by references to 
a number of authorities: 

1. Man by nature is lost, but is intended 
l>y God to be eternally happy. 

2. It is the duty of parents to bring up 
their children in the fear oi God and in useful 

3- A system of public schools is necessary 
^'■' li.i^hten. but it can not remove, the duty of 
l»'ir^tUs in this respect. 

. 4' It is the object of schools to lead children 
>nto the wisdom of God and the possession of 
I'-ctul knowledge. 

. 5- Specifically it is their object to educate 
'f' «:o(l!iness, learning and virtue. 

''• I his principle concerning the object of 
M'hools is founded on God. 

7. The essential conditions of good schools 
are : Competent teachers, order and regula- 
tions, a true fear of God, impartation of use- 
ful knowledge, care of teachers. 

8. A teacher ought to be godly, educated 
and of good repute. 

9. A faithful teacher must seek the true wel- 
fare of his pupils. 

10. It is necessary for parents and teachers 
to agree as to methods to bring about the best 

11. The moral training of children must 
not be overlooked. 

12. Jhe reading of God's Word and the 
study of the catechism should not be omitted 
from the schools. 

13. Reading and writing the English and 
German languages, arithmetic and geography 
and other useful branches should be studied. 

14. Provision should be made for the sup- 
port of the teacher. 

At the time of the adoption of the 
aforementioned principles the contribu- 
tors also adopted "Certain Agreements 
and Fundamental Articles for the estab- 
lishment, support and continuation of a 
school-svstem in the districts oi Skip- 
pack and Goshenhoppen." These ar- 
ticles touched upon the following points: 

Whereas, the traitiing of the young can be 
accomplished in no way better than by the es- 
tablishment of schools; 

\VHEkF..\s, the Schwenkfelders have been un- 
der great inconvenience through the want of 
well-regulated schools: Therefore, contributors 
and subscribers create a loan for a period 01 
sixteen years reckoncil from May 16. 1764. 10 
be under the management of certain trustees 
in order that the interest thereof at 5 per cent. 
may be applied to tlie support of the schools 
subject to the following regulatiot^s : 



1. The work being undertaken by the 
Schwenkfelders, they are to have control of 
the schools, but the idea and iniention is that 
the school system shall be open to the children 
of the parents of any denomination. 

2. Contributors shall hold an annual meet- 
ing for the election of trustees. 

3. The trustees shall have power to manage 
the schools. 

4. The trustees shall have full power to ex- 
amine and adjust differences arising in connec- 
tion with the working of the schools. 

5. The trustees are to elect and make agree- 
ments with teachers and for just cause dismiss 
and discharge the same. 

6. The trustees are to "manage the funds. 

7. The trustees shall use or invest the funds, 
following minutely, however, the conditions of 

8. The schools shall be visited once in each 
month by at least two of the trustees. Full 
records shall be kept of all their business. 

9. Provision is made for bringing the sys- 
tem to an end, if not satisfactory. 

10. Provision for amendments. 

A loan of £840 was created by thirty 
contribtitors, which was reduced to less 
than £800 by the withdrawal of a few 
subscriptions. The first election of trus- 
tees w^as held August 10, 1764. Two 
teachers w'ere engaged for the following 
winter, one of whom received ±20 
($53.33) and board for a term of six 
months ; the other received for the same 
period iio and board, light and fuel. 
Evil Effects of Depreciated Currency 

The school fund did not escape the 
financial misfortunes of the Revolution. 
In an address issued in 1791 the trus- 
tees stated that by the interest of the 
fund of 1764 and by free contributions 
they supported a good school until the 
debtors to their funds began to pay their 
interest and at last the principal in depre- 
ciated currency. The debtors had re- 
ceived the hard-earned money of the 
Schwenkfelders and found it convenient 
and by enactment of law, legal — though 
not right — to repay the various sums in 
depreciated paper currency. This depre- 
ciation of the fund was an unfortunate. 
though perhaps unavoidable accompani- 
ment of the struggle for independence. 
Through this shrinkage the capital stock 
of iSoo contracted to less than ±100 in 
1793. which was otTeretl to the original 
subscribers or their heirs. Of this sum 
less than £\2 was accepted, the rest being 
donated to the fund. 

In 1780 the period for which the fund 
was originally collected expired. A gen- 
eral meeting of the supporters of the 
schools was held, at which it was agreed 
for the next three years to leave intact 
the capital, which through the accruing 
interest was insufficient to meet the cur- 
rent expenses and which at the time was 
not readily convertible into specie. They 
divided themselves into four classes to be 
taxed pro rata under given conditions 10 
meet the running expenses. An inspect- 
or was also elected to supervise the 
schools, and it was agreed that no child 
should be allowed to attend school that 
did not know the alphabet. This plan of 
dividing the supporters into classes and 
of thus' paying the teachers, etc., was 
continued until 1823, when the original 
plan of the schools was superseded by 
other methods. The fund, amounting to 
about £146. became the nucleus of the 
literary fund of the Schwenkfelder 
Hosensack Academy — Friends of Public School 

This school system reached its highest 
efficienc" during 1790- 1792 under the 
instruction of George Carl Stock, who af- 
terwards became a Lutheran minister. In 
August. 1790, an agreement was entered 
into by the trustees with (he said Stock, 
of Haile, as teacher in Goshenhoppen for 
one year at £5 ($13.33) per month with 
free dwelling and fire-wood. He agreed 
to teach English, German. Latin. Greek, 
etc. He opened the school which he was 
wont to call "Our Academy." September 
I, 1790, where the Schwenkfelder meet- 
ing-house in Hosensack stands. Tlie 
school was continued without intermis- 
sion seemingly for the year, when the con- 
tract was renewed for another year, but 
for some unexplained reason the school 
was closed at the end of April. 1792. 

The following words are quoted front 
a circular letter dated. "Philadelphia 
County. March. 1 701." and will furni<h 
some interesting data : 

The trustees have lately and at their own 
expense erected a new schoolhouse and dwcll- 
inii house for its master and cnijagod a man 
of ROv-^d learning and fair character to be thv» 
master of that schix^I. in which children of 
parents oi any religious denonimaiion. Kngli-h 
or German, rich or poor, may be taught rcaJ- 





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ing, writing, cyphering, and some or other 
young men of genius instructed in mathematics 
and the learned languages and trained up to 
become ushers or assistants to this or any 
other school. Catechisriis and other doctrinal 
books of any religious school shall not be in- 
troduced into this school. Parents may form 
the minds of their children in their own way 
or may commit them to the clergy of the 
church or the meeting to which they belong. 
The master of the school shall nevertheless use 
his utmost endeavors to impress on their ten- 
der minds the fear of God, the love of their 
country and of all mankind. This well-meant 
school is undertaken by a few persons of but 
moderate estates, on whom the expense of sup- 
porting and improving it will fall very heav- 
ily. The trustees flatter themselves with the 
hope that it will meet with some encourage- 
ment from the benevolent who have the good 
of the growing youth of this country at heart. 
by contributing their mite towards this purpose. 

W'licn the school system of their own 
was abandoned by the Schwenkfelders, 
they joined in with their neie::hbors in 
conducting subscription schools. Upon 
the adoption of the public school system 
some of them feared the abridi^ment of 
per.sonal liberty and the secularization of 
the schools, but they became its friends 
«^nd have continued its friends ever since. 
Their whole life shows that as a body 
they were warm friends of education at 
•'ill times. Isaac Schultz doubtless i^ave a 
'^ur i)resentation of them when he wrote 

in 1844: "They pay great attention to ed- 
ucation, to the religious and moral train- 
ing of their children. Many of them pos- 
sess a respectable knowledge oi the learn- 
ed languages, Latin, etc. There is scarcely 
a famil}' among them that does not pos- 
sess a well selected and neatly arranged 
library, among which you will find man- 
uscript copies from their learned fa- 

Perkiomen Seminary — A Quotation 
A revival of interest in education by 
tlie Schwenkfelders as a body has mani- 
fested itself in recent \ears. Accordingly 
their General Conference in October, 
1891, appointed a committee of seven 
members to take into consideration the 
advisability of establishing a school for 
advanced or secondary education. The 
outcome was that "Perkiomen Seminary** 
was organized and put into active opera- 
tion at Pennsburg. Pa., in the fall of 
1802 under the principalship of Reverend 
O. S. Krlebel. -\.M. This school has 
taken a place in the front rank -of private 
seconilary schools of the State. 

It will not be amiss to quote the words 
oi the Hon. C. Heydrick. of Franklin. 
Pa., penned in 1S84 in connection with 
the i^oth anniversary of the landing oi 



the ScIuvenkTelders. Speaking of secu- 
lar education among the Schwenkfelders 
he says: 

The earliest school record bears date June 
13, 1764. It is a remarkable document. With 
singular clearness, brevity and comprehensive- 
ness of expression it establishes a school sys- 
tem vvliich it would be diihcult if not impos- 
sible to improve under circumstances such as 
surrounded its authors. It contains nothing 
that ought to be omitted; it omits nothing that 
ought to be contained in such a document. In 
fundamentals it is rigid and fundamentally it 
seems right after one hundred and .twenty 
years; in matter of detail it is suffidently flex- 
ible to admit of growth and improvement and 
devolve a proper and healthy responsibility 
upon the administrative officers of the system. 
The scope, design and origin of the system 
cannot be better stated than it is stated in a 

few well-chosen words by its author 

* Schools were maintained under this system 
until it was superseded by the common school 
system of the Commonwealth. The curriculum 

embraced the Latin and Greek languages and 
the higher mathematics. If the trustees ob- 
served th- injunction of the fifth fundamontul 
article it embraced, in the silent teaching of 
the example of those set over the youth, some- 
thing better and nobler than all else and evi- 
dence is not lacking that the trustees were 
observant of their duty in this regard as in 

It is commonly supposed that great progress 
has been made within a century in everything 
that tends to elevate the human race or con- 
tribute to the happiness and prosperity of the 
individual and that this progress is nowhere 
more marked than in the adoption of the pul>- system of this Commonwealth. But 
'.while it admits not of a doubt the adoption 
of tlvit system was and is an incalculable bless- 
ing to the Commonwealth as a whole, whoever 
sha^n carefully read the Fundamental Articles 
byi which the Schwenkfelders' school-system 
w'Hs established and the minutes of the trustees 
and of the yearly conferences will hesitate to 
say that the Schwenkfelders were benefited 
by the change. 

Early Schools of the German Reformed Church 



HE early schools of the German 
Reformed Church were the paro 

.chial schools of the congrega- 
tions. These schools varied very much 
in efficiency, depending on the ability 
and character of the schoolmaster. Rev. 
^lichael Schlatter, the organizer of the 
Reformed Coetus, speaks very highly of 
the early schoolmaster at Frederick, Md., 
named Schley, who was the ancestor of 
Admiral Schley. But often reports came 
to the Coetus of the Reformed Church of 
the inefficiency of the schoolmasters or 
of the parochial schools. Still, consider- 
ing the poverty of the early settlers and 
the educational difficulties they had to 
encounter, those early parochial schools 
were an important factor in the educa- 
tional history of Pennsylvania. To show 
the character of the training given in 
these schools, we give the account of the 
closing exercises of the parochial school 
o*f the Reformed Church at Philadelphia 
on ^[ay 16, 1796, as given in a small 
published pamphlet. 

The exercises were begun with a hvmn and 
prayer by the pastor (Rev. \V. Hende'l. D.D.). 
Henry Schrcincr delivered an address on "The 
Necessity. Importance and Ex^nrllcnce of a 
Good Education," so as to fashion men that 
they might become pious members of the 

Christian Church and useful citizens in public 
affairs. The first grade of beys and girls read 
in the Bible, the second grade of boys and girls 
read in the Testament, the third grade read 
and spelled in the Psalms, the fourth grade 
spelled in the primer. 

The answers on Christian doctrine in the 
(Heidelberg) catechism were recited by both 
die first grades of boys and girls. Then Bible 
history was gone over by the first grade. The 
second grade were examined in Lampe's ^^ik 
of Truth (a primary catechism based on the 
Heidelberg catechism"). Then came the sing- 
ing of the 6th and 7th verses oi the h\mn, "O 
Jesus. Sweet Light." 

John Wlnkhaus in an address showed the 
main points belonging to a good education. 
namely the knowledge of God according to His 
power. His wisdom and goodness in the works 
of nature, and then the knowledge of our re- 
demption from the Bible, with which was 
joined the love and fear of God and a pious 
life. John Halm and Gottfried Baumgardl 
a dialogue about the dirlerence between the 
German and the English languages.! 
Miiller and George Beyer spoke on the pion> 
life of Joseph, and showed how good and u.-c- 
ful it would be. if men from youth feared C<^^\. 
avoided wicked companions and lived accord- 
ing to God's laws. William Reidie showed. 
in verses, the beauty of spring. — in which all 
creatures awake to love to God the Creator. 
and to thank>giving for his benefits. George 
Nickels and George Schwart-- spoke oi the cvd 
custom of young persons on festival days. J«>hM 
Karth and Robert Ebling spoke oi the nvce>-it> 
of learning what was good, when one betake^ 
himself with profit to travel in order to sec 



»tr:mgv' lands and cities. Anthony Ecke and 
|(,hn Kurtz discussed the subject, that honesty 
demanded thnt thing? which a man finds should 
he given back to tile owner; just as what is 
v:iven as a gift should be given back when one 
tinds that the giver has not gained it in an 
]i(.ne>t way. Bernhard tiendel then declared, 
in the name of the assembled pupils, and es- 
pecially to the honorable consistory, their 
muled thanks for their care for the school and 
tlieir presence at the examination. He com- 
mended the whole school to their further love 
and support. An exhortation by the pastor to 
the scholars, together with singing and prayer, 
closed the services. 

Tills program of the examination re- 
veals the prominence of religious studies 
in the parochial schools of that time. 
llie variety of the program also reveals 
the varied forms of teaching given in 
the school. The rules of this school as 
drawn up in 1760 were excellent, re- 
quiring that the school-teacher must be 
(lualified in reading, writing, arithmetic 
and singing, must be a pious man and 
set a good example to the children. Fie 
was to teach six hours a day, open the 
school with prayer, instruct them in 
ringing, and teach them to learn the cat- 
echism. For this each child was to pay 
five shillings a quarter and he w'as to re- 
ceive a salary of eight pounds. 

•Vnother form of education among the 
early German Reformed was ministerial 
education. As there were no theological 
•^eniinaries in those days, different minis- 
icrs would receive students into their 
families and educate them for the minis- 
'.ry. Rev. Air. Stoy, pastor at Philadel- 
phia, was the first to do this, in 1756. 
t 'ihcrs followed, of whom the most 
prominent was Rev. William ITendel. 
I).I>.. the most influential and spiritual 
"I the Reformed ministry. Fie prepared 
«-i.i;lit young men for the ministry. Later, 
li'Avever. there were three ministers es- 
I'vcially who did this work and formed 
v<hat may be called private theological 

The first of these was Rev. Christian 
J-- P.ecker, of Baltimore. He was a 
•■•'irned scholar and very eloquent 
} 'Teacher. He was always on the look- 
' ni for young men for the ministry. 
^ hus he, while on a visit to Carlisle, 

found a poor young man, desirous of 
stuflying for the ministry. He at once 
arranged for him to come to Baltimore 
and prosecute his studies. He after- 
wards became a useful minister, his name 
being Philip Mayer. Dr. Becker educat- 
ed about seventeen for the ministry 
either in full or in part from 1800 to 

The next school of the prophets was 
under Rev. Frederic L. Herman. Like 
Becker he was an able scholar, though 
not so well known for pulpit work. He 
organized his so-called "Swamp College" 
at Falkner Swamp, near Pottstown. He 
educated in all also seventeen from 1700 
to 1830. He taught them not only the- 
ology, but also ancient languages and 
kindred sciences. Fie trained them to 
speak in Latin and to write it. On Sun- 
days he would send out his students to 
exercise their abilities by filling his ap- 
pointments to preach. 

The third private theological school 
u-as at Philadelphia under Rev. Samuel 
llelftenstein, D.D. He began later than 
the others, in 1810, and educated in all 
about tv.-cnty-seven. Rev. D. \'an Home, 
D.I)., in his "Flistory of the Reformed 
Church of Philadelphia." says: "The 
students were accustomed to sit under 
the chancel during the church service 
and in many cases were received into the 
pastor's home as regular members oi the 
family." He used the dogmatics of 
Lampe. but afterwards published his own 
work on dogmatics. Helfrich, one oi 
the students, says: "The students were 
practiced in the classic languages. He- 
brew was Dr. Helttenstein's favorite lan- 
guage. Each Sunday we had to take 
turns in delivering addresses at the alms- 
house and at the hospital of the city." 
The Germania, a German society of Phil- 
adelphia, was utilized by them for the 
cultivation of public address and the 
students often acted as its officers. Other 
exercises of oratory were held in the 
church. F:ach student had to preach a 
sermon before the students and invited 
guests, which was criticised by Dr. Helf* 




Reverend Samuel K. Brobst 

Sunday-School Founder, Minister and Editor 

(Sec Frontispiece, Portrait and Autograph) 

IN our clay tlie Sunday-school is so 
constant and well established an 
auxiliary of the Church that it is 
difficult to see how the latter could ever 
get along without it. The association 
seems so natural and necessary that one 
unacquainted with historical facts would 
readily believe it had always existed. Yet 
with the exception of the Schwenkfeld- 
trs, who maintained Sunday-schools since 
their coming over in 1734, this institution 
'in eastern Pennsylvania does not appar- 
ently date back much further than three- 
score years. 

The subject of the present sketch was 
a pioneer along this line of church-work. 
He was first and pre-eminently a relig- 
ious teacher of the young, a founder of 
Sunday-schools. He was also a regular- 
ly constituted minister of the Word. 
Physical weakness, however, prevented 
him 4o a large extent from preaching, 
and so he used his talents and strength 
to serve his Church in another direction. 
He became an editor and publisher of re- 
ligious periodicals, primarily for the 
young and also for the old. In his three- 
fold capacity as Sunday-school founder, 
minister and editor he achieved much 
lasting good, for which he should ever 
be gratefully and honorably remembered 
as a faithful laborer in his Master's vine- 

The material for the following sketch 
of his life, character and work has been 
gathered from the Luthcrischc Kalcndcr 
and the Jugcndfrcund, publications 
. founded by him and continued until the 
present day. 

His Ancestry, Parentage and Education 

Reverend Samuel Kistler Brobst was 
descended from one of the oldest Penn- 
sylvania-German families of this coun- 
try, his ancestors having come across 
the sea at the close of the seventeenth 
or the beginning of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Often when his opponents tried to 

treat him, the unwearied champion of the 
German language and German customs. 
as an alien, he reminded them with the 
best of humor that he actually was the 
oldest and most primitive American of 
them all and that, if a man's nationalitv 
was just cause for glorying, he had am- 
ple reasons to be proud, being an Ameri- 
can of the sixth generation. 

His parents were Jacob F. Brobst and 
his wife Lydia, ncc Kistler. Xovember 
16, 1822, he was lx)rn in the house of iiis 
grandfather. Philip Jacob Kistler. in 
Kistlcr's \'alley. Lehigh county. Pa. Five 
weeks later he was baptized in the Xew 
Jerusalem church by Reverend Fatlicr 
Knosky. His first instruction was given 
him in a parochial school, such as were 
still found at that time among the ru- 
ral congregations of Pennsylvania. In 
his fourteenth year he lost his father, of 
whom he says that he loved the Word of 
God, attended church regularly and 
prayed in his closet often and earnestly. 
His mother, to whom he always clung 
with fervent love and filial devotion, had 
to see him laid in his grave when she was 
seventy-six years of age. 

In 1837 he was confirmed, after th'"^ro 
and successful instruction in the 
an catechism. Scripture-texts and hymns. 
by Reverend Isaac Roller. Then he 
moved to \\'ashington. in western Penn- 
sylvania, to learn the trade of a coppcr- 
and-tin smith with a kinsman. In this 
lonesomeness at Canonsburg, where as a 
boy of fifteen he had to manage a branch 
of the business, he suffered from home- 
sickness. There also he had nianv very 
blessetl impressions and suggestions. 
partly thro' the sermons and pastoral 
visits of Reverend Dr. P.rown. who then 
presided over Jefferson College and iix^k 
a hearty interest in the lonely youth : 
partlv by atteniling the Sunday-sciuxM 
and liible-class at that place. There the 
thought of preaching the gospel among 
the heathen first awoke in him. He was 



then moving in Presbyterian circles, 
whose influence in rousing and sustain- 
iuL^ in his soul a zeal for studying the 
Scriptures he thankfully remembered all 
his afterlife."^ 

Meanwhile he did not get along very 
well in his trade, tho he applied himself 
<liligently and faithfully in trying to 
master it. His head was filled with 
thoughts of books and his heart with 
wishes and yearnings for the time when 
he might devote himself wholly to study. 
Jn the winter of 1840 he became serious- 
ly illand the following spring he was al- 
lowed to go home. On the way he had 
to lie over a whole day in Chambersburg. 
Going thro' the streets there, his eye 
caught a signboard with the words 
Cliristliche Zcitschrifl. It was the print- 
ing office of the Reformed Church. He 
entered quickly and was given a few 
numbers of the paper, which he read with 
liveliest interest on his way home. That 
was the first German religious paper he 
ever got to read ; a seed of grain that fell 
on fertile soil within him and out of 
which afterwards grew the Jugend- 
frcioid, the Kalcndcr, the Luthcrische 
Ziitschrift and all the other enterprises 
by means of which he served his Church 
so faithfully and unweariedly. 

During the summer of 1841 he was in 
the care of a physician. In the fall he 
entered the Allentown Academy, at the 
same time taking private lessons to per- 
fect his knowledge of German. The fol- 
lowing winter he worked near his paren- 
tal home in Kistler's Valley as school- 
teacher and founded Sunday-schools, an 
institution then unknown in a wide re- 
gion. For the parents and grown-up 
brothers and sisters of his pupils he con- 
ducted a Bible-class on Sundav evenings, 

;• Dr. G. n. Gerbtrding in his Life and Letters of 
^V- A. I'assavuut, D.D., tells us that tbe latter, when 
>* a. younp man he was oanvassitiL.' for s»iiie olniroh 
I'^l'tT ill Canonshurjj, "found two y<>un^' German Jour- 
li'-vtiien. one a tinker, the other a tailor. Flndiii:.' hoth 
*'f them Intelligent abi>ve their ooni|>aiilons. stnoerely 
Jitotis and ardent members of the Lutheran Churrh. he 
liiter.-sted himself in their welfare. Hoth'' were pc^r 
*'''d hiiiiijry for knowledge. Youn;; Tassavant directed attention to the spiritunl destitution of the Ger- 
'■i^n LuUifTans throughout the latul. He awakened in 
'Ji«'in a desire to pieiiare for the ministry and aided 
''•••»i In lueparln^ for the holy service. One of these 
^^'* S. K. liiobst, the other M. Sehweicert. 1; 
■ fti-rwards he<'ame eiulueutly useful Qilulsters of the 
Liaheran Church," 

to increase their knowledge of the sacred 

It was decided now that he would 
study theology; but where? He would 
not venture to Columbus. Ohio, because 
the climate there was said to be unwhole- 
some. He would not go to Gettysburg, 
because of the ''new measures" prevail- 
ing there. So he tried, as well as he 
could, to gather the necessary knowledge 
from individual pastors and teachers, in 
different institutions, some of which were 
not Lutheran, and by diligent private 
study. He attended the Kutztown Acad- 
emy, Marshall College at Mercers- 
burg, to which he was specially drawn by 
Dr. Schaff and Dr. Xevin. and Washing- 
ton College, a Presbyterian school at 
Washington, Pa, At this place he 
preached regularly to the small German 
congregation, which wanted to give him 
a formal pastoral call. In college he 
taught a number of young men German 
so successfully that the trustees invited 
him to continue in the institution as 
teacher of German. One of his pupils 
there was James Garfield, afterwards 
President of the United States. 

Offer Refused— Only Pastoral Charge 

After having been so cordially received 
as preacher and teacher in western 
Pensylvania he had to undergo a differ- 
ent experience in the eastern part of the 
State. In the summer of 1S45 ^^^ ^^'^s 
appointed, upon the recommendation oi 
Dr. Xevin, as agent of the American 
Sunday-school Union, to establish Ger- 
man Sunday-schools in eastern Pennsyl- 
vania. Here he encountered much un- 
expected opposition and difficulty ; he 
had a hard struggle and much sorrow, 
"because the people wholly failed to un- 
derstand his intentions." A splendid of- 
fer of the Sunday-school Union, to en- 
ter their service permanently as German 

1 Pr. W. A. HeltTrioh s^ys In his aut«>blocr»phy: 
"The Sunday-schivd was Brobst"* hobby. a» wts erery 
thinir that related to the ymilh. . . . But th* "itixhI 
cause.' as Broi>st called it. Cv^uld n.»t be lntroduo*J 
so readily everywhere; it had to win Its way thnMich 
much adversity. Br<>l<«t felt himself siM^^^iallr calletl 
to oh.impion the ean>e of the Suiid4y-s*h«*>l. lie even 
wrote some small traets. that were very po.>«l and prac- 
tical. In many places iH»ople were afraid of tnD<«TM- 
lions and at rtr>t srn>ncly op|Mw,.,j the Sunday -^'h-^^. 
But all opp<viition was s.*"^!! ovenn»n»e. . . . Br»b<f 
started Sunday scho^ds In the entire TJclnUj. wherrTer 
he could And a fi»othold.** 



secretary and editor, was refused because 
he wanted to remain with his dear Luth- 
eran Church. 

In May, 1847, at the centennial anni- 
versary of the ^linisterium of Pennsyl- 
vania in Zion's church in Philadelphia, 
Samuel K. Brobst reported as a candi- 
date for the ministry and was duly ex- 
amined and licensed. His formal ordin- 
ation followed three years later in Potts- 
ville, where Dr. Krotel and others were 
ordained with him. One long desired 
goal was now attained, but for a number 
of years he remained without a regular 
charge. His pulmonary trouble, which 
kept him under medical treatment con- 
tinually, would not allow him to take one. 
It is wonderful that only in the last nine 
years of his life he felt strong enough, 
in addition to his many other employ- 
ments, to minister to St. Peter's congre- 
gation in Allentown. This poor flock, 
consisting mostly of German immigrants, 
he served with all faithfulness and self- 
denial ; to it he devoted the rest of his 
strength. In preaching, in teaching the 
young, in the care of souls, in mission- 
ary labors among those who had to be 
won over, he toiled unremittingly and 
with much blessing. At the time of his 
death this congregation, which was load- 
ed with debt when he took it in charge, 
built beside its church a schoolhouse 
larger than the church — as it were a 
monument to its departed first pastor and 
his motto: ''From family to school, 
from school to church, from church to 

Editorial Qualifications and Labors 

It was certainly not only the frailty of 
his body that induced Reverend Brobst 
to serve his Church and his people by 
publishing Christian periodicals. It was 
an impulse from within, a calling that 
would at all events have made a pathway 
for itself. Judged by human standards, 
he lacked much that we usually look for 
in a magazine-editor. He had not had 
a very comprehensive or thoro literary 
education. Writing was not easy for 
him : his style was heavy and awkward. 
Plis judgment of men and writings often 
was uncertain and wavering. But he 
was a man of the people who had served 

from the lowest rank up. who with be- 
lieving trust in God's help had Won his 
way. He knew exactly the condition cA 
his people in their families, schools and 
churches; he knew their strength and 
their weakness. What he wrote was al- 
ways so simple, honest, unadorned and 
straightforward that the common man 
could grasp and keep every word of it. 
To this he joined an inexhaustible pa- 
tience and perseverance, a tenacity cA 
purpose that would return to the frav 
again and again, even if repulsed wiih 
clubs. His sensitiveness was deeply hurt 
bv these rude attacks from right and 
left, yet he never gave vent to his feel- 
ino-s in wliat he published. Tho he erred 
occasionally in choosing his a«?istant>. 
he also had a peculiar faculty of keeping 
his hold upon a tried helper, so that he 
would hitch him, willing or unwilling. 
again and again to his editorial cart and 
make him use the talents for the good of 
the Church. 

June 16, 1847, he issued the first num- 
ber of the Jugtvuifreitud, a monthly pe- 
riodical for Sunday-school pupils, whose 
purpose, as stated in his introductory, 
was the preservation and extension oi 
the German language, as also the instruc- 
tion and Christian training of youth. In 
the same introductory he expressed the 
confident expectation that "God. who 
had always blessed the efforts made on 
behalf of the growing generation, would 
bless this work also." This hope wa? not 
disappointed, for tho' the Jngcudfrcimd 
has long ceased to be the only German 
young- folks' paper in the country and is 
a sexagenarian now. it still makes its 
monthly visits to a wide circle of appre- 
ciative readers. At the time of its found- 
ing there were in America 53S Lutiieran 
pastors serving 1307 congregations w:!li 
135,630 communicants. Xow the Lu- 
ihtyisc/ic KaU-udcr enrolls the names of 
7864 pastors, serving 11.954 congrega- 
tions with 1.040.2S8 communicant-. 
Moreover there are now 4701 pari>>.- 
schools. in which 242.160 children arc 
taught by 38(^3 teachers, and 6640 Sun- 
day-schools, attended by 679402 pupil? 
with 6<).^y^ teachers and officers. This 
growth oi parish and Sunday-schools '•> 



the harvest in the sowing of which Rev- 
erend Brobst labored so dihgently all his 

The Jiigcndfreiind was followed in 
1853 by the LuthcriscJie Kalender, which 
has been published annually ever since 
and has been accompanied since 1865 by 
an English counterpart. To these was 
added in 1858 the Lutherische Zcit- 
schrift, published semi-monthly at first 
and monthly after 1866. This has since 
been combined with the Lutherischer 
Herold and is now published in New 

A fourth publication of Reverend 
Hrobst's were the Thcologischen Monafs- 
hcfte, begun in 1868. These made the 
most enemies for their publisher, espe- 
cially among those whose warmest friend 
he was; they also brought him pecuniary 
loss. But just here he has shown most 
plainly that he knew the needs of his 
Church. In the midst of warring opin- 
ions he was striving hard and honestly 
for an agreement, not at the expense of 
truth, but upon the foundation of victo- 
rious, convincing truth. 

Reverend Brobst's activity as publish- 
er of church-periodicals and Sunday- 
school books continued almost thirty 
years. A fair, impartial review of the 
several series of these periodicals will 
rev-'eal a continuous development, the re- 
sult of a sort of inward necessity. The 
man was growing into the measure of 
his office. The further he penetrated into 
the depths of truth, the more his horizon 
widened, the more clearly he perceived 
the relations of things, the more fully his 
practical eye saw what was needed. And 
when he had seen this he went ahead 
boldly to supply the want, little caring 
for the success or failure of his business. 

The Secret of His Power— Educational Zeal 

It was quite natural that the man who 
as editor w^as thus feeling, as it were, the 
pulse of the Church's life from week to 
week, should occupy an important place 
ni ecclesiastical meetings, conferences 
and synods. He sought no distinction 
there, but ever remained one of the most 
modest and humble members. Tho a 
;>'eiuiine American, he was no parliamen- 
tarian ; many excelled him in eloquence, 

in ingenuity, in theological knowledge. 
But when he spoke he did so with an 
earnestness, a warmth, a power of in- 
ward conviction, that could not fail to 
make a strong impression. It 'was felt 
that this man was working and striving 
for a sacred cause. Tho shy by nature 
and a Christian lowly in heart, he 
fearless even in the presence of the great- 
est, and the weakly little man, looked at 
askance by many, remained fresh and 
brave both in attack and defense, exem- 
plifying the good German motto: "Bange 
machcn gilt niclif:"'^' So in ecclesiastical 
gatherings and private conferences, to 
which he assembled his brethren, he not 
only suggested salutary ideas and enter- 
prises, but also with unwearied persever- 
ance accomplished much that the major- 
ity at first considered impossible and un- 
necessary. Think of the founding of 
the Emigrant Mission in Xew York, the 
Theological Seminary in Philadelphia 
and Muhlenberg College at Allentown — 
institutions whose history will ever be 
connected with the name of Samuel K. 

Dearest of all to his heart was the 
cause of education. He never tired of 
seeking information on schools of all 
kinds, and he was equally indefatigable 
in laying to the heart of others the su- 
preme importance of the education of 
youth, thus putting in practice the saying 
of Luther which he had printed in bold 
type in the first issue of the Jugcnd- 
frciiud: "'Whoever wants to inflict a real- 
ly severe injury upon the Devil in his 
kingdom, let him take hold oi young 
folks and children and try to lay within 
them a foundation that will abide for- 

As time advanced. Reverend Brobst 
became more and more zealous in oppos- 
ing by speech and writing all fanaticism 
in doctrine and practice. He was equal- 
Iv anxious to prevent the young from 
forsaking the sound, simple faith of the 
catechism and to rouse and promote a 
hearty love for the beautiful time-hon- 
ored services of his Church. Many an 
incitement and encouragement in this 
direction was given in the Liturgical 

• "We will not scare. 



Devotions which he published from time 
to time, also in German. The sincere, 
childhke piety which was the chief trait 
of his being made him love with all his 
heart whatever of beauty, goodness and 
truth we have inherited from our fa- 
thers thro' doctrine, customs, hymns and 
prayers, and he tried with all his strength 
to awaken and preserve this love in 

In the opinion of many he undertook 
entirely too much and attempted things 
for doing which he lacked strength and 
qualification. But admitting that some- 
times he erred in this direction, it was 
not the result of thoughtless impetuosity 
or exaggerated self-confidence; it was a 
clear view of an existing need and his 
untiring wdllingness to serve his Church 
that impelled him from one thing to an- 
other. Above all he wanted to make a 
start, then he was willing to step aside 
and let those go ahead who were best 
qualified. With the little strength given 
him, he boldly entered thro' the door 
which the Lord opened for him. To Him 
he cluno- with childlike, undimmed faith ; 
from Him he daily drew new strength 
and blessing. All the whirl of business 
around him could not disturb or weary 
his -intimate intercourse with his Sav- 
ior. The school of sufferins: in which he 
was trained nearly all his life tended to 
strengthen this intercourse and the end 
found him well prepared. 

His Departure and Parting Admonitions 

He was permitted to remain in the 
harness almost to the last hour. For a 
few days only he was confined entirely 
to his room. Even then there were hours 
when he could scarcely believe that the 
time of his departure had come so near. 
He was not yet weary of his work and 
would gladly, if so his Lord had willed, 
have remained in the body some time 
longer, so as to have the more fruit of 
his work. But with Paul he learned to 
leave this matter entirely to the Lord. 
On the morning of December 23. 1876. 
quietly and without a struci'^lc he passed 
beyond into the everlasting Christmas 
joys of heaven. 

The issue of the Lutlierische Zcit- 
schrift that announced the death of Fa- 
ther Jirobst also contained these farewell 
admonitions addressed to his readers and 
in particular to his younger ministerial 
brethren, dated on Wednesday after the 
third Sunday of Advent. 

1. Visit the sick diligently and devoutly 
read to them the simple words of consolation 
so numerous in God's Word, as well as the 
precious hymns found in the hymn-book. In 
these hard days of suffering my heart has ex- 
perienced more than ever before how comfon- 
ing, .strengthening and refreshing those Bible 
and hymn-verses are to the sick and dyin::. 
God's Word is mightier than everything el-v. 

2. Appoint suitable persons in your congre- 
gations to .visit 'the sick, suttering and dyini: 
whom you can not often visit yourselves, and 
simply read to them God's Word for their con- 

3. Teach the children in weekday and Sun- 
day-schools simply to read to their parents and 
grandparents, when they become old. sick and 
weak, in the language which they know bes: 
and which most deeply touches their hear:-, 
from God's Word — the Bible, hymn and prayer- 

I have always advised such reading and con- 
sider it of supreme importance in the spiritual 
care of the sick, for edification on the sickbed 
and for consolation in death. 

Reverend Brobst was also one of the 
founders of the German Editorial Asso- 
ciation of Pennsylvania and oi tiie 
Deutsche Gesellschaft in Philadelphia, 
for which he collected a number of rare 
and valuable prints. His favorite histor- 
ical study were the German settlements 
of Pennsylvania. He helped to organize 
the State Normal School at Kutztown 
and worked hard for the introiluction oi 
German as a regular study in the public 
schools of the State. His funeral ser- 
vices, held in St. John's church at Allen- 
town. December 28, 1876. were attended 
bv a large concourse oi friends, includ- 
ing all local editors, ministers and mem- 
bers of German societies, also very many 
ministerial brethren from other places. 
Rev. B. W. Schmauk. of .VUentown. 
preached in German. Dr. B. M- 
Schmucker. of Reading, in English : a 
biographical skeKdi was read bv Rev. 
William Rath, oi Alleniown. Tlu? re- 
mains were laivl to rest in I'nion Ceme- 
tery, Rev. Joshua Jiiger officiating. 



in the Old Hummelstown Lutheran Churchyard 


XoTE.— Acknowledgment is made for some 
of the materia] of this sketch to the publications 
of tlic Dauphin County Historical Society and 
Souvenir of Zion. Evangelical Lutheran church, 
llummelstown, by Rev. D. Burt Smith, the 
present pastor. 

HERE, in the modest borough 
of Hummelstown, Dauphin 
county, Pa., near the western ex- 
tremity of the beautiful and fertile Leba- 
non valley, overlooking the picturesque 
and historic Swatara creek, stands Zion 
EA'angelical Lutheran church, better 
known as Old Hummelstown Lutheran 
church, and its accompanying Gottes- 
ackcr. Tho this stone church is nearly 
a century old, and tho it has not been 
used for church-purposes since 1892, it 
is still, apparently, in a fair state of pre- 
servation. There it stands like a huge 
monument to a pious and self-sacrificing 

The study of American history and the 
story of these old churches are insepa- 
rably linked. It is well known that the 
larger part of the early migrations to 
America were made for securing relig- 

ious freedom. The settlers had scarcely 
begun to build homes and clear the wil- 
derness, when they also erected their log^- 
churches, to be superseded later by more 
substantial edifices. Here, too, is the old 
churchyard, partitioned from the high- 
ways of travel by the customary stone- 
wall, within which sacred enclosure so 
many German pioneers are sleeping their 
last long sleep. Let us pay homage to 
these worthy ancestors and gratefully 
remember the part they have played in 
giving us a country than which there is 
none better on God's footstool. Present- 
ly we will stroll among the old mossy. 
weather-beaten stones in this old burial- 
ground and read their inscriptions. 

This Lutheran church "began as an 
enterprise as early as 1753." June 24, 
1756, Frederic Elunimel. proprietor of 
the town — then called I'rederickstown — ' 
and his wife Rosina granted a plot of 
ground to the congregation for church- 
purposes. In 1765-66 a log church was 
erected, and dedicated May 16. 1766. 
The log church having become too small 




"^'Tioitcssrjrieiv ci»''-.\>2^:;:s:ro 


zuis;klical cniian. .vt nr.MMKi.siowN. pa. i;i ii.i ;.<«!-. -.i. 



for the growing congre.2^ation, a new and 
beautiful blue-limestone church was built 
close by in 1815-16. The log church was 
then used as a parochial schoolhouse, but 
was accidentally destroyed by fire in De- 
cember, 1817. 

The following is an extract from an 
account of the laying of the cornerstone, 
translated by Mr. Hermann Schweitzer : 

Whereas, the Evangelical Lniheran congre- 
gation in and around Hummelstown, Dauphin 
county. State of Pennsylvania, until now occu- 
pied a house used for our religious services. 
and whereas, said building is now too small 
for our purposes, this congregation has re- 
solved to t?rect a substantial and large build- 
ing, in which religious services shall be held, 
the Word of God be taught and the holy sac- 
raments be administered unto the present and 
coming generations. This building shall be 
erected on the piece of ground donated and 
transferred to us by Frederic Hummel. 

It is further necessary to . . . inform this 
present and future generations that we to-day, 
in the year of our Lord 1815. under the gov- 
ernment of the President of the United States, 
James ]\Iadison, and of the Governor of Penn- 
sylvania, Simon Schneider, lay the cornerstone 
to a German Evangelical Lutheran church, 
and that, if our Heavenly Father protects and 
prospers this our work from beginning to end, 
God the Father, Son and Holy Ghost shall 
rule therein fore\-er. 

Given at Hummelstown the fifteenth day of 
May, in the year of our Lord 1815. and in tlie 
thirty-ninth year of the Independence of the 
United States: 

Pastor of the Congregation. 


Ev. Luth. Pastor in Lebanon. 





In 1891-92 the congregation erected 
a new church, a handsome brownstone 
edifice on the corner of ]\Iain and Rosina 
streets. The old stone church has not 
beci) used for church-juirposes since the 
new^ church was occupied. 

The following are the names of the 
pastors who have served the congrega- 

Rev. Michael Enterlein. 1769; Rev. William 
Kur^, i78i-[795: Rev. John l*>cderic Ernst. 
1S04I; Rev. John Paul Ferdinaml Kramer. 1807: 
RevJ John Henry Vanhoff, iSn ; Rev. C. R. 
Oemme, iSig; Rev. Pctor Scheurer, iSjj; 
Rev. H. G. Steelier, 18^0; Rev. George Haines. 
18=14; Rev. J. F. Probst, i8;6; Rev. A. S. Link. 

1858; Rev. E. Huber, 1861 ; Rev. P-ter Ri/.r 
iS(j6; Rev. P. S. Mack, 1873; Rev. T. H* 
Lce>er. 1877; Rev. I. B. Crist, 1885; Rev. D. 
Burt Smith (present pastor), 1890. 

Let us not forget that this church was 
founded during troublous times. These 
early German settlers who now lie sleep- 
ing here faced persecution in the mother- 
country, braved the stormy seas in frail 
sailing-vessels, endured untold priva- 
tions of frontier-life and during the years 
1755-^^5 ^ived in deadly fear of the re- 
vengeful Indian. The French and Indian 
War was then raging; in this region the 
terrible war-whoop was heard, much 
blood was spilled, and many loved ones 
were carried off into captivity. This was 
a time when men were com.pelled to 
carry their flintlock guns and powder- 
horns to the fields and to their place of 
worship. In a letter from Dcrry town- 
ship, Dauphin county, dated August 10. 
1756, we read that ''the name or sight oi 
an Indian makes almost all in these pans 
tremble — their barbarity is so cruel." 
How many of those who pass and re- 
pass this old churchyard, or those who 
pursue their daily avocations in this 
peaceful vallew think of this? 

As an occasional visitor to Humniels- 
town during vacation-time. I entered this 
interesting old burial-ground and was at 
once impressed with its quaint and siiiij-)^* 
beautv and the inscriptions on the stones. 
Thinking these might prove of interest to 
readers of this magazine. I have made a 
record of all I could decipher in k-th 
German and Englisli text, these beinj a 
portion of the "fragments'* the edit«>r 
bade us gather some time ago. A full 
roster of those interred in this church- 
yard as recorded on the tombstones is 
published in Notes and Queries relating 
to the Ilistorv of Dauphin Countv. \*ol. 1. 
Xo. I. 1884.' edited by Dr. \V. H. tgie. 

Although the old churchyard is no 
longer kept up. there is something at- 
tractive even in its wild appjarai^.ce — a 
longing to know something al>^ut iIh' 
people who lived here years and ycar> 
ago. I ventured into the enclosure with 
ail due respect and hail scarcely started 
mv work when I was accosted with t.K> 
inscription : 



Our Parents 

Stranger, tread lightly 

This mound is sacred to the ones 

who mourn their loss. 

Glancing over the churchxard we see 
many quaint, odd-shaped, old-fashioned 
memorials of marble, sandstone and lime- 
stone. A few of the graves are covered 
with \^\y large marble slabs laid flat. 
Many of the old stones have neatly 
curved ornamental tops, with quaint de- 
signs. On some we see stars, here and 
there a cherub, a bud, or a lamb, also the 
weeping willow. Some who are buried 
here have only an unpretentious slab with 
merely their initials and 

"Deel hen sogar net mol en Schtee. 
Dass mer sie kenne kann.'' . . ■. ■ — A. S. 

Some of the old stones lean at all an- 
gles, and some have fallen, perhaps never 
to be reset. Many are chipped and worn 
ofi' by the rains and frosts of over a cen- 
tury, their inscriptions being almost ob- 

"Kann Schrifte ah net lese meh ; 

. Des Wetter zehrt die schwache ^lerk 
Un nieder legt des Grab." . . . — (A. S.) 

Now we come to a very old piece of 
brown sandstone, of antique design, with 
a little cherub carved on top. It is the 
grave of children — ''of such is the king- 
dom" — and bears the following simple 
legend : 


Lohrer Seine 

2 Kinner 

Ana und 


In this churchyard lie Fricdrich Hum- 
niel. the founder of Hummelstown. and 
many of his descendants. 

As we go on and on among the stones. 
we are tripped now and then bv low wan- 
dering vines. We brush aside the long 
grass and read some epitaphs with nuich 

"Yet here 
Nature, rebuking the neglect of man. 
Plants often, by the ancient mossy stone, 
1 he brier-rose." (Bryant) 

I desire to suggest, bef(^re this church- 
yard is dismantled — for I presume it 
must go the way of others — that simuc 
local historical society would pliotograph 

it in blocks, also many individual stontrs 
which are typical of the times in which 
they were hewn. The pictorial preser- 
vation of their odd shapes and designs, 
the quaint lettering and arrangement of 
their records, will some day be highlv 
appreciated. Some day they will not be 
there ; some day some descendajits of 
these pioneers will wish to know how the 
old churchyard actually appeared. These 
old, picturesque ''God's-acres" will soon 
be an idyl of the past. 

"Falle dann ah die Schtee zu Sand, 

Un geht der Name ab. 
Werd Kerchhof ah des Bauersland, 
So hen mer doch en bessrer Stand. 

Dorch Jesu Hirtenstab." (A. S.) 

But come, let us read the inscriptions 
with due reverence. Let us not make 
light of the "simplified spelling" or the 
somewhat crude but well meant senti- 
ments ; they were written and carved at 
a time when the means of education were 
limited. Let us not read merely the lines, 
but also between the lines ; let us rather 
look into the hearts of these past genera- 
tiojis. They show an unwavering faith 
in God and an abiding hope of heaven. 

German Inscriptions 

Friedekich Hummel 
Ich hab micli GOtt ergeben, 
dem liebsten \'ater mein. 
Hicr ist kein immer leben. 
es musz geschiedcn sein. 
Der tod bringt nur kein schaden. 
er ist nur mein gewinn. 
Darum in GOttes gnaden. 
fahr ich mix freud dahin. 

Georg B.\c.\stoo 
Wann wir kaum gelx^ren werden 
Ist vom ersten Lebcnstritt. 
Bis ins kiihle Grab der Krden. 
Nur ein kurz gvmefsner Schritt. 
Ach mit jedeni Auger.blich ! 
Gehet unsere Kraft zuriich. 

J.xcoB German 
(Died iSjj. agvd 41 ycars^ 
Hier wo mir bey den grahorn stehn 
Soil Jeder rw clem \"atter rlehn 
Teh bitt o Gott durch Chrisii blut 
Mach'^ einst mir meincm cndc gut. 

JoHAX Jacob HoRxf.r 

Drum weinet niclu so selir fur niich 
Ihr Kinder luul \'er\vandten ; 
I'rcud ouch violmehr mil mir 
W\^7. ich lias Leiilctj ubersian'I^n 
Der Leiden stampf ist nun vo'lbrachl 
Ich wimsch ouch allcii» guie Nacht. 




Ester Casskl 
Herr Gott! mein ianimer hat ein end, 
ich fahr aus diesem Icbcn, 
Mcin seel betehl in dtine hand 
die du mir hast gegeben. 
Jch bitte Herr! sey gnadig mir 
iind nim mich vaterlich zu dir, 
mein geist nach dir sich sehnet 

Friedrich Gassel 
Ich zweifle^ nicht, ich bin erhoret, 
erhoret bin ich zweifel trey 
weil sich der trost im Herzen wehret 
dr"m will ich enden mein geschry. 
Erbarme dich, erbarme dich 
Gott mein crbarmer ! iiber mich. 


Fromm wie er gewandelt hat 

Endet sich zum Trost der Seinen 

Unsers Lehrers Erdenpfad 

Und vvir schau'n ihm nach nnd weinen 

Ach er hat uns treu belehret, 

Und zum Gufen hingckehret. 

Elizabeth Horner 
Wer'Gott vertraut, hat wohl gebaut, 
Im himmel und aut erden, 
Wer sich verlaszt auf Jesum Christ, 
Dem wird der himmel werden. 

Daniel Schmitt 
(Died 1845, aged 66 years) 
Hier will ich nun ewig wohnen, 
Litbster schatz ! zu guter nacht ; 
Deine treu wird Gott belobeii. 
Die du hast an mir voll bracht ; 
Hier erwart ich mit verlangen. 
Dich bald selig zu empfangen ! 
Lebe wohl zu guter nacht. 
Gott sey dank, es ist voUbracht. 

Elisareth Beitlerin 
Wie wohl ist meincm Leib, 
nach ausgestandnem leiden, 
Wie wohl ist mciner Seel, 
in jener Himmels-freudcn. 

Elizabeth Lauck 
W\as frag ich nun nach dieser welt 
Mcin Jesus mich in armen ha.'lt 
In ihm erfreu ich mich allein 
Ohn ihm kan ich nicht frcelich sevn. 

John Lauck 
Nun liebe elrcrn h(\:rot auf. 
Zu klagon mcincn lauf. 
Ich bin vollkominon wordon bald 
Wer selig stirbt ist gnugsam alt. 

Hier ruhet 

Ein sohn von 

Johatines und 

Maria Sherck 

starb iSocj don ^>o^ 

July scin alter war 


n/r- ■ ■. • 

• ■^'-- , -^ , V- f ^-O - __ - 



"^A !>»A K -r 



: v>w' 

; -.Vv^^.^ 




r'-^— ^'*— -'— 

^:^^^ _,,:.. :,y..;^^^ 


■' \ 


• A^v : ■.,•>• 

. ^ 

-^ > . 

Lelnier. born Jan. G, 1S"J7, died Oct. G. Is'T 

Phillip Leebrich 
(1 775- 1827) 
Der leib der nach der Schopfer's schlusz 
Zu staub und erdc werden musz 
Er bleibt nicht immer asch und staub 
Xicht imm\?r der verwesung raub 
Er wird wann Christus einst erscheine 
Mit seiner Seele neu verein«. 

Sarah Cassel 
Christus der ist mein leben 
Sterben ist mein gevinn. 
Dem hab ich mich crgeben. 
Mit freud falir ich dahin. 
Mit freud scheid ich von dannen 
Zu Christ den bruder mein 
Auf das ich zu ihm kumma 
Und ewig bei ihm sav. 

Hier schkTtt 

der leib in sucsser ruh 

Die seel ist nach dem 

Himel zu. ist gewescn 

Christina Ru-kkrin* 

Geboren i7_x) im 

Octk. und ge>iorbcn 

den i.^ Ocrr. 1704 

war alt 6^ vahr. 

Wohl wir hier ist mcin ruhchaus 
Hier ruh ich fromm nach 
Schmer/en aus. ich bin durch 
einen s.mften tod. cntgangcn 
alicr angst und noih. 


Selig sincl die nicht schen unci 
doch glauben 

Was ist es denn fiir ein Hans 
das ihr mir baueii wollt? 
Oder welches ist die Statte 
da ich riihen soil. 

Salome Horxer 
Seyd nur dem siinder freunde treu 
gcliebteste hienieden : dient ihm 
aufrichtig, ohne scheu ; so sind 
Nvir nicht geschieden. 

In kurzen tagen folget ihr durch 
Salems giildne thore 
mir dann iauchs ich eiich cnteregen. 

Hier Rnhet 


Luds. & Margt. 

Hoer Altes 


Geb°. 2 Mart. 


Gest 30 Mart. 


Adam Dim 

Seine Tocht^'" 


War Geb" 

ren Octob''. 

den i^" 1782 


luly. 28^° 1786. 







(The rest is beneath the ground.) 

English Inscriptions 
2^Iaria Bomberger 

consort of 
Jacob Bomberger 
O unspeakable happy you 
Will be now in heaven where 
Fruits innumerable too, * 

of your faith. You will reap there 
And you shall without tear and 
Grief, ever glorious heavenly live. 


Farewell my friends as you pass by 
As you are now so once was I 
Weep not my loving children dear 
I am not dead but sleeping hear 

Although my body is turned to dust 
1 hope to rise amongst the Just. 
Relations dear refrain from tears 
Here I must lie till Christ appears. 

:(P r 


Elizabeth Greexawalt 
She has gone to a Mansion of Rest 
From a Region of Sorrow &- Pain 
To the glorious land oi the blest 
Where she never shall suffer again 

Elizabeth Rees 
Farewell husband and my children dear, 
I am not dead but sleeping here 
My debts are paid my grave you see 
Prepare for death and follow me. 

Sophia Ear x est 
Farewell my Husband kind and true 
Farewell to Mother and Children too. 
Farewell my Brothers and Sisters all 
I hear and must obev the Call. 

Sox of 
JoHX Axn Amaxda Phillips 
This lovely bud so young" and lair 
Call'd hence by early doom, 
Just came to show how sweet a flower 
In paradise might bloom. 

Levi Rickfk 
While in this earth I sweetly sleep. 
.•\round my grave my parents weep 
But hush dear parents. se« your love 
Happy with Jesus : I. live above 

A hope that we shall meet again. 
In worlds 01 light anil endless rest. 
Beyond the reach oi ileaih and sin 
Must calm the sorrows of each breast. 




John Fox 
My flesh shall slumber in the ground 
Till the last trumpets joyful sound. 
Then burst the chains with sweet surprise 
,And in my Saviour's image rise. 

Yet again we hope to meet thee 
When the light of life is fled, 
Then in heaven with joy to greet thee 
Where no farewell tear is shed. 

John Hoerner 
Dearest Brother thou hast left 
Here thy loss we deeply feel, 
Twas God that has bereft us 
He can all our sorrows heal. 

Chr.stiaxa Geistwite 
She was a tender mother here. 
And in her life the Lord did fear, 
We trust our loss will be her gain 
And with Christ she's gone^to reign. 

Sarah Swartz 

Though lost to sight 
To memorv dear 

]\Iary Fox 
Another happy soul has fled, 
Number'd with the illustrious dead. 
Entomb'd her peaceful ashes lie 
Her spirit has escaped on high. 

Daniel Schmitt 
Remember friend, as you pass by 
As you are row, so once was I ; 
As I am now. so must you be 
Prepare for death and follow me 

David Hummel 
departed this life 1793 
(aged 2>2 years) 
In sure and fteadfait hope to rife, 

And claim his manfion in the fkies, 
A Chriitian here his flefh laid down. 
The crofs exchanging for a crown. 

Mary^ wife of 

John Shank 
W~hen I am dead and in my grave 
And all my bones are rotten 
Remember me when this you see 
Lest I should be forgotten 

John Shank 
Farewell my wife and children dear, 
I am not dead but sleeping here 
With in this silent lump of clay 
Until the resurrection dav. 

John Rehrer 
(.-Kged 16 years) 
No more the pleasent son is seen 
To please his parents eye 
The tender plant so fresh and green 
Is in eternitv. 

Six Great-Grandparents Living 


NOT many children can point to so 
many great-grandparents as the 
three children of Mr. and !Mrs. 
Victor H. Hauser, of Kutztown : Lillian, 
aged eleven, Gladys, aged seven, and 
Stanley, aged four. These children have 
six great-grandparents living. 

The first of these great-grandparents 
are Mr. and ^Irs. ^^lichael Hauser, of 
Williams township, Northampton county. 
The elder ^Ir. Hauser is a descendant on 
his father's side of Michael Hauser. who 
came from Germany in 1764, and on his 
mother's side from the Xanders, who 
were among th^ early settlors of Lower 
and L^ppcr Macungie. On his mother's 
side he is also descended from John 
Philip George, of Xorthampton county, 
who was killed by the Indians in one of 
their raids during the French and In- 
dian War. The elder ^Irs. Hauser is 


descended on her father's side from 
Karl Ludwig Koch, one of the early set- 
tlers of L'pper and Lower Saucon, and 
on her mother's side from Johann Philipp 
Roth, who settled in the vicinitv oi Hcl- 
lertown. Pa., and whose wife was a 
member of the Lerch familv in X>"r:h- 
ampton couiUy. On her i^roat-grand fa- 
ther's side the elder Mrs. Hauser is a de- 
scendant of Frederic Mohr. also one oi 
the early settlers oi Upper and Lower 

The ne.xt great-grandparenis oi Lil- 
lian. Gladvs and Stanley Hauser are 
-\nthony Lesch and wife, ncc Lambert. 
both descendants oi the early settlers of 
Xorthampton comity. 

On their mother's side those throe 
children are ilescended from the 
Knausses. Tlieir third great-grandpar- 
ents are Henrv Knauss and wife. KtV 



...^iiii^ili.a&ifci&iii'.ii^'wir?. 'iiAlMi>^ 


L-j.:-»ii<j^;:>Jf"ifcww.<»>.'.4i^»-^<ijr-».^»K.<.i>>i«.-^ , .■CfiZ^'i^^um. -»^ -r-- — >^ - g<j'<u' 


Schaeffer, of Emaus. They also have 
four grandparents hving": Mr. and Mrs. 
James J. Haiiser, of IMacungie, and ]\Ir. 
and Mrs. Jacob Knauss. of Emans. 

The children of \\'illiam H. Hauser 
and wife, Elsie and ^lyrtle, have four 
ii^reat-grandparents living: Mr. and r^Irs. 
Michael Hauser, before mentioned, and 
Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Lesch. They 
likewise have four grandparents: ]\Ir. 
and r^Ers. James J. Hauser, already nam- 
ed, and Benjamin Schlegel and- wife, nee 
Smith, of Kutztown. 

The accompanying picture represents 
five families and four generations. In 
the front row to the right are Mr. and 
Mrs. Michael Hauser, beside them are 
Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Lesch. In the 
second row to the right are Mr. and Mrs. 
James J. Hauser : next to them are their 
f^«Mi \'ictor and his wife, and at the left 
enil are William Hauser and wife. " The 
litttle bov standinjT: in front of Mr. and 

Mrs. ^lichael Hauser i$ their great- 
grandson -Stanley ; the two largest girls 
in the picture are his sisters Lillian and 
Gladys, the daughters of \'ictor Hauser. 
The little girl in front of Mr. and Mrs. 
Anthony Lesch is William Mauser's 
daughter Elsie, and the little babv on her 
mother's arm is Williain Hauser's daugh- 
ter Myrtle. 

The ages represented on this picture 
range from six weeks to seventy-nine 
years. The aged Mr. Hauser was a car- 
penter by trade and is a veteran of the 
Civil War. The aged Mr. Lesch follow- 
ed the trade of a cooper in his younger 

The parents oi Lillian. Gladys and 
Stanley Hauser are both ex-teachers. 
Their grandfather Jacob Knauss was a 
teacher, and their grandfather James J. 
Hauser has been following the profes- 
sion for thirt\-three vears. 

Acc(^rditiy: to the latest report of State Fac- Dr. and Mrs. Francis .\. Long, ot Madison. 

j'Tv Inspector Delaney. Pennsylvania shows a Xeh.. lately visited trietids and rcl.uives in 

h'^s pcTcentaj^e of children nnder sixteen em- eastern Fennsylvania. The doctor is prc>idcm 

ployed in factories than anv other State. of the Xebraska State Mctlical Association. 



The Birth of the American Army 

Repilnled from Harpt-r's Magazine. Coi.jrlght, 1^'JO, by Harper k. Brothers 

ON the fourteentfi of June, 1775, 
the Continental Congress, facing 
actual war, resolved "that six 
companies of expert riflemen be immedi- 
ately raised in Pennsylvania, two in 
Maryland and two in Virginia . . . that 
each company, as soon as completed, 
march and join the army near Boston, 
and be there employed as light infantry." 
These riflemen were the first troops ever 
levied on this continent by authority of 
a central representative government. On 
the following day George Washington 
was appointed commander-in-chief. Such 
was the origin of the American army. 

The American Backwoods-Rifle 
The ' rifle at this time was a weapon 
unknown to New England and unused in 
the eastern districts of the other colonies. 
The infantry-arm of the period was a 
smooth-bore musket, called "Brown 
Bess" by the English soldiers and 
''Queen's Arm" by the Americans. It 
was very inaccurate and of short range. 
When Putnam gave the command at 
Bunker Hill, "W^ait till you see the white 
of their eyes," he did so because the mus- 
kets and shotguns with • which his men 
were armed could not be relied upon to 
hit a man at a much greater distance. 
The rifle had been introduced into Penn- 
sylvania about 1700 by Swiss and Pa- 
latine immigrants and was made b>' 
them in various border-towns in that 
colony twenty or thirty years before the 
Revolution. Our frontiersmen, appre- 
ciating the superior accuracv of the 
grooved barrel, adopted the rifle at once 
and improved upon the German model 
with such ingenuity that within a few 
years they had produced a new type of 
firearm, superior to all others, the Amer- 
ican backwoods-rifle. At the outbreak of 
our war iox independence tlie ritle was 
used only in two widely separated parts 
of the earth — in central l^uropo and 
along the frontiers nf l\'nns\ Ivania. 
Maryland. \'irginia and the Carolinas. 
So the call of Congress for riflemen was. 

in fact, a call for the backwoodsmen of 
the Alleghenies. 

Why Did Congress Call the Frontiersmen? 

When hostilities were so imminent 
(Gage was already penned up in Boston, 
and Bunker Hill was but three days oil), 
why did Congress send far and wide for 
scattered woodsmen, when tlie seaboard- 
towns were alive with men eager t(» 
serve? John Adams wrote to Gerry, af- 
ter the resolution had passed : "These are 
said to be all exquisite marksmen., and by 
means of the excellence of their firelocks, 
as vrell as their skill in the use of them, 
to send sure destruction to great dis- 
tances." It was plain enough that a corps 
of such sharpshooters, hardy, indomit- 
able, experienced in forest-war. would 
be the right material to meet British reg- 

There seems to have been another and 
a deeper motive which impelled Congress 
at tliis critical hour to hazard the delay 
of sending for the mountaineers. As yet 
there had been no rupture between Eng- 
land aiid the colonies. Par-seeing men 
were urging the country to defend its 
birthright; but would the people foil<~>w?' 
The feeling of loyalty to Great r)r:iain 
was still strong among the inrlueniial 
classes — so strong that, only two days 
before this call for riflemen was issued. 
'Congress itself had been constrained 10 
appeal to the twelve colonies that tliey 
observe a common fast-day in rec^>i:ni- 
tioil of King Georcre III as their rightful 
sovereign, and enjoining them to |t'H:>k t'> 
God for a reconciliation with the parent 
state. Most oi our colonists li\-vd witii- 
in shipping: distance of tidewater and had 
periodical comnnmication with England, 
They depended upon the mother-counirv 
for a market and for most of the luxuries 
of life. Ties of kindred were kept alive 
bv mails and newspapers, as well as bv 
]KT<on:\l contac^ with visitors from 
aluoa<l. r.l(\Ml had been spilled, it \va< 
true, but only in a few skirmislies. which 
historv midu dismiss as riots. The col- 



oiiits were still separated by petty jeal- 
(»ii>ies and local pride. Cavalier mocked 
at Puritan and Knickerbocker mistrusted 
b'>th. When the supreme moment ar- 
rived, would these vdiscordant elements 
act to.^ether, would Mrginia strike hands 
with Massachusetts, would Pennsylva- 
nia forget her quarrel with Connecticut 
and Maryland? Granting diat war was 
inevitable, it was above all else essential 
tiiat this Continental army should have 
a nucleus which was not provincial,' but 

The call for riflemen reveals a subtler 
jxilicy than appears on the surface — a 
policy no doubt suggested by the only 
man in Congress who knew the back- 
woodsmen like a brother, who had 
marched with them, camped -with them, 
fought side by side with them — by 
Washington himself. This frontier folk 
remembered no fatherland but the wil- 
<lerness they trod. Procuring everything 
ihey needed from the forest with their 
own hands, they asked nothing from civ- 
ilization and were never in debt. Un- 
schooled in worldly arts, indifferent to 
wealth, judging all men by personal mer- 
it, practicing the open-handed generosity 
of primitive manhood, theirs was a true 

The Patriotism of the Bordermen 

The men of the border were not unpre- 
pared for a call to arms. The first for- 
mal threat of armed rebellion against 
(ireat Britain had come from the Penn- 
sylvania frontier. On the thirteenth of 
May, 1774. a town-meeting had been held 
in Boston, at which an appeal was issued 
''to all the sister colonies, inviting a uni- 
versal suspension of exports and im- 
I^»rts, promising to suffer for America 
with becoming fortitude, confessing that 
•singly they might find their trial too se- 
vere, and entreating not to be left to suf- 
fer alone, when the very being of every 
vnl«,ny. considered as a free people, de- 
I^ndcd upon the event." Couriers car- 
'■^ed tliis appeal throughout the country. 
\. In the cities there was hesitancy or re- 
f fiisal. As a class, the gentry and men 
I "I property, when not outspoken Tories. 
t Were fearful of turbulence or commercial 
l'>"<s and could not be induced to take 

what they considered a reckless leap into 
the dark. As Dickinson said in Phila- 
delphia, when F'aul Revere brought the 
entreaty of Boston : ''They will have time 
enough to die. Let them give the other 
provinces time to think and resolve. If 
they expect to drag them by their own 
violence into mad measures, they will be 
left to perish by themselves, despised by 
their enemies and almost detested by 
their friends." But wherever public af- 
fairs were directed by the fanners and 
tradesmen and mechanics, tiiere was but 
one response, courteous towards Eng- 
land, but firm against encroachments ; 
and when the appeal of stricken Massa- 
chusetts reached the log cabins of the Al- 
leghenies, our backwoodsmen asked for 
no time to think and resolve. Little in- 
deed it mattered to them whether tea was 
a shilling or a guinea a pound: they 
never drank it. No personal considera- 
tions bound these Scotch-Irish and Penn- 
sylvania-German borderers to the men of 
New England. But like a slap in the face 
came the news that American manhood 
was insulted. Liberty to these woods- 
men was the breath of life. 

On the fourth of June. 1774. the in- 
habitants of little Hanover, then in Lan- 
caster county, on the frontier of Penn- 
sylvania, met to express their sentiment, 
and it w^as unanimously resolved : 

1. That die recent action of the Parliament 
of Great Britain i> iniquitous and oppressive. 

2. That it is the bounden duty of the people 
to oppose every measure which tends to de- 
prive them of their just prerogatives. 

3. That in a closer union of the colonics 
lies the safeguard of the liberties of the people. 

4. That in the event oi Great Britain at- 
tempting to force unjust laws upon us by the 
strength of arms we leave our cause to Heaven 
and our rifles. 

Xo smooth, conciliatory phrases here. 
The rifles were ready. The riflemen 
would bare their heads to no lord but the 
Lord of Gideon. This was ten months 
before Patrick Henry arose in the \*ir- 
ginia convention and declared plainly : 
"We must figiit ! .\n appeal to arms and 
the God oi hosts is all that is left^to us." 

Erom Pennsylvania to South Carolina 
the backwoixlsmen were of one mind, 
and spoke it forthright, anticipating by 
months the Declaration of Indei>endence. 









' ^ 

1 .-^-.-'^ 

^f. V^-^ ^r^Kr' 








A Contrast of Readiness and Unreadiness 
The readiness of the backwoodsmen 
to take up arms was in striking contrast 
to the state of mihtary affairs along the 
coast. Massachusetts had , scarcely a 
dozen serviceable cannon, and for half 
of these there was no ammunition. In 
the whole colony of X'ew York only a 
hundred pounds of powder were for sale. 
The men who hastily assembled at Cam- 
bridge, after the aft'air at Lexington, were 
enthusiastic but unruly. Commissions 
had been granted to everybody who, 
through local intlucnce or prestige as a 
civilian, could raise a company or a regi- 
ment. The first general selected by Mas- 
sachusetts was too infirm to ride a horse. 
The vitally important duties of arming, 
equipping and sustaining the army were 
intrusted to merchants and professional 
men, who had no adequate conception of 
the requirements and whose labor, 
though zealous and well meaning, was 
one long series of blunders. When war 
broke out. no provision had been made 
for arming, feeding, clothing or paying 

the volunteers, or caring for the sick and 
wounded. E^or lack of tents, the men 
made dug-outs and lean-tos. Manv of 
the soldiers had to return home for the 
bare necessities of life. When Washing- 
ton made ready to prc\ss the siege oi Bos- 
ton and provoke a general engagement, 
he found that, owing to a mistake oi the 
committee of supplies, the whole amount 
of powder would barely furnish nine 
cartridges per man. Time which should 
have been spent in preparation had been 
wasted in discussion, or devoted to fast- 
ing and prayer. 

But the men of the wilderness were al- 
ways ready. Over every cabin-do».'»r 
hung a well made rifle, correctly siglitcvl. 
and bright within Trom frequent wiping 
and oiling. Beside it were tomahawk and 
knife and a pouch containing bul- 
lets, patches, spare tlints. steel, tinder. 
whetstone, oil and tow for cleaning the 
ritle. A huntini^f-shirt. moccasins and a 
blanket were near at hand. In case ot 
alarm, the backwoodsman seized these 
things, put a few pounds of rockahoniiny 



and jerked venison into his wallet and in 
live minutes he was ready. It mattered 
not whether two men or two thousand 
were needed for war, they could as- 
semble in a night, armed, accoutred and 
provisioned for a campaign. 

The Training of the Pioneers 

As soon as a pioneer boy was big 
vnough to level a rifle, he was given pow- 
der and ball to shoot squirrels. After a 
little practice he was required to bring 
as many squirrels as he had received 
charges, under penalty of a severe lec- 
ture, or even of having "his jacket tan- 
ned/' At the age of twelve the boy be- 
came a fort-soldier with loop-hole as- 
signed him from which to fight when the 
settlers rallied against an Indian foray. 
Growing older, he became a hunter of 
deer, elk, buffalo and bear, skilled in 
trailing and in utilizing cover, capable of 
enduring long marches through trackless 
mountain-forests. At night he was con- 
tent to curl up in a single blanket beside 
a small fire and sleep under the roof of 
heaven. If it rained, in a few minutes 
he built him a lodge of bark or boughs, 
with no implement but his one-pound 
tomahawk. Incessant v/ar with the In- 
dians taught him to- be his own general, 
to be ever on the alert, to keep his head 
and shoot straight under fire. Pitted 
against an enemy who gave no quarter, 
but tortured the living and scalped the 
dead, he became himself a stanch fighter 
who never surrendered. The wilderness 
bred men of iron and probably contained 
a greater number of expert riflemen than 
could now be mustered in all America. 
It was the pick of these for which Con- 
crress asked. 

lUit the West had wars of its own to 
h.L^ht. The Indians finding that the great 
barrier of the Alleghenies was no longer 
mi[)regnable to the white invaders, grew 
desperate and fought with redoubled 
tiiry. Moreover, one of the first acts of 
the British government, after the Revo- 
lution began, was to incite the savages to 
•It lack the colonies in the rear. \\'hite 
renegades and ne'er-do-wells who had 
t"und refuge in the wilderness turned 
1 "ry and preyed upon the industrious 
settlers. Every man along the border 

was really needed at home, to help form 
a rear-guard of the Revolution. Yet 
with characteristic generosity riflemen 
were spared. The first men who marched 
to assist Xew England in her sore need 
were the pioneers of the great West. 

A Surplus of Volunteers 
Congress passed its resolution creat- 
ing a corps of these sharpshooters June 
14, 1775. Couriers on relays, of swift 
horses carried the news to the various 
county-committees on the frontier, which 
were empowered to commission officers 
for the purpose. The committees acted 
at once. The otTicers despatched their 
scouts to summon the men. On the 
eighteenth of July the first company of 
riflemen, Xagel's Berks county "Dutch- 
men," arrived at Cambridge, and within 
less than sixty days from the date of the 
resolution of Congress 1430 backwoods- 
men, instead of the 8 10 required, had 
equipped themselves and joined the army 
before Boston, after marching from four 
to seven hundred miles over diflticuli 
roads — all without a farthing from the 
Continental treasury. 

\'oluntecrs had poured into the little 
recruiting-stations in such nunibers as to 
embarrass the oflicers, who fain would 
have been spared the duty of discrimin- 
ating. One of these officers, beset by a 
much greater number of applicants than 
his instructions permitted him to enroll, 
yet unwilling to offend any, hit upon a 
clever expedient. Taking a piece oi 
chalk he drew upon a blackened board 
the figure of a man's nose, and placing 
this at such a distance that none but ex- 
perts could hit it with a bullet, he de- 
clared that he would enlist only thc^se 
who shot nearest the mark. Sixty odd 
hit the in^se. On hearing of this incident, 
the \'irginia Gazette exclaimed: "'Gen- 
eral Gage, take care oi your nose I" 

On the twenty-second of June Con- 
gress directed Pennsylvania to raise two 
more companies, making a total oi eight 
from that colony. On the eleventh of 
July it was informed that Lancaster 
county had raised two companies instead 
of one, and accordingly the nine com- 
panies from Pennsylvania were formed 
into a battalion under Colonel William 



Thompson, of Carlisle, and mustered 
into the Continental service. The men 
were enlisted as follows : two companies 
from Cumberland county, two from Lan- 
caster, one each from York, Northum- 
berland, Bedford, Berks and Northamp- 
ton. The limits of these counties were 
more extensive then than now, taking in 
nearly all of western" Pennsylvania. 

Promyient Officers of the Riflemen 

Many of the officers of this battalion 
afterwards rose to distinction. Colonel 
Thompson was promoted to brigadier- 
general in the following year. He was 
succeeded by his lieutenant-colonel, Ed- 
ward Hand, of Lancaster, who, after 
brilliant conduct at Long Island and 
Trenton, became brio^adier-general and 
subsequently major-general, ^lajor Rob- 
ert ]\Iagaw, of Carlisle, became colonel 
of the Fifth Pennsylvania Battalion. 
Captain James Chambers became lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the rifles ; the captain 
of the other Cumberland company, the 
brave William Hendricks, was killed in 
the assault on Quebec. 

The frontiersmen of ^laryland and 
Virginia were equally prompt. Both 
Maryland companies were enlisted from 
Frederick county. One of them was 
commanded by Thomas Price, who rose 
to the rank of colonel, and whose first 
lieutenant, Otho Holjand Williams, be- 
came a brigadier-general. The other 
Maryland company was led by Michael 
Cresap, a famous border-warrior, whom 
Jefferson wrongly accused of killing the 
Indian chief Logan, "the friend of the 
white man." Cresap was ill when his 
commission reached him. but calling his 
clerk, he mounted the lad on a fast horse 
and sent him across die mountains to 
summon the woodsmen. His old com- 
rades responded to a man. and Cresap, 
though stricken with a mortal ailment, 
led them to Cambridge, dying soon after. 
Of one of the Mrginia companies, that 
of Captain Ericson, nothing is known : 
the other was a host in itself, being com- 
manded by the lion-hearted Daniel Mor- 
gan, only a raw frontiersman, but des- 
tined to become one of the most brilliant 
generals of the war and a personal favor- 
ite of Washington. Morgan had just re- 

turned from Dunmore's Indian Avar 
when the news came of the passage of 
the Boston ])ort bill. '*\\'e had beaten 
the Indians," he says, "brought them to 
order and confirmed a treaty of- peace; 
and on our return home, at the mouth of 
the river Hockhockin, we were informed 
of hostilities being ofifered to our breth- 
ren, the people of Boston. We as an 
army victorious formed ourselves into a 
society, pledged our words of honor to 
each other to assist our brethren in Bos- 
ton, in case hostilities should commence, 
which did on the 19th of April ensuing 
at Lexington." It took Morgan but a 
few days to raise ninety-si.x expert 
marksmen. General Custis says : "When 
^lorgan cried, with his martial inspira- 
tion : 'Come, boys, who's for the camp 
before Cambridge?' the mountaineers 
turned out to a man." 

About two thirds of the riflemen were 
of Scotch-Irish descent, and nearly all 
the remainder were "Pennsylvania- 
Dutchmen" — that is to say. of Swiss or 
Palatine origin. Many of the Mary- 
landers and Virginians were immigrants 
from western Pennsylvania. The famous 
rifle-corps which Morgan afterwards 
formed from marksmen picked from the 
whole army, is usually referred to as 
"Morgan's Mrginians." but in fact two 
thirds of them were Pennsylvanians, in- 
cluding a considerable number of Penn- 
svlvania-Germans. One of the latter, a 
Mr. Tank, who was with Morgan from 
the beginning to the end of the war, was 
the last survivor of the corps. Once. 
when Morgan was asked which race oi 
those composing the American armies 
made the best soldiers, he replied: "As 
for the fighting part oi the matter, the 
men of all races are pretty much alike: 
they fight as much as they find necessarv. 
and no more. But, sir. for the grand es- 
sential composition of a good soldier, 
give me the 'Dutchman' — he starves 

Proofs of Marksmanship 

At Frederickstown. Md.. and Lancas- 
ter. Pa., the men of Cresap's companv 
gave exhibitions oi their astonishing skill 
with the rirle. .\ftor shooting by turns 
at a piece of paper the size oi a dollar. 



nailed on a blackened board sixty yards 
distant, and generally hitting it or 
shooting very near it, they varied the 
amusement by shooting in a prone posi- 
tion, from their breasts, sides or backs, 
and by running a short distance and then 
firing, to show that they were equally 
certain of their maneuvering as in battle. 
Finally one of two brothers took a piece 
of board only five inches broad and 
seven inches long, with a similar piece of 
paper centered on it for a bull's-eye, and 
lieid the board in his hand while the bro- 
ther shot through the paper. Positions 
were then reversed, and the second bro- 
ther held the board. The spectators were 
more astonished than pleased at this per- 
formance, when, to their horror, one of 
the men placed the bit of board between 
his thighs and, supporting it thus, stood 
smilingly erect while his brother shot 
eight bullets through the board. This 
shooting was done offhand at a distance 
said to have been "upwards of sixty 
yards," though it was probably not over 
forty yards. The bystanders were as- 
sured there were more than fifty men in 
the company who could perform the 
same feat, and there was not one but 
could plug nineteen bullets out of twenty 
within an inch of the head of a tenpenny 
nail. To show the absolute confidence 
they had in each other's marksmanship, 
some of the riflemen offered to stand 
with apples on their heads while others 
shot them off at a considerable distance ; 
but the sensible towns-people refused to 
witness such foolhardiness. 

Costume of the Backwoodsmen 

The peculiar costume of the back- 
woodsmen attracted even more attention 
than their exhibitions of marksmanship. 
Its pattern was borrowed from the In- 
dians. It consisted first, of an ash-col- 
ored hunting-shirt of coarse linen or lin- 
sey-woolsey. Buckskin was worn in 
cool weather, but was too hot for sum- 
mer. The shirt had a double cape and 
was fringed along the edges and scams. 
I'pon its breast was a motto:'** Liberty or 
iV'ath." Around the waist it was se- 
cured by a belt, usually of wampum, in 
which were thrust the ever useful toma- 
liawk and skinnine-knife. Some of the 

men wore buckskin breeches ; but others 
preferred leggings of the same material, 
reaching above the knees, and an Indian 
breech-clout, their thighs being left nak- 
ed for suppleness in running. Captain 
Morgan himself wore the brecch-clout 
during the fearful mid-winter march 
through the Maine wilderness to Quebec, 
his bare thighs exposed to the elements 
and lacerated by thorns and brush. The 
rifiemen's head-dress was a soft round 
hat with a feather in it. On his feet he 
.wore buckskin moccasins ornamented 
with squaw-work in beads and stained 
porcupine-quills. Shoulder-belts sup- 
ported the canteen, bullet-pouch and 
powder-horn. The officers were distin- 
guished by crimson sashes worn over the 
shoulder and around the waist, their 
only insignia. Some of them disdained 
swords, preferring to carry rifies, like 
their men. 

Colonel Roosevelt calls the hunting- 
shirt "the most picturesque and distinc- 
tively national dress ever worn in Amer- 
ica.'' It was adopted by the backwoods- 
men because it was loose, light, cheap, 
inconspicuous in the woods and easy to 
wash. In 1758, when Washington was 
serving in the French War, he wrote 
from Fort Cumberland to Colonel Bou- 
quet, recommending in strongest terms 
that his men be permitted to wear the 
Indian dress. *Tf I were left to pursue 
my own inclinations," he said, *T would 
not only order the men to adopt the In- 
dian dress, but cause the ofiicers to do it 
also, and be the first to set the example 
myself. Nothing but the uncertainty of 
obtaining the general's approbation 
causes me to hesitate a moment to leave 
my regimentals at this plact. and pro- 
ceed as light as any Indian in the wckxIs." 
Bouquet adopted the suggestion at once. 
Several times in his correspondence 
Washington expresses fondness for the 
backwoods-garb, on account of its light- 
ness and sufficiency without extra bag- 
gage. When called to command the 
American army at Cambridge, he recoin- 
UKMuled it for another reason. Writing 
to the President of Congress concerning 
the lack oi clothing, he said: **I am of 
opinion that a number of hunting-shirts. 



not less than ten thonsaud, would in a 
great degree remove this difficulty in the 
cheapest and quickest manner. I know 
nothing in a speculative view more trivi- 
al, which, if put in practice, would have a 
happier tendency to unite the men and 
abolish those provincial distinctions that 
lead *to jealousy and dissatisfaction." 
Mark well the latter phrase. The hunting- 
shirt was an emblem of liberty, which 
never in the historv of man was worn bv 

an enslaved people. It was distinctive; 
it meant: "We are Americans." When 
Congress drew its first levies from the 
backwoods, it not only secured the ser- 
vices of the finest marksmen living. 
Something more was gained : the moral 
effect, upon the camp at Cambridge, of 
independence, typified by flesh and 
blood, clad in American garb and wield- 
ing an American weapon. 

(To be concluded in September) 

Mrs. Sallie Shirey, the Incomparable 


THE township of iVmity, Berks 
county, made such in 17 19, was 
settled by Swedes in 1701, the 
name Amity resulting from the amicable 
relations that existed between the whites 
and Indians. The oldest house in Berks 
county is in this township, at Douglass- 
ville; it bears the date 1716 and was 
erected by a Swede, one ?^Iounce Jones. 
It was from this same township of 
Amity that in the early portion of the 
eighteenth century Daniel Boone went 
forth to become the pioneer of the State 

of Kentucky, to be followed later by the 
forbears of Abraham Lincoln and of 
Xancy Hanks, his mother. 

Three miles northwest from the afore- 
said venerable relict of early Pennsyl- 
vania days, the Mounce Jones house, 
rises to several hundred feet above the 
level of the Schuylkill valley, Monocacy 
Hill. About half way up this bold up- 
shoot of nature there is a residence and a 
few acres of land imder cultivation, and 
there dwells the subject of this article. 
Widow Sallie Shirev. 


.\s 8hr aiMitiiro.! .«n h» r iiimtv-thinl »«!rtliilnv. SepttintMr li'. 1!hi'. with h»T daugh- 
ter, grauddaugLitti-, j:reHt-i:ramlihnii;titor a\u\ sr«'iiti:rfut-griindO.HUKLter. 



On the sixteenth day of September, 
1906, Mrs. Shirey was 94 years old, hav- 
ing been a widow 45 years. One year 
prior, namely September 16, 1905, I had 
the pleasure of being present at a family 
reunion held in honor of her ninety-third 
birthday, more than a hundred persons 

Mrs. Shirey was born about a mile 
from her present home, of Pennsylvania- 
German parents, and never lived more 
than two miles from her birthplace. She 
bore to her husband twelve children, 
eight of whom were still living in 1905; 
the oldest, a daughter, aged '/2 years, 
was of the party. Five generations 
joined in the celebration, and not one en- 
tered into the enjoyments of the day with 
keener zest than Widow Shirey herself. 

Invited by the writer to do so, ]^Irs. 
Shirey sang in English, with spirit and 
remarkable power, the following stanza 
of a reaping song, which was in use in 
the harvest-fields of Berks county in the 
days of her youth, when reaping was 
done with the sickle : 

Drink round, drink round, 
]My hearty brave boys ! 
Drink jolly, drink free, 
That we may see another day. 
My hearty boys, now drink, 
As a-reaping we will go. 

Both of ^Irs. Shirey's grandfathers, 
she claims, served in the Revolutionarv 

War ; her father was a soldier of the 
War of 18 1 2, and three of her sons 
fought for the saving of their country's 
honor in the Civil War. 

This grand old lady, who in person is 
short and stout, had smoked her pipe 
seventy years, and declared that her ap- 
petite for the weed had been in no wi.-e 
detrimental to her health, but, on the 
contrary, a solace and positive enjoy- 

Having lived in the beautiful valley of 
her abode many years before the advent 
of canal and railway, and having in her 
childhood more than once gone afishing 
for shad in die Schuylkill, she has lived 
to see the birth and growth of both these 
systems of transportation, largely to the 
displacement of turnpike and teams, and 
the strangling of the canal by the rail- 

]\Irs. Sallie Shirey still lives. Born a 
farmer's daughter and becoming a far- 
mer's wife, she did in her day and gen- 
eration everything upon the farm that 
men did, and at the time of the celebra- 
tion in question she was making butter 
from two cows. The storekeeper at 
Douglassville told me at the time that 
no better butter reached his store than 
that made by Mrs. Sallie Shirey. the 
Pennsylvania-German heroine of Mono- 
cacv Hill. 

An Old-Fashioned W^itch-Story 




ABOUT September seventh. 1866, 
an old-fashioned witch-story stir- 
red up matters in the Ziegol con- 
gregation. A grown daughter in a cer- 
tain family was bewitched. This girl, 
evidently of a hysterical temperament, 
was confined to bed, tho to all outward 
appearances she was quite well. At 
times she conversed intelligently, even 
upon religious subjects, altho formerly 
she had been a worldly person and a fre- 
quent attendant of the frolics. Then she 
would become quiet, raise her eyes, lift 
her hand and point upwards thrice in a 
threatening manner, without speaking a 

word — when the paroxysms came she 
was dumb : then the spasms would at- 
tack her, tossing her about on the bed 
and at last throwing her to the tloor. 

This was the witches' method of tor- 
menting her. These convulsions recur- 
red frequently and each time in the same 
way. After the paroxysn", the patient 
remembered everything that occurred. 
She said there were rive witciies that tor- 
mented her : sometimes all five would 
come at once, then again only one at a 
time. By pointing her finger she desig- 
nated the moment of their approach. 

The poor parents, very superstitious 



and worldly-minded, believed everythin^^ 
the patient said. They asked the daugh- 
ter if she knew the witches. ''Oh, yes," 
she replied, and named them. The fam- 
ily confided the names of these five per- 
sons to one friend, who repeated the 
whole story to me, divulging the names 
of the supposed witches. The accused 
family is held in high repute, and is loved 
and honored by all the neighbors, A 
witch-doctor in Reading was consulted 
as to how to drive out the witches. This 
in the nineteenth century — isn't it awful ! 

At the beginning of the sickness the 
family had sent to a certain Mr. Tier- 
ing, in Greenwich, who also had some 
reputation as a witch-doctor and who 
had pow-wowed for the spasms. When 
Hering visited the place he said : ''Yes, 
your daughter is not suffering with con- 
vulsions ; she is bewitched." That set- 
tled matters. The Reading doctor asked 
if cats did not occasionally cross the 
yard and frequent the house, particular- 
ly black and red cats. Sure enough, such 
had been the case. 

"These are the witches," said the doc- 
tor, "and they must be shot with silver 
or by some one who can shoot with the 
left hand." The old father hammered 
a silver quarter, but as it was not round 
enough to be put into the barrel of his 
gun, he resorted to the left-handed shoot- 

Two Feasts of Roses 

The sixteenth annual Feast of Roses was 
observed by the congregation of Zion Lutheran 
church at Manheim, June 9. The memorial 
address was delivered by Rev. Dr. G. W. 
Genszler, of Selinsgrove. 

The red rose was presented by Sumner V. 
Hosterman, of the local bar, to Prof. A. S. 
Ege, of Mechanicsburg, a direct descendant in 
the fifth generation of Raron Henry William 
Stiegel, the founder of Manheim. The services 
attracted more than four thousand people. 

The annual rose festival of the Tulpehocken 
Reformed church, of which Rev. H. J. Welkor 
is pastor, was held June 18. The principal ad- 
dress was made by Rev. Samuel A. Leinbach. 
of Reading. The payment of tlie red and white 
roses was made to Dilman Wistar, at his resi- 
dence at Germantown — the red rose as a reiual 
due the heirs of Caspar Wister for the ground 
on which the present church stands, and the 
white rose in appreciation of the contribution 
made by those heirs toward the payment of 
the church-organ. 

ing-process, \\'hi!e waiting for the ap- 
pearance of the cats a neighbor's black 
grimalkin actually prowled into the yard 
and paid the penalty of her temerity, for 
the left-handed Ximrod laid her low. A 
day later a red feline was fortunately dis- 
patched in similar manner ; and the gun- 
ner averred, as the witch-doctor had pre- 
dicted, that neither of them bled, or very 
little, if at all. 

Xow every one waited with intense 
curiosity for news from the suspected 
family of witches, to learn if some one 
had been taken sick, if the physician had 
been sent for ; for, according to the 
Reading doctor's prediction, the shooting 
of the cats, whose form the witches had 
assumed, meant the death of the witch. 
But alas ! in spite of the demise of the 
cats, no one was ill at the suspected 
house, for, tho a lynx-eyed espionage had 
been kept up, all were well and happy 
since the shooting. The neighbors whose 
cats had been murdered said nothing, to 
avoid being implicated in the senseless 
aft'air. But how explain their escape? 
"Why, the devil helped the witches." 
Such was the opinion of the Reading" 
practitioner, and the stupid people con- 
curred. "They are the witches, anyhow, 
for how can you account for the fact that 
your daughter is well ?" Since the exe- 
cution of the cats the attacks have ceased 
to return. 

Doctor's Honors for Clergymen 

At the commencement of Franklin and 
Marshall College in Lancaster. June 13. the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity was 
conferred on Rev. O. S. Kriebcl. principal of 
Perkiomen Seminary, and Rev. Christopher 
Xoss. of Allentown. Rev. Kriebel is the lirst 
minister of the Schwenkielder denomination 
to obtain this title. Rev. Xoss has been a mis- 
sionary at Sondai. Japan. 

Decorating Graves at New Goshenhoppen 
A beautiful fatherland custom was obserxTtl 
for the first lime in eastern Pennsylvania and 
probably in the United Slates, by the members 
of the New Cnisheniioppen Reformeil church. 
near Pennsburg. Sunday. June 16. by decorat- 
ing the two thousand graves in their church- 
yards with flowers. The idea was suggested 
to Rev. C. ^L Delong. the pastor, when he 
visited Nuremberg, Germany, some years .ago. 
The decoration was followed witli appropriate 
services, at which the pastor preached a ser- 
mon from Joshua 4:21. 



Pennsylvania Historical Societies: 

Their Aims and Their Work 

The encouragement of historic research being lo;-'i'jally a part of our designated fielfl of lalior. we Lare- 
opened a department devoted chiefly though not exclusively to the ir.terest* of the s^K-ietles cuD«titatlng iLe 
Pennsylvania Federation of Historical Societies. This department will plve data relating to the work f*t bis- 
torlcal societies — notable nieetinj-'s, contributions, papers read, etc. As .space permil.**. short sketcbe* of Indi- 
vidual societies will be driven, telling their history, objects, methods of work and the results acblered. W* 
cordially tender the use of these columns to the societies for tlie expression and exchange of Ideas relailLj to 
their work. 


'4|^^23n!^^_ .^1?4^0^ 

•t« fi i- ii I 


The Bucks County Historical Societ}' and Its Unique 


The formal dedication of the Bucks County Histori- 
cal Society's museum at r>oyIpstown on May 2S last 
was a red-letter event in the career of that associa- 
tion. A brief report of the dedicatory exercises was 
given in our July issue. We nuw offer a short history 
of the StX-iety and its great enterprise, sathering the 
material from the addresses delivered on that occasion. 

A charter for the incorporation of the Bucks 
County Historical Society was granted by the 
county court in 18S5, after its organi7.ation had 
been completed bv electiuQ" Gen. W, W. H. 
Davis president, Richard M. Lyman secretary 
and Alfred Paschall treasurer. Since then 
it has been actively at work, acknowledg- 
ed as one of the educators of the county. For 
several years quarterly meetings were held, 
but finding it difficult to keep the organization 
intact by meeting so frequently, the number o* 
meetings was reduced to midsummer and mid- 
winter, the latter always held in the Court- 

The erection of a museum was first planned 
several years ago. Toward this end Edward 
Longstreth, a native of Warrington, presented 
to the Society a corner lot at Pine and Ashland 
streets, Doylestown. About the same time 
James Greir. also of Warrington, died, having 
bequeathed $5000 for the purchase of a home 
for the Society. Other coritributions swelled 
the museum fund to $10,000. 

At the summer meeting of 1902, held at 
Warminster. William L. Elkins. of Elkins. 
Montgomery county, announced his purpose to 
ilonate $10,000 additional for a suitable his- 
torical building. His offer was conditioned oi\ 
his naming the building-committee and having 

erected in the finished building a memorial to 
his mother, Susan Ycrkes Howell, a descend- 
ant of Rev. Thomas Dungan, of Bucks county. 

The Society now deemed it necessary to ac- 
quire a larger tract to build upon and succeed- 
ed in purchasing the whole original Tay'.or 
propertv. comprising about eight acres. When 
the building-committee came to appropriate 
the money in payment for the land, it was dis- 
covered that the terms of Mr. Elkins* gift \ver« 
that it should be used exclusively for a build- 
ing such as he designated, and that by the 
terms of ^^r. Greir's will the same construction 
might be insisted upon by his heirs. But for 
the liberal spirit displayed by the Greir lega- 
tees at this critical juncture, much embarrass- 
ment w^ould have resulted. 

Another difficulty was the unexpected and 
rapid increase in the costs of labor and all 
kinds of material, owing to which the original 
designs of Mr. Elkins could not be carried out. 
Unfortunately, just before the contracts were 
lot and the building was begun. Mr. Elkins un- 
expectedly sickened and died. 

Tn order to keep within rhc allowance and 
not spoil the appearance of the building by 
omitting one wing, it was decided to mo«lify 
the inside plans, to leave unfinished the base- 
ment and the contcmplalvtl lavatories and 
vault, a part which can be completed at any 
time. . , .. 

After several attempts it was found a con- 
tract could be mailc for the building thus mcnii- 
fied at the price of $ not including the 
compensation of the architect. 



Mr. Elkins;in making ^his will, having large 
and complicated business-interests to provide 
for, had overlooked his proposed gift to the 
Historical Society. His executors and family, 
however, respecting his well known intentions, 
' interposed no obstacles. As the committee 
still lacked $3000 of the sum required to fur- 
nish the building, George W. Elkins. a member 
thereof, contributed this additional amount, 
that the building might be constructed accord- 
ing to the plan approved by his father. But 
for this second act of generosity by the Elkins 
family, the Society would have been driven to 
the alternative of sacrificing the beauty and 
harmony of the building-plan selected or of in- 
curring obligations which it is not able to bear. 
The building is now finished, the grounds 
are partially graded, and the Bucks County 
Historical Society now owns, free of debt, a 
property which is without exception the finest 
. and most appropriate of its kind in the United 
' States, adapted to receive one of the most 
complete and unique historical collections to be 
found in any country. 

' Concerning this collection, which has fitly 
been called "Tools of the Xationmaker." its 
originator and collector. Prof. Henry C. Mer- 
cer, of Doylestown, spoke in part as follows : 

It was probably one day in February or 
March, 1897, that I went to the premises 
of one of our fellow-citizens, who had 
been in the habit of going to country-sales 
and at the last moment buying "penny 
lots," that is, masses of obsolete utensils 
or objects regarded as useless, or valuable 
only as old iron or kindling wood. I was 
then curator of the Museum of American 
and Prehistoric Archeology at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania and, worn out 
with my work of e.xploration in Yucatan, 
I was resting at home in no very promis- 
ing state of health. My particular object 
in that visit was to buy a pair of tongs for 
an old-fashioned fire-place. But when I 
came to hunt out the tongs from a prodig- 
ious pile of old wagons, gum-tree salt- 
boxes, flax-breaks, straw beehives, tin 
dinner-horns, rope-machines and spinning- 
wheels, things that I had heard of but 
never collectively seen before, the idea oc- 
curred to me that the history of Pennsyl- 
vania was here presented to me in a nut- 
shell and from a new point of view, I was 
seized with a sort of fury and rushed all 
over the country, rummaging the bake- 
ovens, wagon-houses, cellars, hay-lofts, 
smoke-houses, garrets and chimney-corners 
on this side of the Delaware Willey. 

When, having gathered a great mass of 
these things, 1 first stored them in and 
upon our old room in the Courthouse 
some of you very naturally rebelled. I 
had to come before you and classify them 
and explain them to you. before I dared 
to expect you to keep them. 

Here is the cutting-down of the forest 
and the building of the log cabir. ; there are 
utensils concerned with the preparation of 

food, that is, cooking-appliances with ap- 
paratus for making and producing light. 
Xext we have the production 01 clothing. 
illustrated by spinning and weaving and' 
the adaptation of vegetable fiber for these 
purposes. Then comes the relation of man 
to animals, in the way of domesticating 
or killing and expelling them from the re- 
gion. Agriculture is represented by a mul- 
titude of implements which stand at the 
very bottom of man's effort to keep alive. 
and next we have the great variety of 
utensils, home and hand-made, produced 
by the man of the land on his own farm 
before the factory existed, before the coun- 
try-store came into being. By way of the 
fabrication of utensils of burnt clay, we 
come finally to a lot of objects illustrating 
learning and amusement at a time when 
the pioneer had little leisure for aught save 
the removal of the forest and the general 
struggle for existence. 

Here we have history presented from a 
new point of view. Mr. Bancroft wrote 
the history of the United States and dwelt 
Avith great vividness upon the Revolution- 
ary War ; but no history can show as these 
things show, that during that war a hun- 
dred thousand hands armed with these 
sickles were reaping wheat and rye so as 
to make any kind of war pyossible by the 
production of bread, without which all the 
combatants on both sides would have been 
unable to fight. You may go down into 
Independence Hall in Philadelphia, stand 
in the room in which the Declaration of 
Independence was signed and there look 
at the portrait of George Washington. But 
do you think you are any nearer the es- 
sence of the matter there than you arc 
here, when you realize that ten hundred 
thousand arms, seizing upon axes of this 
type, with an immense amount of labor 
and etTort made it worth while to have a 
Declaration of Independence by cutting 
down one of the greatest forests in the 
Xorth Temperate Zone? You may hear 
a lecture on the naval battles oi the War 
of 1S12 at the Pennsylvania Historical So- 
ciety, but do you think you are more viv.- 
idly confronted with the truth of the whole 
story than you are here, when you realise. 
looking at those spinning-wheels, that once 
upon a time there was a vast noise o! hum- 
ming from the work of at least ten hun- 
dred thousand women spinning upon these 
wheels, that actually took place and was 
needed to protect men adotiuaiely from the 
cold, so that they could go out and fight 
any battles at all by "sea or by land? P^r* 
haps these things can be included or ade-^ 
quately describeil by history, but a sight or 
the actual object convoys an impression. 
otherwise indescribable. Moreover, a 
multiiude of word^ have passed out of the 
language and become obsolete since thc<e 
things ceased to be used, and this too is 



The archeology of the museum? of Eu- 
rope and America begins with the past, 
presents the remains of man thousands of 
years old, and pretends to lead us forward 
to the present. Generally speaking, you 
might say they put the cart before the 
horse. Here, on the other hand, we look 
from th€ present backward to the past. 
Beginning -at the doorstep of our grand- 
fathers, we go back to Roman and Egyp- 
tian times. This then is archeology turned 
upside down, reversed, revolutionized. 
What seems obscure and dark in the mu- 
seums we have visited, is here rendered 
plain. It is very easy for friends of ours 
still living to explain the uses of these 
things to us. When they have done so we 
have learned more of archeology, by 
means of the kindergarten method, as you 
might say, in a few hours than we other- 
wise could have mastered by the study of 
books and museums, from the other point 
of view, in months. 

I have tried several times to illustrate the 
fact that, insofar as the equipment of man 
with tools and utensils is concerned, a 
greater change has taken place in the last 
two or three generations than took place 
in any fifteen or twenty generations pre- 
ceding it. In this respect there is a greater 
difference betwc-en our lives and the life 
of. George Washington than between his 
life and that of William the Conqueror. 
Many of our lives reach back into this 
period w^hich, though removed from us by 
about a century only, practically stands 
for an antiquity of a thousand years. 
Equipped as his ancestors had been for 
centuries in the Old World with these very 
tools and utensils, the pioneer came to 
America, x^rmed with these things he cut 
down the forest, contended with the forces 
of nature, and worked out his life and des- 
tiny until about the year 1820, when a 
wave of inventive mechanical genius hav- 
ing seized him, he cast them all aside and 
equipped himself with the products of a 
new machinery. If the followers of Wil- 
liam Penn. hunting about among the heir- 
looms of thtir time, three or four hundred 
years old, had tried to make a collection 

of this significance, they could not have 
done so. The objeas collected by them, 
no matter how old, would have more or 
les.v closely resembled the things in use a: 
their own time, so that no vivid and >:art- 
ling lessons would have been taught. The 
Conestoga wagon suspended above your 
heads, presented by Mrs. Richard Ho'ven- 
den and used by her husband as a painter's 
model in the picture known as "Westward 
Ho!" in the capitol at Washington, stands 
for an immense change in the daily life 01 
man. although it is not more than a hun- 
dred years old. Because a great many of 
us have witnessed this change, because :*:e 
transformation has taken place under our 
eyes, as it were, it is none the less momen- 
tous and important. 

For these reasons I say that this singu- 
lar collection is the child of an opportu- 
nity which has not occurred until it did 
occur for the last thousand years, and 
which will certainly never occur again. 
And if I have convinced you of this fac:. 
let my words inspire you one and all to 
refrain from destroying historical speci- 
mens of this kind which happen to be :n 
your possession. 

In conclusion the speaker impressed upon his 
hearers the necessity of rendering nre-proo: 
the building in which this unique coi!ecii:»n 
and the Society's library are stored, and sug- 
gested for the surrounding grounds *"a botani- 
cal park, devoted to the past, surrounded by 
a high wall, behind which we can forge: the 
railroad and the trolley, the modern newspaper 
and the telegraph, the automobile and :he 
megaphone, and look upon the trees and plants 
which were associated with the lives of the 
colonists, or upon the herbs which cured hirr. 
of disease, or the flowers which he brought 
from the Old World to embellish his new home 
in the wilderness, until they themselves es- 
caped from his dominion and ran wild in the 

woods Here is a rare and remar'ivab.e 

tree in good condition, just planted. Watch 
over it, guard it. save it. prune and water :: 
until it spreads its noble shade, no: only over 
this little town and over this State of Penn- 
svlvania. but over the whole Nation." 

River Brethren Hold Love-Feast 

Quaintly garbed River Brethren from all 
parts of the Perkiomen Valley held their love- 
feast at Graters Ford, Montgomery county, 
June 8 and 9. The love-feast was followed by 
the baptism of several converts in the Perkio- 
nicn, an experience-meeting, feet-washing and 
the communion. There are 6nly about 4000 
Kiycr Brethren in the country, more than lialf 
being in Pennsylvania. ( .\n article on their 
<^ripin was published in Tut: Pe.nxsvlvani.v.- 
CiKRMAN for January. 1906.) 

West Pittston Proud of Its Age 

West Pittston celebrated its golden jubi'.ee 
June IJ anil i.v .\t the historic meeting Judge 
Fuller, of Wilkes-Barre. was the chief speaker. 
and S. B. Bennett, of West Pittston. gave the 
historic address. 

John S. Jenkins, a Civil War veteran and 
direct descendant of the Jenkins family of 
Wyoming massacre memory, unfurled a large 
flag to a salute of twenty-one gur.s. The 'in- 
dustrial parade was a mile long, with H2 rioats 
in line. 



Myles Lorlng: 

A Tale of the Tulpehocken 


Chapter XI. 
A Remembrance and a Robbery 

RATHER important events had tak- 
en place. As Dr. ^^larshall had 
foreseen, the little Presbyterian 
consrregation had unanimously agreed to 
call Myles to its disused pulpit, and 
Myles, after full and prayerful consider- 
ation of all the features of the case, had 
given his consent. Larger fields of labor 
had hinted their willingness to call him, 
but the peaceful vale of Lebanon, which 
now possessed a new attraction, was in- 
vested with a prevailing charm", and 
Myles thought it not a disadvantage to 
sound the first notes of his trumpet under 
such tranquil conditions as prevailed in 
Womelsdorf. Fortunately, too, being pos- 
sessed of a fair competence, he needed 
not to be concerned about the meager 
"support*' of the congregation. 

^Irs. Filbert, who saw the end from 
the beginning, now felt a delicacy in 
pressing her guest to a longer stay. She 
tactfully invited him, and though ^lyles 
himself hesitated to impose upon such 
kindness or embarrass his adored one, 
the matter was compromised by his 
promise to return later in the season and 
spend another week or two after a tour 
of the adjacent country, where other 
friends resided. 

When that period arrived Myles found 
that the affection which had grown up in 
his heart was not evanescent, but that the 
presence of Caroline had become intense- 
ly necessary to his happiness and highest 
welfare. The week or two was a season 
of bliss unspeakable. Over the face and 
manner of Caroline had unquestionably 
been shed the light of a holy love, which 
brought out the beautiful qualities of her 
nature and heightened the attraction 
which her lover felt so fully. 

Into tlie details of these happy days we 
must not intrude ; they slipped bv all too 
soon. !Myles spoke his farewell a little 

tearfully, it must be confessed, while 
Carohne's fortitude was sorely tried, and 
her affection was betrayed in greater de- 
gree. The parting was at once a sorrow 
and a joy to Myles, since it revealed so 
much. If the months at the seminary 
seemed a little longer and the studies a 
little drier than usual, we may surmise 
that it was the impatience of love that 
aft'ected the duties of the theolog. 

Christmas brought another opportunity 
for a visit, and the holidays were ob- 
served with all the realncss observable in 
homes of German origin. There was no 
Christmas-tree in the home of the Fil- 
berts, but the vast store of edibles char- 
acteristic of Berks was exhibited, and 
days had been spent in the preparation 
of dainties which delight the epicure. 

An old-fashioned snowstorm mantled 
the valley with purest, glistening while; 
soon the roads were beaten sufficiently 
to afford fine sleighing, of which Myles 
and Caroline took prompt advantage. 
The merry bells jingled as the happy 
pair, in full freedom of intercourse, rode 
down the pike to Robesonia. to visit an 
aunt of Caroline's, whose motherly greet- 
ing made Myles's eyes sparkle. On the 
outskirts of Womelsdorf he saw a litilc 
brick schoolhouse on the slope of a hill, 
with a ravine at its side, where once he 
had played in a grove of trees at the 
noon-hour. A tollgate was close by, 
also the famous W'eiser prop)erty. The 
South Mountain rejoiced in a crown of 
winter beauty, perhaps not so attractive 
as its green summer robe, but very fas- 
cinating : die occasional glimpse oi the 
faraway Blue Mountain showed that it> 
delicate tinge oi blue had been trans- 
formed into the soft whiieness of a sutr.- 
mer cloud. 

Over the furnaces waited the u>i::»i 
banner oi smoke and steam. The glare 



of the slag-, as it was poured upon the 
great banks which had been accumulat- 
ing for so long a period, lent a weirdness 
to the scene by day as of some mysteri- 
ous dissolving view ; at night, upon the 
return of the lovers after a most delight- 
ful visit and sumptuous supper, the scar- 
let illumination of the snowy hillocks 
was enchanting. 

The winter stars looked down upon 
the sleighers in regal splendor. The 
sparkling Pleiades and the well marked 
llyades with Aldebaran, glowing in a 
corner of the V, were followed by the 
impressive configuration of Orion, the 
climax of constellations. Eastward of the 
great celestial giant shone Procyon, while 
peerless Sirius beanied like a nearer sun. 
The young moon was riding serenely 
though the constellations, and the effect 
upon the minds of the sleighers was in- 
describable, because to the stateliness and 
witchery of the celestial scene was added 
the consciousness of the grace and ten- 
derness of love. 

The shadowy ''spooks" of the old Wei- 
ser graveyard exercised no baleful in- 
fluence upon the delectable ride home ; 
nor was the faithful steed urged to wear- 
iness by the lovers. Some Belznickels 
were seen in the streets of Womelsdorf, 
and one or two were bold enough to 
climb into the sleigh ; but they only 
amused the occupants with their gro- 
tesque masks and whips. Around the 
corner two or three boys were moving 
about with a pumpkin whose interior had 
been scooped out and replaced with a 
lighted candle, while the eyes, nose and 
mouth of a human face had been cut out 
of one side. As they passed the old mill 
they heard the shouts of merry skaters 
on the dam. 

The holidays were all too brief to 
Myles, but die recollection of them was 
an inspiration in the arduous studies of 
the final term. Doubtless, too, they 
sweetened the busy labors of Caroline, 
whose preparations for the spring in- 
volved ceaseless work, in which the expe- 
rienced motherly hands rendered wise 
assistance. One other intermission oc- 
curred, brought about by a stroni:: re- 
quest for Myles's pulpit service at Read- 
ing during the month of April. Two days 

were all diat Myles could spare even for 
the delights of Womelsdorf, but they 
were welcome days and shortened the 
period of waiting for the happy release 
of spring. 

On one of these days the lovers broke 
away from the traditional privacy of love 
and ventured upon the crowd. It was a 
great day in the rural regions, for the 
Lick monument was to be dedicated at 
Fredericksburg, over the border of Leb- 
anon county, and all the countryside 
would be represented. 

It was a balmy day. Spring seemed 
to have ushered in its permanent reign 
and the Filbert rockaway, carrying Mr. 
and yirs. Filbert. Caroline and Myles, 
rolled away up the hill, out along the 
level, and wound around by Host on the 
Rehrersburg road. Frequently the Blue 
]\ fountain seemed to grow in grandeur 
as the miles sped, thro' quaint Rehrers- 
burg with its unique buildings and busi- 
ness-signs., on over the Little Swatara 
to Frystown, north of which towered 
''Round Head."' The roads wore dry 
and dust}', and hundreds of vehicles from 
all quarters were focused in the environs 
of Fredericksburg. 

It was a scene to be remembered. Re- 
sembling the celebrated Batallia in many 
of its features, it was still distinct both 
in its character and in the vastness of the 
assembly. The militia-nuister in its dav 
was a remarkable affair; in the absence 
of weapons, brooiusticks or staves were 
utilized, and the awkward appearance 
and manner of the participants was suf- 
ficient to evoke shouts of laughter from 
the irreverent bystanders, if not from the 
officers themselves. It was a harvest for 
the hotel-keepers, the demand for eat- 
ables and liquors being great : the ven- 
dor oi peanuts (a luxury whicli never 
palls upon rural palates) and the seller 
of candy and cakes fiourislieil on **bat- 
talion days." Flying horses also temptetl ■ 

the young men and maidens, and people | 

found perhaps their greatest satisfaction 
in seeing "who were there" and com- 
numing with friends who had not been 
met for a long season. 

The donor of the magiiificent tele^'ope 
which surmounts Mount Hamilton. Cal- 
ifornia. James Lick, was born in Fred- 



ericksburg, and saw fit to honor his pa- 
rents with a local monument of unique 
design and great cost. The visitors who 
succeeded in getting a glimpse of it found 
its body a mass of red Aberdeen granite, 
nearly forty feet in height, with the god- 
dess of Liberty at the top, and four al- 
coves containing marble sculptures — one 
a statue of a Revolutionary soldier, in 
commemoration of the elder Lick's ser- 
vice at Valley Forge. The four femi- 
nine figures on the base also inspired 
expressions of wonder. 

There were several thousand visitors 
in the little town on this eventful morn- 
ing, and the attention of these was riv- 
eted upon the imposing rites of the 
Knights Templar when the monument 
was formally dedicated. Fortunate were 
they who had brought a luncheon with 
them, for the village was eaten out of 
house and home by its hungry visitors. 
• It was nearly nightfall when the rock- 
away ascended the hill above Breneiser's 
store on its homeward journey. ]\lr. 
Filbert took pleasure in answering 
Myles's kindly inquiries concerning the 
residents of familiar homesteads along 
the road, explaining the important occur- 
rences of each, and commenting upon the 
appearance of the farms and the pros- 
pects for the coming harvest. Presently 
they reached the Stouch property on the 
left, a large farm upon which stood a 

stone house with its gable toward tiie 
road, and a capacious barn and other 
outhouses. On the right, some distance 
back from the highway, was the brick 
house of Colonel Sallade, the barn di- 
rectly in the rear, and a row of horse- 
chestnuts outside the front fence, with 
a parallel row of evergreens inside. 

Colonel Sallade was reputed to be a 
man of considerable wealth, his patri- 
mony having been augmented by fortu- 
nate speculation in oil. He had more- 
over obtained prominence because he had 
once been an officer of the BatalUa. 
Myles told how the high military title 
and the fancies of stern war it evoked 
used to impress him as a boy. 

Darkness now grew rapidly; leaden 
curtains hung about the horizon and 
gave promise of a night of rain. The 
horses were urged to greater activity. 
and another quarter of an hour brought 
the absentees to the welcome shelter oi 
the farm-house by the Tulpehocken. 

The party alighted at the barn, which 
was higher up on the hillside, and walked 
to the gate opening upon the flower-gar- 
den. A hurried but ample repast satis- 
fied the craving of the inner man. and 
Caroline was speedily released from fur- 
ther duty for an evening oi soulful com- 
munion which had become as necessary 
to her as it was to her lover. Myles would 
have lemjthened those hours with elastic 




liij u I: I rn 




cords, for upon their bounty he would 
have to subsist a few more weeks. Caro- 
line had become to him indispensable, 
and to sit and view her, while he listened 
to the murmuring music of her voice, 
was his supreme delight. 

Outside the gloom thickened; the night 
was moonless, and the stars could not 
penetrate the murky atmosphere. A ve- 
hicle rumbled by quite unnoticed by the 
happy pair in the inviting parlor, bright 
with the light of a kerosene-lamp shaded 
by one of the devices current in '"the war- 
time" — a screen suspended from the 
chinmey and showing various illumin- 
ated figures. 

But the rapturous canvas of the future 
reached its climax all too soon. Fond 
goodnight-words were spoken, the to- 
ken of affection was exchanged : shortly 
thereafter two pure hearts poured out to 
the Divine Ear their notes of praise for 
providential mercies, and slept the beau- 
tiful sleep of innocence. 

As the night grew darker still, the 
great Newfoundland dog, Xero, which 
Colonel Sallade had purchased from Dr. 
Fidler, shuffled uneasily in his kennel, 
dreaming of his dinner probably, and 
wishing like Oliver Twist for more. He 
seemed disposed to be restless, whether 
from whiffs unusual that were borne to 
his nostrils, or on account of a generous 
supply of meat, can not be authentically 
determined, no record having been made 
in the tradition. But the tired Sallades 
slept well, for what else was there for 
them to do on that shut-in night? 

If Nero had been less sluggish, he 
would have heard that light step coming 
down the walk 'from the gate^. but he did 
not. A figure came from the pines and 
horse-chestnuts and. cautiously stealing 
to the chief door, seized the protruding 
key of the cumbrous lock with a pair of 
nippers. In a moment, with never a be- 
traying sound, the ponderous and clumsy 
mechanism gave way, and the burglar, 
smiling at his easy conquest, stood inside 
the mansion. 

The stairway confronted the intruder. 
and it was a question whether he should 
nninediately ascend it or first examine 
the lower parts of the domicile. He de- 
cided upon the latter and. softly opening 

and closing a door which led from the 
hall into a room at the left — first leaving 
his shoes at the front door, where they 
could l>e made available in the event of 
sudden flight — he rubbed a blue-head 
match on his stocking sole and scanned 
the apartment. 

Tie was not at all surprised to see in a 
corner the Colonel's desk — a "secretary" 
was then unknown in the vocabulary of 
the country — nor did he hesitate to open 
it, locked though it was. and investigate 
its contents with a deftness which evinced 
that he was not a tyro at his nefarious 

A quick and profitless examination of 
certain papers was followed by a visit to 
the kitchen, where at least convertible 
silverware might be discovered. Here 
indeed were found a dozen teaspoons, as 
many table spoons and some forks, all of 
solid silver — an heirloom from one of 
yirs. Sallade's ancestors, never used ex- 
cept upon some state-occasion. These 
the marauder tied up in paper with a bit 
of twine from his pocket. Then, putting 
on a mask, he went stealthily up to the 
second story, where he was guided to the 
sleeping apartment of the doughty Col- 
onel by the sounds of stertorous breath- 
ing. Perhaps that officer was dreaming 
of the charge of an ancient "battalion" 
on the dusty field of Rehrersburg: at all 
events he wakened not. nor saw the dim 
figure of a man examining the pockets 
of his garments, which hung upon a 
chair, and abstracting his wallet. 

The Colonel's good wife was a light 
sleeper, and the wary movement of the 
midnight prowler awakened her. But a 
speechless terror took possession of her. 
and she was unable to speak a word, or 
even to warningly touch her husband. 
To her excited fancy it was not an in- 
habitant of "the earth, earthv." upon 
which she helplessly gazed with fixed 
and afi'righted eyes : she verilv believed 
that a "spook" or wraith had removed 
its usual spiritual veil, and the shadowv 
form assumctl to her disordered vision 
the appearance of her long deceased fa- 
ther. Overcome by the superstitious im- 
pression she swooned away, and when 
she recovered the uncanny visitor had 



Descending the staircase noiselessly, 
the intruder resumed his shoes, gently 
opened the door and, without stopping to 
lock it again, passed out of the yard to 
the public road and faced toward Bren- 
eiser's store. 

Morning brought with it a revelation 
of loss to Colonel Sallade. It was not 
until he fumbled in his pocket for some 
money, that he became aware that some- 
thing was wrong. He had noticed his 
wife's downcast manner and rallied her 
upon her dullness, but the "dream" she 
reluctantly related to him made no im- 
presion upon him until he discovered that 
his pocket-book was missing. Then he 
very quickly conjectured the true state 
of afifairs, which was soon confirmed by 
an examination of the premises. 

If misery does not always love com- 
pany, it at least craves to communicate 
its sorrows. Colonel Sallade very speed- 
ily set forth to Breneiser's store to con- 
fer with the proprietor, whose sage ad- 
vice might prove beneficial. 

It was a spring-day characteristic of 
old Berks. The air was luscious, for 
though the threatening rain-clouds of the 
previous night were cleared away, the 
dampness remained, and the warm breath 
of the dedication-day was thus conserved 
for the nurture of vegetation. The grass 
was gloriously green, the willows were 
vivid in their peculiar fresh tinge, the 
plentiful cherry-trees as white with blos- 
soms as though gigantic popcorn-balls 
were fastened upon stout upright sticks. 
The leaves were unfolding on the apple- 
trees, and the murmur of the little brook 
below the quarries lent the melody of 
nature's music to the scene. 

Several buggies and light wagons were 
standing in front of the well known 
store. A few men were sitting upon 
boxes on the porch, where samples of 
merchandise were displayed. A bundle 
of carriage-whips dangled from a nail ; 
flynets of both white cord and leather 
were e.xhibited alongside of rakes, axes 
and carriage-blankets. A cultivator or 
two suggested the abilitv of the house to 
furnish farming implements, and a va- 
riety of other useful articles showed that 
the store was a center of business and 
supply for quite a wide region. 

Inside, two or three comely maidens 
or matrons were buying groceries, with 
an occasional item of calico, or other 
purely feminine article, while several 
representatives of the sterner sex in- 
dulged in cigars and bantered each other, 
or the storekeeper and his clerk, with the 
latest wit and humor of the vicinity, or 
discussed the ever fresh theme of p*A\- 

The advent of Colonel Sallade inter- 
rupted the flow of conversation : the fact 
that he had something oi importance to 
communicate soon spread among the 
little group of purchasers, who drew 
closer together to hear his tale of won- 
der. Frequent exclamations of surprise 
marked the narration, not a few of them 
of the rather emphatic, if not slightly pro- 
fane sort, common to an indiscriminate 
gathering of men. 

There were two or three other arrivals 
at the store during the progress of the 
Colonel's explanation, who was thus 
obliged to go over the story anew. Among 
these was Brother Bettler, the enterpris- 
ing "Cheap John" of Womelsdorf, whose 
patrons occupied a wide extent of terri- 
tory. The worthy man gave considerable 
attention to the account of the Colonel's 
loss and asked several questions relating 
to the circumstances of the theft. 

He also threw a little light upon the 
probable course of the robber upon leav- 
ing the house, having had his attention 
drawn, while passing the Colonel's, to 
footprints in the dusty road, both leading 
into and coming out of the premises. 
These of course had not struck him as 
nnvthin<i unusual, but now recurred to 
him as indicating the direction taken af- 
ter the successful confiscation oi the Col- 
onel's property. 

The footprints thus observed, he said. 
led southward to Womelsdorf. contrarv 

to the supposition of the Colonel that 
tliey were in the direction of Breneiser's. 
It was his shrewd opinion tl»at the tiiict 
had made for Reading, if indeed he had 
not some retreat within convenient dis- 
tance : he was presumably the same dep- 
redator who had so long harassed the 
vicicnity of Womelsdorf. 

IMie mention oi the footprints was sut- 
ficient to induce all the male pv^rtion of 



the company, except the clerk, to proceed 
out the road to the Colonel's, to examine 
the telltale marks, each ready to present 
an hypothesis plausible to himself. But 
the examination proved in vain, for some 
j)asscr-by had driven his wagon so close 
to the side of the road (probably in 
''turning out" for another vehicle) that 
all traces of the footprints were practi- 
cally destroyed. 

As a matter of course, the conversa- 
tion of the little crowd was concentrated 
upon the mysterious robberies^ which had 
so long successfully and seriously em- 
barrassed the community. Farmers 
Keyser and Livingood shook their heads 
(leprecatingly and uneasily, as though 
some occult force were at work, while 
their brethren Ermentrout and Scheetz 
suggested it was only a case of careful 
manipulation by professional thieves in 
a region that had ever been regardless 
of means of defense against such char- 

Whether the excessively "spiritual" 
views of the ''Shining Saints" tended to 
imbue their adherents with an abnormal 
sense of the supernatural does not ap- 
|K'ar, but Brother Bettler took the cue of 
Livingood and Keyser and burst out with 
a fervor of speech rather unnatural to 
him: "I believe that the whole country is 
bewitched, and I think that we ought to 
try to find out who is at the bottom of 
such doings." He found an ardent sup- 

porter in Lauflermilch who said, "if all 
was known, some Hex would be found 
to have a good deal to do about it :" 
whereupon Bettler wondered if die Haits- 
wertin could have any connection with it. 
The dried-up dame who plied her black 
art in the curious hut in the Kliift had 
been in many a thought during the pre- 
valence of the untoward circumstances 
which were keying the minds of people 
to so high a pitch. Suspicious glances 
were cast at her on her visits to the store 
where she procured her tobacco and 
"lecture opium," and many a little cir- 
cumstance was woven into the warp of a 
deadly impeachment of her integrity. 

However, as nothing could be done at 
present, for no further footprints were 
discoverable, it was agreed that the mat- 
ter should be laid before the detective so- 
ciety organized in Womelsdorf. 

Nevertheless, the acute Bettler was at 
fault respecting the route of the burglar. 
if the testimony of farmers living to the 
eastward could be relied upon. All along 
the road winding around by the Forge to 
the east of Womelsdorf, at' the very hour 
when the deed was supposed to have been 
committed and the robber to have been 
on his way, the barking oi dogs at some 
unseen object disturbed the slumbering 
tillers of the soil. One or two had heard 
footsteps in the road caused apparently 
by an unintentional scrape, or the move- 
ment of small stones. 

(To be continued.) 

The Home 

Tills <U'partnipnt is in charge of Mrs. I[. II. Funic, of Springtown. Pa., to \^•honl all o«m)mnnicatlons Intended 
^T it >lii>iilil lie adiiffssed. 

<<mtijl)(iti<»ns relating to dumestlo matters — recipes for cooking, baking, suggestions on hi-msohoIJ wtvrk. pin!- 
•■•■;'iK' and Hower-culture, oldtime honsoln.ld i-ustoni.< and way.s of living, etc.. etc. — are res|>^'tfull,v »ullcitrtl. 
<*>ii- lady readers are specially requested to aid iu making this department generally interesting. 

Old-time Home Superstitions. 

Extract from ''Prog)iosfiiS ivid Sul'crstitionSj" hy Julius F. Saclisc 


1 lie superstition.s of the early German set- 
'^ entered into all domestic actions and the 

j:i-'s of every-day life. Xo matter whether 
'•vas the sowing of seed, the reapini:: ot the 
'ill. starting upon a journey, the curing of 
•» tlisorder in man or beast, the hirth or 

'I»'''«ni of a child, a marriage or a funeral — 
«'ieh and every phase of conimon life there 

'" interspersed more or less of this Ahcr- 
•'"''«'. This was especially true of the set- 

T"- of Germantown and the Conestoga coun- 

.^■. who were imhued with the notions of 

mystical religion, and with the speculations of 
Jacoh llochme ami others. 

Perhaps the most cimunon of these super- 
stitions was what was known ns Kalcndt'r- 
.Ibcriiliiuhc, a helief in prognostics hriscil upon 
the almanac. Tliis was again suhvlivkled into 
various departments, hascd ujH->n the phases of 
the mt^on and o:her celestial Ixxiies, not. how- 
ever, to he confnuntlcil with tlie custom of 
astrology or the casting i>f the horoscope. Tq 
any person schooled in the an. the almanac be- 
came the guide and mentor tor almo>t evcrv 



function of daily. life. Eirst, it told us of the 
state of the weather for every day of the com- 
ing year; then it informed us what were to be 
the prevalent diseases, gave us the proper days 
for felling timber, taking purgative medicine, , 
for bleeding and blood-leiiing, for cuttirig the 
hair, for weaiiing calves, cliildren, etc. It gave 
the lucky day? for sowing grain, the proper 
days for a merchant to speculate, and for other 
daily avocations. 

A well regulated German almanac of that day 
also contained a list of lucky and unlucky day's 
in general, from which we learn that the latter 
were, as follows: 

January 1,2,6,11,17,19. July i, 5, 6. 

February 10, 16, 17. August i, 3, 10, 20. 

March I, 3, 12, 15. September 15, 19, 30. 

April 3, 15, 17, 18. October 15, 17. 

May 8, 10, 17, 30. November i, 7. 

June. I, 7. December i, 7. 

■There were two days among- the list which 
were far worse than the others, viz.: April i, 
the day upon which Satan was expelled froTTi 
Heaven, and December i, that day upon which 
Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed. It was 
firmly believed that any one who had a vein 
opened upon one of those days would surely 
die within a week. A child born upon cither 
of the two days was sure to die an evil death, 
would never be old, and would live a life of 
shame in the world. 

Phlebotomy, or blood-letting, was a species 
of treatment applied' at that period to almost 
every ailment the human race is heir to. Xo 
matter whether the patient suffered from a 
broken limb, a gunshot wound, tuberculosis, 
brain fever, dropsy, or simple indigestion — if 
the signs were right the barber-surgeon was 
at "once directed to take so much blood from 
the sufferer. It was also the custom to be bled 
in the spring and fall, so as to keep well dur- 
ing the rest of the year, a custom akin to the 
one prevalent in the days oi our youth, of 
being drenched with a "yarb tea,'* a villainous 
decoction in which hoarhound, gentian and 
other bitter herbs predominated. According 
to the well regulated almanac, there were for 
phlebotomy fourteen bad da\'s in every month. 
Then we have one day designated as "good." 
another as the "very best."' one "dangerous.' 
one "good in every case." and finally one "very 
questionable." To illustrate how the clays were 
rated for this purpose we will but mention the 

1. Bad. one loses his color. 

2. Bad. causes fever. ' 

2;^. Very good, prevents all sickness, arc' 
strengthens all the limbs of the body. 

Then we have the various astrologicaF signs 
of the almanac, which gave the proper da\-s 
for cutting timber, etc.; also for taking medi- 
cines. So strongly was this belief seated in 
the minds of the populace that cases are known 
in which sick persons died, inasmuch as the\ 
per'^istcntly refused to take the remedy pre- 
scribed by tlie doctor until the signs should 
be right; and the delay proved fatal. 

What chemist ever discovered such a cheap 

and effectual method of putting acetic acid 
into a barrel of cider as our dear old fore- 
fathers in this country less than a hundrtd 
years ago? After the cider was put into the 
ca^ik, it wasnnly necessary to call up the names 
of three of , the. Grossest, most sour-tempered old 
women in the conmiunity and in a loud ton- 
of voice litter their names into the bung-hoU% 
and immediately cork it up, to make the bc>t 
and strongest vinegar in all the neighborhood. 
When now and then some female in the com- 
munity was inclined to show an unnecessary 
degree of temper, her friends wouici jokinglv 
remind her that she might waken up some 
frosty autumn morning and find herself in a 
vinegar barrel I 

The belief that a savage dog could be charm- 
ed out of harm by incantations was everywhere 
prevalent:. All that was required to do this 
was to repeat certain words or verses, which I 
no longer remember, before entering upon the 
dog premises, and at the same time pull up a 
fence-stake and reverse its position in the 
ground. These things done, the dog's mouih 
was sealed, and the visitor was relieved of all 
danger from the canine's teeth, until the re- 
versed fence-stake was again placed in its 
natural position. 

Another and more pleasant superstition fd 
the early German settlers was their belief in 
the virtues of the Domestic Benison or Haus- 
Scgen, a written or printed invocation, promi- 
nently displayed upon the walls of the living- 
room and in many cases recited daily as a 
morning-and-evening prayer. This Benison was 
usually a small printed sheet, frequently orna- 
mented or embellished with allegorical figiires. 
frequently crude pictures, representing angels 
and symbolic flowers. 

The best known and perhaps most widely 
circulated oi these domestic invocations, con- 
sists of four verses and an invocation: 

In rhe tlirte .most ex.ilted names. 
Fatht^r. Son nnd Holy Oh.>st. 
That are praised b.v ani:elir choirs. 
Health. Peace and lUesslng — Aineo. 

The first verse invokes the blessing of Gol 
upon the house and ground, the coming har- 
vest and growing crops, that the cattle nt.ny 
increase, and that God. in His fatherly goo<l- 
iiess. will protect house, estate, stable and barn 
from all mishaps, especially fire. 

The second verse pleads that the plow of 
health may shine upon every cheek, prays for 
strength for our labor, and that neither hail 
nor storm may injure the tender blossoms, nor 
late frosty and early colds kill the fruit. 

The third verse is a supplication that r!ic 
blessed Redeemer extend His power and inrV.i- 
ence over the house and family, tliat every^io 
therein may strive after virtue and live po.icv- 
fully. .>o that all sin and wickedness be a 
stranger to this house. 

Pinallv. the prayer asks that the Holy Gho*t 
abide here and take up his rc>ting place; bfe^* 
our outgoing and home-coming, aiul in the en»l 
grant unto us a blessed death and receive u- 
as heirs of heaven. 


Literary Gems 







1^' '■ ' ■ v^^r^-Zl iv^ ^-^- '■•;^,'ii*«*«^?^.'^'- -• ■- 'A;^i;--' •■:^';:=r-^ -^^-^'A 


BY H. A. S. 

^[y thoughts turn back to the long ago, 

To the friends of my joyous youth. 
How fast the evening hours would fly 

In our merry group, forsooth! 
And when at last I was going home, 

How my heart rejoiced at the blaze 
1 hat from the lower window o'er 

The white fields met my gaze! 

For I knew that my mother was waiting 

I"or her late-out boy. with loving care. 
Father might be in "bed long ago. 
But Mother, kind Mother, sat waiting below, 

And when I had grown to man's estate, 

I'ull freely abroad I would stray. 
^ ct sometimes siill, if not all too late 
I wended my homeward way, 
>\ hen the house came in view, with a quick 

f perceived that steady light. 
LiNc a beacon to guide the wanderer 
^till out in^ the drear, dark night. 

I lu-n I knew that my mother still waited 
I"'"' her roving son with watchful care. 
• •''•her had gone to bed long ago. 
I'lit Mother sat patiently waiting below. 

^"Uictinies she would chide me tor staving so 
J''Jt why should she vigil keep 
^"Hc by the lamp until I came back, 

Thus robbing herself of sleep? 
Was it not a foolish anxiety? 

So I thout^dit. but little I knew 
What a mother feels for her only son, 

What a mother's love will do. 

And still sometimes she was waiting there. 
Tho' thankless was her sleepless care. 
Father indeed to bed would go, 
But Mother, fond Mother, sat waiting below. 

Then followed the years of our wedded lite. 

When a home we had found in town. 
And weeks would pas>^ ere the dear old folks 

To visit we'd come down. 
Yet still from that wimiow. night by night. 

Shone forth the light, like a star, 
Of the lamp by which my mother sal. 

Sending her thoughts afar 

To us, all fraught with love and care. 
Sitting and thinking and praying there. 
P\ather still early to bed would go. 
Rut Mother, kind Mother, sat thinking below. 

And when our p.iin asul sorrow had come. 

My wife's long misery. 
And so seldom I >aw the dear old place. 

How sweet was the synipatliy 
Of Mother dear, how nu soul rejoiced 

The light in the window to see. 
When 1 came up late from the other home. 

And knew she was waiting for me 1 




For surely then she was waiting there 
For her grief-worn son with pitying care. 
Father as ever to bed would go, 
But Mother, dear Mother, sat waiting below. 

Ah, all too soon, though old and gray, 

That mother was called above ! 
And when she was gone I fully knew 

How great 'had been her love. 
But Father remained in the dear old place, 

And for me the light still shone 
When at intervals long I thither came 

Of an evening late alone — 

And I knew, tho' strangers were living there 
My father was waiting his bed to share 
With me, but for whom he'd retired long ago 
And now he sat waiting for me below. 

But the tenants moved out and my father died, 
And for months the old house stood 

All vacant and still by day and night. 
Limned white 'gainst the northern wood. 

And once or twice I passed that way, 

Yet no light greeted my eye. 
So I wandered on with a lingering look 

And thought of the years gone by — 

When Mother, kind Mother, was wailing 

For her wandering son with lovijig care. 
And the nights not yet so long ago. 
When Father sat in her stead below. 

And now again, when I pass at night, 

I may see a light as of yore. 
But it gives me no joy, and I enter not; 

It is home to me no more. 
Strangers are gathered around the lamp, 

My loved ones all are gone. 
No cheer, no bed is waiting me there, 

And sadly I wander on. 

No mother, no father is waiting there 
For their weary son with pitying care. 
They have passed beyond earth's joy and wo. 
And now I am waiting alone below ! 



Meim Pap is nix gebrota, 

Ich mag macha was ich will. 
Wann ich juscht als en bissel schwetz, 

Dokreischt er glei : "Sei schtill!" 

Geschter Owet war er mol daheem, 

Mit ema lahma Bee. 
Do haw ich en so Sacha g'frogt, 

As ich net recht verschteh. 

Ich 'haw en g'frogt, eb's wohr is 

As die Welt uf Radder geht ; 
Forwas mer sagt, die Schpring die laaft, 

Wann sie doch immer schteht ; 

Un wu der W^ind dann hi' blost. 

Un eb er widder kummt ; 
Eb der Mann im Mond als g"scholta werd, 

Wann's nachts so arrig brunmit ; 

Un eb der Schternaschnuppa 
Die Schterna niesa macht ; 


Un was es is as dunnert, 
Un eb's 's Knalla is wu kracht ; 

Un eb der Schtarm dann heem muss, 
Weil er sich so arg dummelt, 

Un eb er net ah Kinner hot, 
Weil er so machtig brummelt ; 

Un eb die Fisch beim Schwimma 

Net alsemol vcrsaufa; 
Eb Esel. wann sie ins Wasser falla, 

Noh darcii die Ohra schnaufa; 

Eb en Warmfenz dann Warm hot, 

Un alle Sei en Ben ; 
Forwas mer Bicra roppa muss. 

As doch ken Feddra hen ; 

Eb der Mann im Mond en Hut a' hot, 

Un Iwerrock un Sciiuh. 
Noh hot cr mich ins Bett gejagt. 

Un ich hab doch nix geduh I 



Die junga Leit in unsra Zeit Dart gehna all die Mannsleit hi'. 

Hen arrig viel Plessier. Die junga awer's menscht. 

Die Meed die danza Dag un Xacht, Die Meed sin ah. bei Cracky, do — 

Die Buwa trinka Bier. Die wicsohta un die schenschr. 

Es Kartaschpiela macht viel G'schpass, Uima die war'n Singschul gar nix wert 

Un's Flirta mit da Meed. Un trucka ah dabei : 

Dcs is die Fun for City-Leit, En jedor hot sei .\ag uf sie — 

Die heessa sie first-rate. Do kunnnt die Music nci. 

For mei Deel. ich geh net mit nei. 

Geb mir die Land-Singschul ! 
Dart geht mer hi' for scheena G'schpass 

Un folligt ah der Rule. 
Dart singt mer oft en Kerchalied 

Un scheena Songs dazu. 
Wie Johnny Schnioker. Pat Malloy 

Un Yankee Doodlcdoo. 

Es Singn wahrt net arrig Inng: 

's is zimlich g'sciiwind vorbei. 
Der Teacher sacht : "Ihr singen gut. 

Desmol wart ihr getrei. 
Heit iwer'n Woch is widtlcr Schu! : 

Kunun: all boi. wann ihr konnt. 
'Ehr' sei dom \*ater und dom Sohn.* 

Des singa mer zum End." 



Wami nail sel Lied noch g'sunga is, 

Was gi'bt's doch dann en Jacht ! 
Per Teacher, niit der Gei^^ in Hand, 

(iebt ilina all Gutnacnt. 
Die Binva schpringa nocli der Dihr, 

Sie lossa'n schmaler W'eg ; 
Sio gucken all gar wetters scharf, 

Sin bang '*s gebt en Mistake. 

Die Meed duhn all ihr Shawls erscht a' 

Des nemnit en giUe Weil. 
Der Weg der is so arrig schmal, 

Sie gehn "in single file." 
Do hen die Buvva all en Chance; 

Mit arrig wennig Liirm 
Froga sic noh die schmarta Meed : 

'"Will you accept my arm?" 

Die menschta schpiela gut ihr Kart 

Un gehna ah net letz ; 
Doch deel die kriega schee der Sack, 

Sie finna net ihr Platz. 

Die gehna hcem mit schwcrem Herz 
Un macha net vie! G'schpass; 

Da neckschta Dag sin sie so sau'r 
As wie en Essigfass. 

's is g'schpassig, dass die junga Leit 

So zamnia wolla geh ; 
's is awcr so, sel's schur genunk. 

Des muss en jedes g'schleh. 
Deel laafa's lichscht da Frolics noh 

Un kratza ufni Sand. 
For mei Deel. geb mt-r immer noch 

Die Singschula im Land. 

Die Singschula im Land, sag ich. 

Die sin mei gree.>chte Freed, 
So lang as die noch g'halta wern, 

Is's mir gar net verleed. 
L^n wann ich schterb. verios>t eich druf. 

Dann, werds der Welt bekannt, 
Dass ich mei Geld un alles geb 

For Singschula im Land. 




Endlich is die Sentapetzern dann nei kumma, 
un so schee wie des Weibsmcnsch a'geduh war, 
hosclit du in deim Lewa nix g'sehna. Sie hot 
uns of course gekennt un hot Hands g'scheekt 
^'.inz rum, awer sie hot ihra Hand zu mir 
g'houa as wann sie im Deeg gewest war, un ich 
hab 'uscht genunk Halt kriegr davun for wissa 
as ich ebbes fescht hab. Sie hot g'saat sie 
war ah "'so weal glad to see us because we 
hailL(l from the deah old Hawsa-Barrick." Xau. 
llasaberg reimt net mit so verflammta Xarr- 
liccta, un's hot mich gemahnt as wann mer 
Wasser trinkt aus'm Wesch-Pitcher un schluckt 
t'u Schpula Nahts. Awer glei is der Mcik nei- 
kunmia un mer hen en guie Zeit g'hat. Mer 
iu-n vun alta Zeita g'schwetzt en halb Schtun 
fulder so, dann, by gosh, kummt des Ludcr 
\Ni(lder in die Schtub un der Mcik war en gc- 
ux-chsclter Mann. Er war 'uscht am Lacha, 
wie sie neikumma is, un sei Maul is zugeklappt 
wie en Hasafall. Ich hab nochderhand aus- 
^;'tuuna. dass es nimmc fashionable is for lacha. 

Glei hot die Bell gerunga for's Nachtessa: 
■i«' hen g'saat 's war for Dinner. Ich hab an 
ri'.ti Watch geguckt un's war halwer siwa. Ich 
hah da Mcik g'frogt, was des meent, un er hot 
»4'>aat, in fasliionable Circles deeten sie Brek- 
!o>cht essa urn elfa, Dimier um sechsa un Sup- 
JMT da neckscht Dag. Un der Disch hctscht 
du "iohna solla, un da Schtcil ! Mir wara ganz 
.'H-i'ni Platz. 

Ich hab drei Dellervoll Supp hand-running 
w''.>->a. Es war. by gosh, ni.\ dart as Supp, 
.*vM>r glei sin die guta Sacha a'fanga kumma. 
L-ii hab gebet for'n annerer Maga. awer ich 
'•t^nk net as der Gut Mann owig uns eenige 
•"^ira .Maga rumleia hot for so'n alter Xarr 
•^•■i' ich. Die Chance vun meim Lewa war 
Y ''^H-i. un cb ich's gewisst hab. haw ich wid- 
••' «■ mei I'uss in die Fall kriogt. En Blcttle- 
vwll gccl Schtofft war newa meim Deller 

g'schtanna. Ich hab en LeflFelvoIl ufg'schepp: 
un bin g'schtart for's Maul. Der LeflFel is 
anna kumma uf Rigelwegzeit, awer er ho: nix 
gebrocht. Ich hab mei Bart, mei Bruscht un 
so on unnersucht. awcr nix g'funna. Der Meik 
hot a'fanga lacha, awcr sei Frah hot'n a'ge- 
guckt un die Hasafall is zuganga. Er ho: dar- 
noh expleent. sel war en fashionable Dish as 
iie "floating island" heessa deeta — mil annera 
Warta. "wind-pudding." 

"Well, naul" haw ich g'saat. 'Teh hab schun 
>o viel vun dem Schtotft g'heert. Des is was 
geizige Gemeena ihra Parra fieiera, wann die 
Glieder meh Chriscluadum hen as Gerechtig- 


Xoch'm Supper sin ich un der Meik in die 
Schtub un hen unser Peifa a'g'schteckt. Ic4i 
hab glei ausg'funna. dass der Meik weit vun 
.u'satisfeid is un deet gcrn widdcr an der Ha>a- 
l)erg ziega, awer sei Frah eriaabt's net. Ich 
hab'm g'saat, so schee wie er alles do hct, 
>ot er net grummela. awer cr hot g'saat: 

"Gottlieb, du verschtehscht die Sacha net. 
Ich bin en Bergknabber un bleib eener so lang 
:i5 ich leb. Mei Frah is en Socioiy-Belle, un 
wann sie net draus is Calls macha. dann 
schpringt sie uf der Schtross rum. Geld sam- 
mela for wollige Blankets kaaia for die Heida 
in Afrika. wu die Sun so heess is as sie cm 
die Hoor absengi. Sio is die halit Zei: net 
daheem. Ich kricg sie verba ftig alsemol en 
ganze Woch net zu sehna except am Disch. 
un noh muss ich so Acht gewa dass ich net 
rluch. wann sie mer verzehlt vun all donna 
Sacha. da^s ich mei Essa net enjoya kann — sel 
is. wann mer ebbes zu essa hen. .Awer wie 
will sie ebbo< rurischia. wann sie die ganz 
/.oil uf der Schtross rum hammelt? Ich winsch 
als ebmols ich war drowa am Eilakop, hmnig 



'm ?Iasaberg, dass ich mich 'uscht amol recht 
satt Hucha kcnnt. Awer do darf ich's net diih. 
Wann als ihr Freind kiimnia for'n Ihms cssa, 
dann geht allcs so neis her dass es mer ver- 
leed. Ich darf net laut lacha. Un essa? Da- 
heem haw ich als'n Schtick Ebbelboi in die 
Hand genunima un 'n Kaft raus sebissa wie'n 
Schtiffelzieger. Nan muss ich Boi essa mit 
der Gawel un in recht klecna Schticklen an 
sellem. Awer ich bin willens, eeniger Weg zu 
essa, wann 'uscht ebbes uf'm Disch is, for wann 
die Cumpany fart is, muss ich "leavin's" fressa 
for'n ganze Woch, un die menscht Zeit schteh 
ich am Schank for sel duh. . . . Was denkscht 
du vun so Chrischtadum, Gottlieb?" 

"Well, Meik," haw ich g'saat, "ich dauer dich 
vun Herza. Du hoscht ewa en Katz im Sack 
kaaft. Wann du net 'm alta Sammy Senta- 
petzer sei reicher Buh.gewest warscht, dann 
het sie dich net am Hasaberg ufg'sucht.'' Iwer- 
dem sin die Weibsleit nei kumma, un unser 
Geplauder hot g'schtoppt. 


Mer hen noch grossa Zeita g'hat eb mer Fil- 
delfy verlossa hen. Die Nacht eb mer heem 
g'schtart sin, sin mer in der Theater, un ich 
hab mich verzarnt bis ich krank war. Es war 
en Nigerschoh, un sie hen en alter grokeppiger 
Niger dart rum getraktirt as es'n Sin un'n 
Schand w^ar. Sie hen en verkaaft uf ra Vendu, 
un der Mann wu'n ei'gebotta hot hot'n g'hackt 
mit ra Fahrgeeschel, bis er Rohna uf seim 
schwai-za Buckel g'hat hot wie Brotwarscht. 
Er hot en klee weiss ]\[edel bei sich g'hat. die 
hot'n lerna die Biwel lesa un hot als mit 'm 
gebet. Sie hen sie Evi g'heesa. Endlich is 
die Evi g'schtarw^a un in da Himmel ganga. 
Ja, in da Himmel ! Ich hab sie selwer sehna 
nei'geh, un ich hab 'uscht gewinscht. der Sam 
Siessholz, wu net an'n Himmel glaabt, war 
bei uns gewest, so dass er mol selwer nei'sehna 
het kenna. Die Polly hot Rotz un Wasser 
g'heilt. Sie hot nimme g'heilt g'hat sitter as 
ich's letscht mol heem kumma bin im Buchs. 

Well, wie des Moedli doot war, hen sie wid- 
der ag'fanga der alt Mann traktira. Endlich 
bin ich ufgetschumpt un hab g'saat, wann selle 
Bisness nau net schtoppa deet, dann deet ich 
mol selwer'n Hand drin nemma. Eb ich meh- 
ner saga hab kenna, ' is'n Kerl mit Soldier- 

Kleeder rum kunmia un hot g'saat, wann ich 
mich net dischtera deet, dann deet cr mich 
nans. Ich hab'm g'saat, ich war der Gottliib 
Boonastiel vum Hasaberg, un wann cr nocli 
meh wissa wet, set er mit naus in die Allc\ 
schteppa. Er hot g'saat, des war 'uscht en 
Play, un Nicmand deet weh geduh werra ; 's 
war 'uscht for weisa die die Dcmokrata in der 
South als die. Schklava gctrict hen vor'ni 
Krieg. Sel hot mich widder zu meim Vcr- 
schtand gebrocht. 

Noch^m Schoh sin mer an's Wertshaus for 
iwer Nacht bleiwa, weil mer der neek.>cht 
^larga frih heem schtarta hen wella. Sic hen 
uns nufg'fahra ufm Alligator bis mer die 
Hahna nimme g'heert hen, un darnoh uns 's Beit 
gc wissa. Im eem Eck vun der Schtub war'n 
Hoischtrick. Ich hab der Niger g'frogt, fur- 
was sel war. F2r hot g'saat es war en "fire- 
escape" ; wann's Wertshaus u'g'iehr Feier fanga 
deet, dann set ich die Polly an ce End vum 
Schtrick binna, sie nunner lossa. un darnoh 
hinnanoch krattla. Herrjammerl Denk amol 
dra: Zeha dausent Fuss am a Hoischtrick 
nunner krattla im Hem! Die Gedanka hen 
mich so vergelschiert as ich lang net hab 
schlofa kenna. Wann ah alles recht gewest 
war, het ich ennihau net schlofa kenna, weiTs 
Licht uns die ganz Nacht in die Aaga g'scheint 
hot,as mer schier blind wofra is. Mer hen 
geprowirt for's ausblosa, awer mer hen net 
kenna, weil's in ra kleena Boitel war ; mer 
hetta 'uscht so gut in der Wind geblosa. Mar- 
gets sin mer frih abg'schtari, un bis Owet? 
wara mer widder daheem. 
* * * 

Froh? Well nau, "s Hinkelfedder-Kisse ufm 
alta rota Schockelschtuhl war seilewa net .*o 
weech, un Brotwarscht un Buchweezakucha 
seilewa net so sicss. Ich wet liewer der Pollv 
ihra Theekessel heera singa as die Music vun 
der beschta Band, un waini ich in meim eegcna 
Bett lei. dann tihl ich as waini ich im Himmel 
rum fahra deet uf ra Wolk. en Fahna ufm 
Hut un en Schtick Lvbkucha in jedera Hand. 

Die nei-f angled Sacha schtehna mer gar net 
a'. Ich glaab aw^r, dass's jeder ebber bozahli 
for noch Fildelfy geh. 'uschr for sehna wie en 
kleene Krott as der Mensch is in dcm gro>>.i 



Die Mary hot en Hundle g'hat, 
Sei Schwanz war karz ge-bobbed ; 

Un immer wu die Mary war, 
War's Hundle nohgedappt. 

Die Mary is zum Butcher ganga 
For Schteeks un Fleesch vun Sei. 

So bal as sie bei'm Butcher war. 
War's Hundle ah dabci. 

Sel war for'n Hundle gar ken Platz; 

Des weess doch Jcdermaim. 
's war'n Platz for Warscht, die werra g'macht 

Vun — ewa was mer kann. 

Dann geht die Mary heem mit Fleesch 
. Un Schteeks, gemacht aus Sei. 
Sie geht allee, for's Hundle war 
Jo desmol net dabei. 

Sie ruft cm laut. sie kreischt un peifl, 
Un lockt em in da Deicher. 

Sie sucht im Hans vum Keller a' 
Bis uf der ewerscht Schpeichcr. 

Sie sucht darch alle Schtub im Ilnus. 

\'um Cirutul bis an die Ferscht. 
Sie tinnt es net, for's Hundle war 

Im Butcher seina Warscht! 





A- Few Canvassing Experiences 

TIIl'^ publisher of this mai^azinc re- 
cently made a few short business- 
trips with the double or threefold 
purpose of securing- subscribers and can- 
vassers and eliciting' frank expressions 
of opinion of the work we are trying to 
do. lie is happy to say that he secured 
what seemed to him a fair number of af- 
fn-mative responses to his quest for sub- 
scriptions and promises from a number 
to try to get new subscribers. 

In his efforts he met those who said 
the magazine did not appeal to them and 
curtly declined even to look at it — pos- 
sibly because the very name suggested 
to them that the magazine could have no 
merit, for can any good thing come out 
of Lebanon, East Greenville or Allen- 
town? One man, without even conde- 
scendimr to take a fair look at the dilTer- 
cnt sample copies laid before him, began 
to dwell on the sins, the weaknesses, the 
proverbial slowness of the Germans and, 
tho himself of undeniable Teutonic an- 
cestry, profiting- by his knowledge of the 
vernacular, poured out a tirade against 
the whole tribe — language, people and 
all. Some politely glanced over the 
pages of the magazine, handed it back 
and excused themselves, saying the maq:- 
azine did not appeal to them. Happily 
the results were not all of one type. 

For example, a respected county- 
iud'^e, on looking at the sample copies 
laid before him, said : ''You can make 
vour speech if you want to. but it is not 
necessary : I want to subscribe." Other 
parties, who were busy, said they had no 
time to lo(^k at the magazine had all the 
niaijazines thev wanted, and vet, when 
they did take time to merely qlance over 
the pao-es of a sinele ni.nnber, placed an 
"rder for a year's subscription and prom- 
ised to secure additional subscribers. 
I est the p'ood brethren forget, wc would 
"■«Mitly remind them of the promise, ask- 
!n->- thrm to o;c-) to work soon and tiict all 
the subscribers thev can. We all recall 
tile fainiliar expression. *''The mc^-c the 
merrier." The easc^ with which in maiu' 
•'ases subscriptions were secured is proof 

that people do want the mag^azine when 
they realize what it stands for. It takes 
personal contact, however, to brings about 


What We Found in Snyder County 

In looking about for canvassers we 
ventured into Snyder, said to be the ban- 
ner German county of Pennsylvania to- 
day. If this is not correct, we want to 
know. It is said that even the roosters 
crow in German in this county. A minis- 
ter said so, at least. Lack of time did not 
allow a stay for the night and hence pre- 
vented our finding out by personal obser- 
vation what language the roosters use in 
their morning-greetings. W'e did find 
warm friends, however, and saw a typical 
farming section along the Middlecreek 

Incidentally we may state that we 
heard girls in Snvder sing Biucro as the 
\ounc: people of Berks and Montgomery 
counties have been singing it for a gen- 
eration. Our students of folklore will 
confer a ereat favor If thev w'ill tell us 
how old this soncr and £rame are and how 
this song traveled from Snyder to Mont- 
gomery, or z'ice I'crsa. 

The Passing of the Dialect 

We may also state that we ran across 
evidence of a fact that we of course all 
recognize, namely, that we are living in 
a transition-period and that manv fami- 
lies who now understand the Pennsyl- 
vania-German dialect, tho perhaps not 
speakinci it. will in the next generation 
not use or even understand it. We came 
nc^ro^s fathers wln^ said thev could ^peak 
the German, but their children could not. 
Thus the dialect will gradually and cer- 
tpinb- become extinct. 

While the use of the dialect is decreas- 
itisj. the interest in the wriiin<r of it seems 
to be increasincr. As an evidence of this 
we quote the following from the Re- 
formed Ouirch Record, of June 27: 

Wo h.Tvo occision.illv published .irticlc? in 
tho ili.Tloct in thi> paper. Thev h.-wc heon much 
o'vi<^\cil. Rocontlv a frie!id who appo.irs t-^ 
achiiiro our wav of presenting Ponn<ylvan; 
German, urgcil us sirongiy to publish a dialov: 



column regularly. This \vc could not promise. 
because it is often a question of time and space: 
but we agreed to do this occasionally, as cir- 
cumstances may permit. We therelore pul)lish 
an article in the dialect this week, and others 
will follow. 

Queries, Requests and a Hint 
Kind reader, what is your, opinion and 
experience in this matter? Is the use of 
the dialect in conversation d}ing- out in 
your section? Docs your local paper 
publish dialect matter from week to 
week? Some day we hope to give a pa- 
per on the use of the dialect in the peri- 
odicals of our State. Any data that our 
readers can furnish will be greatly appre- 
ciated. We shall be pleased to hear from 
a good many on the subject. 

The suggestion made by Prof. Buchrle 
at last year's meeting of the Pennsylva- 
nia-German Society, to gather and ar- 
range an anthology or compendium of 
the best Pennsylvania-German literature. 
has not, to our knowledge, been acted 
upon. We fear the idea, excellent tho it 
is, will not materialize verv speedily. Our 
pages, however, remain open all the while 
to the best of this kind which our readers 
mav furnish, as well as to their efforts 
in metrical translation or orifjinal verse, 
Eno^lish or German. That the dialect is 
admirablv suited for humorous sketches 
and stories has been abundantly proved. 

It has been tried less for sentimental and 
serious work, yet we feel sure that in iIk- 
hands of those thoroly trained to its ust- 
it will lend itself almost equally well to 
this sort of composition. Let contribu- 
tors please take nrjte of this. 

The Benefits of Family-Gatherings 

August is pre-eminently the month of 
family reunions. How much are you do- 
ing to revive interest in the history of 
your ancestry? If you are doing noth- 
ing in this direction, you ought to. The 
study of individuals and families helps to 
connect us with the past, teaches inval- 
uable lessons and furnishes the best kinrl 
of material for the future historian. If 
your own family-history has not been re- 
corded, gather whatever facts you can. 
get others to join you in vour labors, hold 
meetings of the Freundschaff. and thu^ 
create an interest in a fascinatincr. profit- 
able field of study. Attend family-gath- 
erings as opportunity presents itscli — 
and speak a good word for The Penx- 
svLVAxiA-GER^fAX whercver vou can. 
Stich £ratherin<::s mav furnish the chaticc 
for securing a number of new subscrib- 
ers. AFake note of items of interest and 
report them to us : our readers will be 
pleased to enjoy with vou the good spicy 
things that are brought out. 

Clippings from Current News 

A Church's Sesquicentennial 

The hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the 
First Reformed church of East Vincent. Ches- 
ter county, was duly celebrated Tune 2. A num- 
ber of visiting clergymen made addresses. 

This old edifice was used as a hospital dur- 
ing the Revolution, and Washington visited the 
sick and wounded soldiers there. Below the 
church is a large monument under which 
twenty-two of the heroes lie buried. 

A Lehigh-Countian's Book 

Of all the papers read at the Inter-Church 
Conference in Carnegie Hall, New York, in 
November, 1905, that of Rev. Cicorge U. Wen- 
ner, D.I)., on Religious Kducation and the 
Public SchcK:)l ; An American Probletu, pro- 
duced the deepest impression. It has now 
been published by nonnell, Silver & Co.. oi 
New York, in book- form. Or. Wenuer is a 
native of Lehigh county and has risen to great 
eminence in the Lutheran Church. 

Big College-Days at Lafayette 

The greatest college-day Easton ever saw 
was June 18. the second day of Laiawtto"- 
diamond jubilee. Representatives of tl)irty-ti\e 
colleges and preparatory schools marched in 
procession in the order oi their founding, from 
Harvard, i63f>. to Chicago, iSqi. T!ie tru-*- 
tees. faculty and alumni oi Lafayette brought 
up the rear. Prof. James McKeen CalteM. 
Ph.D.. of Columbia, spoke on behalf oi liu 
alumni. Prof. Wiljiain Baxter Owen. PhD. 
on the Ide.ils oi Laf.ayeile. and Prof. \h\\:" 
Munsterberg. of Harvard, on tlie Intluejice "f 
the American College. After the exerciser tl^e 
alumni and friends marchetl to the iniddio •"»! 
the campus in front of McKeen Hall. \\her«- 
Burr .Mcintosh took a patu^ramic picture. 
twelve feet li»ng ami sixteen inches higlu slid 
to be the largest photograph in the world. On 
Conunencetnent Day. June 10. honorary de- 
grees were conferrevl on two (tovcrnor^. 
ilughos. of New York, and Stuart. 01 Pe:n.- 




Historians Fraternize 

The Eancastcr County Historical Socicty 
!).!(1 ifi annual outini< June 20 at Accomac, on 
\hv Su^(tuchanna. where it entertained the 
I?t'rks County Historical Society. Addresses 
were made at the dinner, presided over by S. 
M. Sener, of Lancaster, by IJr. John \V. Jor- 
d.m. Philadelphia, president of the State Fed- 
t-ration of Historical Societies, and Luther R. 
Ki-lkcr, the State archivarian at Harrisburg. 

State Claims Memorial Funds 

The Valley Forge Centennial and Memorial 
Association, which met June to for the pur- 
]u)>c of dissolution and distributing the balance 
..f ^\(\700 in the treasury, was continued in- 
drfmitcly, because of a controversy about the 
nwnershio of the monev. 

'I'hc Valley Forge Park Commission has 
made formal demand for all the money on 
hand, claiming that this rightfully belongs to 
it. as the Washington Headquarters at Valley 
Forge are no longer in possession of the Asso- 

Tlie proposition was met with scorn and re- 
ply was given that, since the Commission had 
.injuired the headquarters by right of eminont 
domain and paid the Association $18,000. it 
was not clear how the Commission figured in 
iho ownership of the money. The question 
will probabl}- be decided by the courts. 

Discovery of a Mysterious Cave 

On the farm of the Hallman Sand Company 
near Latshaw's mill. Ik^rks county, workmen 
I'Ncavating for a road have discovered an 
empty cave, ten feet high and eighty feet long, 
liiu;d with solid blue rock, mostly smooth. 

'Ihe appearance of the sides leads to the be- 
lief that the cave was enlarged. It is supposed 
that it was explored more than a century ago. 
for the oldest residents appear to know noth- 
ing about it. Woods, now cut down, formerly 
Mirrounded the entrance, which is along a 
^tiep hill. 

Family-Reunions Again in Order 

The descendants of Franklin Butz held their 
twelfth amuial gathering. June 16, at the home 
"T Charles Tice in East Texas. Lehigh county. 
<H the twelve children of Franklin Butz two. 
Jonathan and Franklin, died last year, but the 
t'-n '-urvivors. whose ages range from 58 to 7(1 
\ears. were present along with three later gen- 
erations, numbering 12 r persons in all. 

I he Fcnicle familv held its ninth reunion, 
lune 22, at Central Park. Riitersville. near Al- 
•^nt..w!i; fjT, members with many friends were 
pre^'nt. Specially honored guests were Henry 
'etiicle and wife, of South Dakota. 

I he P)aer Family Association has taken steps 
t*t >-ecurc ificorporaiion and will hold this 
\ear\ reunion in Kutztcnvn -Park .August 3. 
I iie B.n er family will rea^^^emble at the same 
i'l.ivv September 2. The Knauss family has 
^'»ted not to have a reunion this year. 

A "Saengerpreis" for AUentown 

The fourth annual Sangerfest of the Feder- 
ation of German Singers of Pennsylvania wa« 
held at Wilkes-Barre June 9 and 10, followinj; 
immediately after the State convention of the 
German-American Alliance. Societies from 
Scranton, Altoona, Reading, Tamaqua. Le- 
highton. AUentown, Easton, Bethlehem. Hazk- 
ton and Wilkes-Barre took part in the prize- 
singing. The second prize was awarded to 
the Lehigh Sangerbund, of AUentown, who<-e 
president. John Graeflin, was also elected pres- 
ident of the Federation. 

Commencement at Muhlenberg 
The fortieth commencement of Muhlcnberi? 
College, AlleiUown, was held June 20. with a 
s:raduating class of sixteen younc men. Tb** 
Latin salutatory was spoken by Willis F. Dei- 
bert. of Schnecksville, the valedictory by Ed- 
ward T. Horn. Jr., of Reading. Russell C. 
Mauch. of Hellertown, delivered the German 
oration, «;peaking forcefully of the patriotism 
of the Pennsvlvania-Germans. The speaker 
made a decided hit when he said that the Penn- 
svlvania-Germans are but little to blame fo- 
the evil conditions of our political life, and 
that the hateful English word .^raft ha.« no 
counterpart in German. Much enthusiasm 
was aroused when President TLias announced 
a contribution of $40,000 to the endowment- 
fund, made by ex-^^ayor Schieren. of Brooklyn. 


Dr. Chaki.fs J. Sciiulzf. the oldest practic- 
ing physician in Berks countv. died at Reading 
June 16, aged 8g. He was born in Gcrmanv. 
educated in that country, and came to America 
in 1853. 

Dr. H. E. ^[riii.FXBF.RG, a well-known phy- 
sician and ex-mayor of Lancaster, died there 
June 17, aged 57. He graduated from i\w 
L'niversity of Peiuisylvania in Tv^7T and served 
five vears in the hospitals of the U. S. marine. 
ITe was a descendant of Henry Mclchior Muh- 
lenberg, and a nephew oi Gen. Peter Muhlen- 
berg, of Revolutionary fame. 

Cot.. Jacob D. L.\ci.\r. postmaster of Wilkes- 
Barre. Pa., died there Jutie 2J. after a brief 
illness. ITe was born near Bethlehem Aucn^r 
3T. 18.^9. as a son of Jacob Henry Lacier Tr . 
who had immigrated from Lorraine alxnit 
1820. He entered the Federal <ervicc .\ug. i^. 
r862, as second lieutenaiii oi Co F. Hundred- 
Thirty-second regiment of Pennsylvania, and 
served until the close oi the war. He ro^A* 
part in a number of battles, was wounded at 
AiUietam and Fredericksburg and advanced 
to the rank of colonel. After the war he cop- 
tiimod the nublicUion of the Mauch Chunk 
Gazette until the destruction of hi< printinr 
plant by fire in 1868: later he held editorial 
i>osition>j on the Scranton Repuhlican and - 
Wilkes-Barre Record He began journalistic 
work as a bov and alwav'? fought strenuously 
for high national principle^. As pv>stm.'is:er 
he worked hard for the itnprovement of the 
service and instituted imp<.^rtant reform^ — V 




Chat with Correspondents 

A "Dutchman" Among the Ozarks 

From far-off Arkansas, like ''a voice cryiiiL^ 
in the wilderness." as it were, came these re- 
freshing words, introducing some genealogical 
notes and queries also published in this issue: 
T don't suppose it is often that you hear 
from Arkansas, and perhaps less often that 
a subscriber takes up his haunt in these 
rugged Ozarks. This is a hard place for 
a "Dutchman" and one of the few remote 
corners of the country into which he has 
not penetrated in more than i-olated in- 
stances. I have made up my mind that '*' 
I find one — a fellow in misfortune — I will 
make him subscribe to The Pexx.svlv.ania- 
German. Anything like a magazine meets 
as little use here as a silken waistcoat in 
Uganda, and since my iimuigration hither, 
where reading is so rare. I have learned 
to appreciate better what comes into my 
log-cabin. T have read your interesting 
periodical with such avidity that even the 
ads are half committed to memorv. Not 
that T love Arkansas less, but civilization 
We trv to imagine, though we can no: right- 
Iv conceive, the conditions that surround you. 
Brother E., so far as literarv mind-food i< 
concerned. But surely they have not dried 
up the fountain of your humor. You are for- 
tunate still in having this best of magazines 
with you to cheer your loneliness. You appre- 
ciate it much more than many of our people in 
"civilized" regions, where tnagazines. and gnod 
ones too, are plenteous as blackberries. For 

your sake as well as ours we sincerely \vi«h 
you may find quite a number of fellows in 
misfortune. Your breezy letter leads u? to 
dream of the dav when The Pex.v.svlv.vxia- 
Germax shall follow his namc-akcs into everv 
nook and comer of the world, even to Uganda 

What is the English for "Dengelstock"? 

For a long time I have been trying lu 
find an English name for what the Penn- 
-sylvania-Germans call Dniodstock—th^ 
little iron instrument on which they ham- 
mer the edge of their broad German 
scythes to sharpen them. Usually I carry 
a sample to show people who ought to 
ktiow. btit as yet I have heard onlv two 
names, scytlic-auz-il and attenuator. Is 
there no other? T. K. H. 

Scytlic-aniil is the only English name we 
ever heard applied to the article in question. 
This name seems quite proper, as it is a son 
of anvil on which to hammer a' scythe. Attcn- 
I'ufor is Latin and would apply better to the 
DcH^cIhanimcy, since it is this that attenu- 
ates or thin< the edse of the .^cythe. while the 
anvil remains passive. Taking that much- 
meaning word stock- according to Webster'^ 
third definition, '"something fixed or solid, n 
firm support, a post." it would seem quite 
proper to use it in this connection, calling the 
Pcn^rlstock a scythc-sfock or IiajiiHwriii.:- 
stock. We are ready to hear further remarks 
on the question. 

Genealogical Notes and Queries 

This department is open to all our subscribers. Contributors will please state their questions an.1 inforrna- 
tion as clearly and briefly as possible, being: particularly careful in writing names and dates. For the hcn«f': 
of readers generally it is desired that answers to the questions under this head be addressed to the editor ot 
this magazine. 

What of Henry Oswald and the Everetts? 

May T a.'-k for inform. ition about the de- 
scendants of Henry Oswald, who came to this 
country in 1732 or 1735 and located as one oi 
the very first settlers in what is now Lynn 
township. Lehigh county? 

T have gathered perhaps the greater part of 
the accessible information concerning the de- 
scendants of his eldest son. Daniel, and have 
succeeded in tracing many oi tho<e ot hi^ 
second .son, Jacob. Of his third son. flenrv. 
and his descendants I have little or no knowl- 
edge. T shall therefore be glad to receive any 
facts about them and incorporate them in the 
fauiily-history on which I ha\e been at work 
for several years and which I hope :o pubii<h 
ere louij. T shall be obligeii to any one wlu^ 
will help me to increase my genealogical data. 

May I ask also for information about the 
Everetts of Lynn t.-»wnship? .Although I have 
ascertained that ihey are oi Xew Englaml 
origin. I would like to know whether the n.mi'^ 
is also originally German. 

Rfv. Charles E. Oswai.p. 

Trinity Chanel. West 25th St.. Xew York. 

Williams, Boone, Thomas 

Duncan Williams, also kjiown as Dirck .«' 
Dunck Williams, or Williamson, had a grant 
oi land. K>(x). on the east side oi the Schuvl- 
kill from the mouth up. He fin.iUy settled ."•! 
I'ensalem in TtV^. Dunk's Fcrr> was n.micd 
after him. He died if) if'o) and was buric«t 
in the Johnson burial-gmund at Rojisaloru. Hi^^ ha\e been di-tingiii-ihed Mi-* *•»" 
W"iliiam died in 1722. leavij\g a widow and h>* 
.sons : Jacob. Abraham. John. William. Pclor 



( I-'rom "Literary Era,'' Philadelphia, April, 

I should like to know his naiionality and 
wlieiice he came, also who his descendants 
were and whither they went. I am descended 
from one Jacob Williams, who had a brother 
John, son of Mark Williams, and I will appre- 
ciate any information about the Williamscs. 

In an answer to Query Xo. VJ, in your issue 
of October, 1906. it is said that Daniel Roonc 
was a son of George Boone, the immigrant 
who married Mary Morgan, and a brother to 
S(|uire Boone. According to my notes, Daniel 
was the son of Squire, son of George Boone, 
who landed at Philadelphia with his nine sons 
and two daughters, October 10. 1717. Squire, 
son of George Boone, married at Gwynedd 
Meeting, . July 23. 1720, Sarah, daughter of 
Edward Morgan, and had nine children : 
Sarah, 1724; Israel. 1726; Samuel. 1728; Jona- 
than, 1730; Elizabeth, 1732; Daniel, the ex- 
plorer. 1 73-1 ; Mary. 1736: George, 1739, and 
lulward, 1740. Daniel married in 1755 Re- 
becca Bryan and had these children: James, 
Israel. Daniel, Nathan, Susan, Jemima. La-- 
vinia and Rebecca. T should be pleased to 
ha\c these data corrected, if they be in error. 

My grandfather. John Thomas, born in In- 
diana or Pennsylvania, in Warren county, in 
Ma\-. 1815. of Welsh descent, claimed to be 
third cousin to Daniel Boone, through descent 
from Boone's aunt, of North Carolina. Can 
anyone give me any information al^out 
Thomas's relation to Boone, or any facts about 
the Thomas family? 

George Thoma.s Edsox. 

IX'nnard, Ark. 


The Shull Family 

.\ reference to Elias Shull in the March in- 
stalment of "Myles Loring" suggests some 
.genealogical facts with reference to the Shull 
family which may prove of interest. My great- 
great-grandfather was Elias Shull, of Tinicum 

towuNhip, Bucks county, and afterwards of 
Lower Mount Bethel township. Northampton 
county. }'enn>ylvania. His father was Peter 
Scholl. who immigrated tf) this country in 1739. 
settling in Bucks county, where he was natur- 
alized in 1749. He held property in Mil ford 
township and died about the time of the Revo- 
lution. He had three sons: Elia>. Philip and 
Peter. Philip died in 1783. leaving alxjut two 
hundred acres in Milford town-hip. tog^ether 
with a saw-and-grist mill. He left minor chil- 
dren. Elias and Peter. Fllias moved to North- 
ampton county after 1790. where many of his 
descendants are to be found He had a son. 
a grandson and a great-grandson named Elias. 
Philip Shull was a member of Captain Henry 
Huber's company of Associators of Milford 
town'^hip; Peter was a Heutenant of the mili- 
tia; Elias served under Colonel Lacy and was 
under Gener'il Greene in South Carolina, ac- 
cording to fam.ily-tradition. There seems to 
be, however, no available record of either !»cr- 
vice of said Elias, although the absence of 
name from the tax-lists of Bucks county f-~- 
the years 1781 and 1782 might indicate his ab- 
sence from the county, probably on military 

I would be pleased to have any data wi^'h 
reference to the Scholl or. as Americanized. 
Shull family which any of your subscribers 
may possess. Ezra M. Klhxs. 

Dayton, O. 


What of Andrew Ficathorn? 

I wish to secure data respecting the ances- 
try, birth, marriage, death antl burial of .\n- 
drew Eichihorn, a resident of Berks countv. 
Pa., married to Maria Katherine Spayd. 
Among his children were: Andrew Spayd. 
1804-185S; Michael, who lived and died in 
Lewisburg. Pa., and F*.enjamin. who lived in 
Berne, Indiana. 

Mrs. Frank Oenslac.F-r. 

272 Briggs St.. Harri>burg. Pa. 

Our Book-Table 

Anr book or pamphlet reviewed in these colnmns will be sent to any aiMress by the Tiiblisher of The Penn- 
"vlvania-Gorman on receipt of the published price. Postasre must be added when it is mentioned separttely. 
Any ofi:pr book w.anted by our readers may be ordered throujrh us at the publisher's price. Inquiries will be 
promptly and cheerfully answered. 

Bulletin of the University of South Carolina. 
Catalog 1906-7. Issued quarterly. Xo. IX. 
April 1907. Columbia, S. C. 

The South Carolina College was chartered 
^'y the General Assembly in iSot and opened 
I" the youth of the State Jan. 10. 1805. Dur- 
'ug the Civil War it was used as a hospital by 
slie Confederates, but in i8<i6 it was reopened 
under an amended charter as the University 
"f South Carolina. In 1878 it was divided into 
tw.) branches: Smith Carolina College, at Co- 
^iJii'-bia.anilClafton College, at Orangeburg. The 
'oriiU'r was reopened in 1880 as South Carolina 

College of .\griculture and Mechanics, and t:i 
1887 again became the Stale University. In 
October 18S8 it was opened with a president. 
twxnty professors and seven instructors in six 
departments. These in i8<x> were cut down to 
four : classics, literature, sciences and law. In 
1804 teachers* courses were added and youn*; 
women admitted to all the courses. The cen- 
tennial of the college was celebrated Tan. S-IO. 
too;. In iO(X> the in>tiiuliiMi was again reor- 
ganized with four schools: arts, sciences, leadi- 
ing and law The catalog before us con- 
tains eipht tine views ot the college campus 
anil buildincs. 




German Religious Life in Colonial Times. By 
Lucy Forney liittinger. Philadelphia and 
London. J. B. Lippincott Co. 145 pages 
In her foreword the author of this book 
states that it deals with much the same subject 
as her earlier work, The Germans in Colonial 
Times, but is specifically confined to the re- 
ligious life of the same period and people. 
In the title she has preferred the term "Re- 
ligious Life" to ''Church Life." because the 
latter might be understood as applying only to 
the three tolerated confessions, Lutheran, Re- 
formed and Catholic, which were usually 
spoken of as "churches." while the other de- 
nominations were generally known as "sects." 
The book 'is divided into six chapters: Re- 
ligious Conditions in Germany, The Separa- 
tists, The Church-People. The Moravians, The 
Methodists and The Gemian Churches during 
the Revolution. To these are added a Conclu- 
sion and an Index. The book is written in a 
simple and attractive style and bears evidence 
throughout that the author has given great 

care to gathering, sifting and arranging her 
material. \Vc recommend it specially to tho^c 
who wish to obtain, in a limited time, a fair 
general knowledge of the religious character 
and doings of our forvfathcrs from the time 
of their first coming over to the close of the 

Transactions of the Historical Society of Berks 

County. Volume II. No. 2. Kmbracin-.: 

Papers Contributed during the Year 190/j. 

78 pages, small octavo. 

This pamphlet contains an address of tl.-- 

president of the Society, delivered March 1 i. 

1906; obituary sketches with portraits of I):- 

Q. Heber Plank and John D. Missimer; In<li.«n 

Massacres in FJerks County and the Story «»i 

Regina the Indian Captive, by Rev. J. \V. 

Early; Early History of the Reformed Church 

in Reading, by Daniel Miller; The Cavc> <•? 

Richmond and Perry Townships. Berks Cmuii- 

ty, by William J. Dietrich: A X'isit to Renl 

ing, England, by Rev. William K. Henkoll ; 

also minutes of meetings and treasurer's report. 

Calendar of Pennsylvania Historj^ 

JUNE, 1907 

I. First primary elections under new State 

3. First session of State Supreme Court in 
new Capitol. — Jefferson Medical College grad- 
uates 126 young physicians. 

4. State Board of Agriculture opens spring- 
meeting at Allentown. — 48th State encamp- 
ment of the G. A. R. at Easton. 

5. Col. William J. Harvey, prominent coal- 
operator, dies at Wilkes-Barre. 

6. Republican State convention at Plarris- 
burg nominates John O. Sheatz as State treas- 
urer and recommends Senator P. C. Knox as 
presidential candidate. 

7. Experts' report on Capitol trimmings 
brings overwhelming proof of fraud. — Fifty- 
fifth annual meeting of Progressive Friends at 
Kennett Square. 

8. State meeting of German-American Al- 
liance at Wilkes-Barre. 

9-10. Siingerfcst of Federated German 
Singers at Wilkes-Barre. — Socialist State con- 
vention nominates Samuel Clark as State 
treasurer. — Dr. William F. Detweiler. oldest 
practicing physician in the State, dies at Hel- 
ler town. 

10. Twentieth annual meeting of State For- 
estry Association near Jenkintown. 

II. Gov. Stuart vetoes soldiers' pension- 
bill. — Six-County Farmers' Association meets 
in Mahanoy City. — State convention of Uni- 
versalists at Reading. — 58th annual State Coim- 
cil of I. O. R. M. at Lancaster. 

12. Suit filed in Federal Court at Phil.idel- 
phia to prevent further unlawful combinations 
of hard-coal companies. — Dr. Charles E. Cad- 

walader, of Philadelphia, dies in London. — 
Snow near Cresson. 

12-13. West Pittston celebrates golden ju- 

13. Seventy-first Commencement of Fraj-.k- 
lin and Marshall College. Lancaster. 
^ 14. New York Audu Co. reports to Capit«»i 
Commission, showing gross overcharge^. — 
Destructive cloudburst at McKeesport, slight 
snowfall in central Pennsylvania. — Death of 
C. W'eslev Thomas, collector oi the port at 

17. State camp of Sons oi Veterans in 
Scranton. — Dr. H. E. Muhlenberg, physiciai'. 
dies at Lancaster. 

17-19. Diamond jubilee of Lafayette Col- 
lege. Easton. 

18. National Association of State-Rank 
Supervisors opens in Philadelphia. — Thirtieth 
annual meeting of State Pharmaceutical .\--- 
ciation at l*edford. — Fatal explosion in p<'\\d< .- 
factory at Sinnemahoning. — Hundred fifty-fi'-- 
Conmiencement of the I'nivcrsity of Pa. 

21. Ex. -Gov. Pennypacker testifies bct'-ro 
Capitol Conunission. — Tenth annual nicetiiii: "i 
Four-CoutU\ Firemetrs Association in K.»«>!« " 

24. 5000 Germans celebrate a Sanjreriosl in 
Washington Park. Philadelphia. 

25. Thirteenth amuial meeting of Stare B. ' 
Association at Bedford Springs. 

26. Democratic State convention at H-*' 
risburg nominates John G. Harman as«^ 

28. Capitol investigation closes with tnH 
proof of fraud .itui «>tHcial declaration of pra.T 

2g. Skating carnival at Chester after m."»k 
ing a "city beautiful." 

VOL. VIaI, No. 9 

SEPTEMBER, !!;« ? 






The Third Instalment of Our Illustrated Symposium 


With Articles on Luth'£Ran SECOxnARv Schools axd 
CoLLEGKS and ^Iokavian Educatioxal Labors 
Among the Ixdiaxs. Also: 

Rfa'erecxd Johx H. Oberiioltzer, Teacher. Locksmith. 
Preacher and Publisher (Illustrated Biographical 

The Dietrichs ix Europe and America (Illustrated 
Historical Address) 

Germax Surnames : Thc^r OriLi^in, Chansres and Signi- 
fication. Chapter T\' 

Myees Lorixg: A Tale of the Tulpcliocken (Illustraied 
Serial Stor.\ Cliapters XII and XIII 

Literary Gems. Editoriat. CoM:.rE\T, Xews-Cetppixgs. 


Queries, etc.. etc. 

Full Table of Co3tei;t3 back of Frontiipiece. Bu«ines3 Mattfri en nfxt pajt. 


'C-M£7jrjnE5S2^- :>i3^ss^Msr '.isr: 

7 n'JL 3 R. ' g g JS;MiL^. JBMgatM«JRit B HflU«.a.mM I 

Sll^ P^ttttjgi|Iuama-(g^rman 




Frontispiece— Theological Seminary of the Lutheran General Synod, 

Gettysburg, Pa. Recitation-Hall . 402 

The Pexnxsylvaxia-German in His Relation to Education— A 
Symposium (continued) 

Lutheran Secondary Schools and Colleges— By Rev. Frederic 

G. Gotwald, D.D ^ 403 

Moravian Educational Labors Among the Indians— By Rev. 

John Greenfield 415 

Reverend John H. Oberholtzer, Teacher, Locksmith, Preacher and 

Publisher .^ 420 

The Birth of the American Army — By Plorace (concluded) 424 

The Dietrichs in Europe and America — By Rev. W. W. Deatrick, 

A.M., Sc.D. 428 

German Surnames : Their Origin, Changes and Signification — By 

Leonhard Felix Fuld, ALA., LL.^^I. (continued) .... 434 

Myles Loring: A Tale of the Tulpehocken— By Rev. Alden W. 

Quimby. Chapter XH and XHI 439 

Clippings from Current Xews . . ' 446 

Literary : /. 

A Birthday-Greeting to Baby John — By H. A. S 447 

Der wiescht Mann vun der Flett — By Charles C. More . . . 448 

Sell Schtettel im Xordkill Dahl— By M. A. Gruber .... 450 

Editorial Department 451 

Clippings from Current Xews 453 

Chat with Correspondents 455 

Genealogical X'otos and Queries 455 

Qur Book-Table 456 

Calendar of Peimsylvania History. July, 100; 456 


.. V 


41 :i-^- 

i( H't 


1^' ^r^ 

i|Uji;i; Q 




- < 

^ :>■ 

COj' U i ■ 



Mp l^mnB^i\innm-(&nm(Xn 

Vol. VIII 


No. 9 

The Pennsylvania-German in His 
Relation to Education 

A Symposium of Historical and Descriptive Articles 
Edited by Prof. L. S. Shimmell, Ph.D., Harrjsdurg. Pa. 

Lutheran Secondary Schools and Colleges 



Reasons for Educational Inactivity 

IT must be kept in mind that the first 
German settlers in Pennsylvania 
were not Lutherans. Hence an inves- 
tigation into our subject will find very 
little material indeed during the first half 
century of the German occupation of 
Pennsylvania. And even during the 
second half, materials are meager and 
educational eft'orts are not extensive. The 
first full college established by the Luth- 
erans in this country was not established 
until 1832, and these preliminary re- 
marks are made so as to explain, in a 
.t,^eneral way, this educational inactivity 
for the first century of any considerable 
I>utheran population in Pennsylvania. 
We find that as a further explanation of 
tins record of a century, several impor- 
tant facts should be kept in mind. There 
was, first of all, the severe poverty of the 
Lutheran immigrants who first came. 
Many of them were "Redemptioners." 
Ihere was, then, the great disadvantage 
of being badly scattered in location and 
occupied by the strenuous efforts of the 
pioneers. In addition, there was the dis- 
advantage of the foreign language, mak- 
ing it doubly difficult to conduct any ed- 
ucational work. Furthermore, there 
were the distractions of the T^rcnch and 
Indian War and the Revoluticni. So that 
the first century was well occupied with 

acquiring Imnies. organizing churches 
and elementary schools, acquiring an- 
other language, extending and protect- 
ing the frontiers of the white man's set- 
tlements, supporting and conducting the 
Revolutionary struggle for tlie establish- 
ment of a permanent government, and 
doing all of those other necessary things 
which are the slow and costly sttps in 
the process of eft'ecting a great racial 

Another consideration is to be found 
in the fact that, for the greater part of 
this time, the pastors and parochial 
teachers were largely furnished and 
qualified bv the friends who remained in 
the fatherland. Hence the immediate 
necessity of ileveloping spiritual and in- 
tellectual leaders did not compel them to 
develop their educational system at this 
early period. I'esiiles, the colleges of 
other settlers, who had the advantages 
of a much longer residence in the new 
country, were IxMng established, and af- 
forded opportunities for the particularly 
ambitious children of the German set- 

I'ut notwithstanding all oi these con- 
siilerations. it can nin but be felt that the 
Lutheran Church sutt'ered much from 
this long delayed forward step in ilio 
establishment oi secondary schcxMs ami 
colleges on the part of the fathers. Un- 



doubtedly great ;. opporluiiities gind ad- 
vantages were lost which have never 
been recovered. Undoubtedly much 
strength was dissipated through lack of 
leadership and organization, which has 
never been regained. x\nd yet we should 
not criticise the good fathers unjustly. 
Hence it might be in order to mention a 
few of the efl'orts toward educational 
advancement which were made, especial- 
ly during the latter part of the eighteenth 

Education^^l Labors of Father Muhlenberg 
When, in 1743, Henry Melchior ]\luh- 
lenberg entered upon his pastoral work 
in Philadelphia, Providence and New 
Hanover, he at once founded parochial 
schools, teaching both German and Eng- 
lish. As to the condition of the people 
at this time, he says : **I requested the 
congregation to send me here the older 
children, as I intend to go about among 
the three congregations, remaining in 
each successively one week. It does not 
look very promishig to see youths of 17, 
18, 19, 20 years of age appear with the 
A B C-book, yet I rejoice in seeing the 
desire to learn something. Singing has 
also totally died out among the young 
people." And so throughout his wonder- 
ful career as patriarch, organizer and 
spiritual general in the Lutheran Church 
of the eighteenth century in this country, 
this great man always combined the ed- 
ucational with the spiritual, and always 
emphasized the importance of the school 
as well as the Church. Of these numerous 
"church-schools" another has written.* 

In 1754 he very heartily encouraged 
the efforts of the English "Society for 
Propagating Christian Knowledge" in 
establishing their schools throughout 
Pennsylvania. In this work Lutherans 
and Reformed united, and thus the so- 
called "charity-schools" were established 
in 1755 at Providence, New Hanover, 
Vincent, Reading, Tulpehocken. Lancas- 
ter, York and other places. Rev. Michael 
Schlatter was appointed inspector at 
a salary of £100 sterling. The intention 
of these schools was* /"to instruct the 
youth in the English Tanguage and the 

•See article on Oornian Lutfterrtn "Chnrrh-Soh«>->ls" 
hy Kfv. J. VV. Karly In The rennsylvanlu Coruuin 
for .\uBust. l«07.— K(l. 

comm9n principles .of the Christian re- 
ligion and morality. The schoolmasters 
must understand both languages, Ger- 
man and English, and the proper per- 
sons must be found in the province." Al- 
though many of the German population 
did not take kindly to these charity- 
, schools, they were heartily endorsed and 
supported by Muhlenberg and other 
Lutheran leaders. But we hear no more 
of these schools after 1763. 

Muhlenberg also had in mind, for a 
long time (1750- 1760), the establishment 
of an orphanage and place for the prep- 
aration of young men for the ministerial 
office. Speaking later (1775) of the de- 
sirability of a practical training-school 
for catechists and ministers in South 
Carolina, he used these words : 

Oh. what an advantage and consolation an 
institute woLikl be, where catechists could be 
prepared and made wilHng dyring weekdays 
to keep school, and on Sundays and Church 
festivals to deliver suitable sermons ! There 
would be no need to trouble these young men 
four years to study foreign languages. It would 
be quite sufficient if they were gifted with an 
average amount of good common sense, had a 
compendious knowledge of the essentials of 
theology, in addition to personal experience of 
the saving truih, — if thty could make a decent 
use of the pen — had command of their mother- 
tongue and the English ; were also, to some 
extent, masters of the rudiments of Latin : of 
robust bodily frame, able to endure all sorts oi 
victuals and weather; and above all. if they 
were endowed wi.h hearts sincerely loving the 
Savior, His lambs and sheep. 

These were his ideals, and to realize 
them were his constant eff'orts. Similar 
eft'orts were also made by the Lutheran 
settlers in western Pennsylvania. The 
first schoolhouse in that part oi the 
State was built by them in Westmore- 
land county in 1770, with Balihasar 
Myer as their influential teacher. An- 
other such character was Joh.annes 
Stanch in western \'irginia. 

Rev. Kunze's Efforts— Frankhn College 

Muhlenberg's plans were continued by 
the learncil Kunze, "the plan of the lat- 
ter being very comprehensive, as he laid 
the foundation in what was to have been 
a Lutheran college in Philadelphia, anil 
which was . in e.xistence from 1773 to 
1778. It was followed by the establish- 
ment of a German department in the 
University of Pennsvlvania, under Dr. 



Kunze from 1780 to 1784 and, after his 
removal to New York, under Dr. Hel- 
nuith. One of the inducements that 
called Dr. Kunze to Xew York was the 
prospect of a similar department in Co- 
lumbia Colleo^e, which would also com- 
prehend a professorship of theology 
that he was to fill. The year in which 
Dr. Kunze went to New York, Revs. J. 
N. Kurtz, president, C. E. Schultze, sec- 
retary, and H. E. Muhlenberg, a mem- 
ber, were elected from the Lutheran ]^[in- 
isterium as trustees of Dickinson College 
(Methodist), Carlisle, Pa. At this time 
also (1784) an effort was made by the 
Dickinson trustees to secure the co-oper- 
ation and contributions of the T^Iinisteri- 
um, but it failed of results. 

The next active step toward the foun- 
dation of a college was that taken by the 
Ludierans and Reformed in' the organi- 
zation of Franklin College at Lancaster. 
The act of incorporation of 1787 pro- 
vided that the board of trustees should 
consist of 15 Lutherans. 15 Reformed 
and 15 from other churches. the first Lutheran trustees 
were Drs. Helmuth and H. E. Muhlen- 
berg, Revs. Kurtz, Schultze, Van Bus- 
kirk, Llerbst, Melsheimer and General 
Peter Muhlenberg. The president was 
to be chosen alternately from the Luth-. 
eran and Reformed Churches. The pur- 
pose of the institution was stated as *'to 
promote accurate knowledge of the Ger- 
man and English lano:ua,2:es ; also of the 
learned languages ; of mathematics, mor- 
al and natural history, divinity, and also 
such other branches of literature as will 
tend to make men good and useful citi- 
zens." - " 

The first president was Dr. Henry 
I'.rnst Muhlenberg. His inaugural, 
June 6, 1787, most forcibly shows the 
value of Christian ideals in education. 
His text was, "Bring them up in the 
nurture and admonition of the Lord." 
and he asserted diat the religious in- 
•^truction was to be the main object to 
be kept in view in all of the instructions. 
Another distinguished Lutheran in the 
faculty was Rev. F. \'. Melsheimer, 
^'•niotimes called the Father of American 
^-ntomology, who had the department of 
^^reek, Latin and German. There were 

112 students in the English department 
alone during the first year. Unfortun- 
ately the financial management was such 
that we find that it soon degenerated into 
.little more than a local academy, until, in 
1850, funds accruing from the sales of 
lands f 10,000 acres) in western Penn- 
sylvania, which had been given by the 
State, put the institution upon a stronger 
financial basis. The Lutherans' share 
(over $17,000) was now transferred to 
found the Franklin ])rofe5sorship in 
the Lutheran College at Gettysburg. 
The Lutheran trustees were also trans- 
ferred to the board at Gettysburg, in- 
creasing the number to thirty-six. This 
Franklin chair was filled from 1850 to 
1883 by nominees of the Ministerium of 
Pennsylvania, the body which had had 
part in the organization of Franklin Col- 
lege in 1787. 
Unsuccessful Plans for Hartwick Seminary 
One of the founders of the Lutheran 
Ministerium of Pennsylvania (1748) 
was Rev. John Christopher Hartwig, 
who landed at Philadelphia in 1747, and 
at once became associated with Muhlen- 
berg. Although Hartwig's pastoral la- 
bors were largely in New York State 
along the Hudson, yet he always re- 
tained his connection with the Ministeri- 
um of Pennsylvania and his close rela- 
tions with Muhlenberg and the other 
leaders of the Lutheran Church in Penn- 
sylvania. Our interest in this remark- 
able character is due to the fact that, 
through his will, he bequeathed a large 
tract of land, consisting of 21,000 acres. 
in Otsego county. New York, with which 
to found an institution for educating 
pastors and missionaries to tlie Indians. 
He died July 16. 1796, and named Drs. 
Kunze and Helmuth as directors of the 
proposed institution. Dr. Helmuth de- 
clining to serve. Dr. Kunze arranged for 
the opening of the seminary in 1797. 
Thus was founded the first d^t:nctiz'c!y 
Liitlicraii educational institution in this 
country. It consisted of the academic, 
classical and theological courses. The 
location was finally fixed in 1812. when 
the buildings were begun. In 1815. Dr. 
F. L. Hazelius (from Pennsylvania) be- 
came principal and professor in theol- 
ogy, with John A. .Quitman, afterwards 



Governor of Mississippi, as his assistant. 
Dr. Kunze prepared an elaborate plan 
which he sent to Halle for consideration, 
and also laid before President Wash- 
ington. fUit, unfortunately, these large 
plans for Hartwick Seminary were never 
realized. Much of the valuable land was 
-lost through mismanagement, and the 
institution to-day has the limited amount 
of only $60,000 of produclive endow- 
ments, of which amount Hartwig's be- 
quest is $20,000. Its property is also 
worth $50,000. It now maintains an 
"academic course and a theological 
course. The teachers in this historic in- 
stitution have been almost invariably of 
German blood. Among such names we 
would mention Hazelius, Miller, Stroc- 
bel, Hilier, Sternberg, Kistler, Piecher 
and T raver. 

During this period much private in- 
struction and preparation for the minis- 
try was given by many of the older and 
abler pastors. Drs. Helmuth, Schmidt, 
Geissenhainer, Sr., H. E. Muhlenberg, 
Endress, Goering, Lochman and J. G. 
Schmucker were eminent as private the- 
ological instructors. The Minlsterlum 
frequently designated pastors who were 
to be regarded as official theological pre- 
ceptors. A little later, Drs. D. F. 
Schaeffer, of Frederick, Md., and S. S. 
Schmucker, of New Market, \'a., also 

This brings us to the first decade of 

.the nineteenth century. At this time, the 
young people of the Lutheran Church 
were in attendance at the denominational 
and other colleges, which had already 
come into existence. Columbia College. 
New York ; the University of Pennsyl- 
vania ; Dickinson College, Carlisle; Jef- 
ferson College, Canonsburg, and other 
institutions now had students and grad- 
uates in the Lutheran Church and her 
ministry. The Presbyterian Theological 
Seminary was established in 18 12 at 
Princeton, N. [., and soon hatl Lutheran 
candidates among its students. The 
most distinguished of these was S. S. 
Schmucker, who was graduated in i8jo. 
As before stated, he at once, in his first 
charge at N'ew Market. \'a.. became a 

' preceptor for a number of candidates for 
the ministry. In 1S22, he prepared the 

"Formula for the Government and Disci- 
pline of the* Lutheran Church" for the 
Synod of Maryland and X'irginia. which 
Formula was afterward adopted by the 
General Synod and determined the organ- 
ization and arlministratlon of its congre- 
gations and Synods, and indirectly had a 
far-reaching effect upon the Lutheran 
e:lucational and missionary propaganda 
in this country. 

Un'on of Fcur Lu:hcr n Synods 

At this time, the movement toward 
organization and concentraiion of the 
Lutheran Interests in this country was 
heing considered. In 1818 the Minisie- 
rlum of Pennsylvania resolved that "in 
its judgment it would be well if the dif- 
ferent Evangelical Lutheran Synods in 
the United States were to enter, in some 
way or other, in true union with one an- 
other," and appointed its officers to cor- 
respond with the other two Synods 
( Xew York and North Carolina) on the 
subject. In 1819 a preliminary plan to 
this Qud was adopted by the Ministerium 
at F)altimore by a vote of 40 to 8. The 
convention to adopt a constitution was 
then lield at Ha-rerstown. Md., October 
22. 1820. At this meeting there were 
four Svnods represented, with 1 1 clerical 
and 4 lay delegates, eight from Pennsyl- 
vania and seven from other Synods. The 
constitution then adopted was later 
adopted by the Ministerium by an over- 
whelming vote of 67 to 6. 

The thoroughly German character of 
this historic convention in 1820 clearly 
appears from the names of those who 
composed it. From the Synod of Penn- 
sylvania came Drs. Lochman (Geo.). 
Cieissenhainer. Endress. Schmucker (J. 
G.) and Muhlenberg (H. A.), and 
Messrs. Christian Kunkel. William 
Hentzel and Peter Strickler. From the 
Synod of Xew York. Drs. ^K1ye^ anvi 
SchaetTer (V. C), and from the Synod 
oi Maryland antl X'irginia. Drs. Kurtz 
(J. D.)'. Scha.tter [l\ VA and Mr. G. 

The Theological Seminiry at Gettysburg 

All oi this is recited because of its in- 
calculable induence on the later educa- 
tional developments among the Luther-, 
ans in this country, l''or one oi the first 




fns / 




ff'^r^ rT 





Foumled lS:i2. Rtv. S. (J. Hefolbnwer. D.l).. I'lv-ident. 

dcts of the newly ori^anized body was to 
found a theological institution, when, at 
its third session in 1825, it resolved "to 
begin forthwith, in the name of the 
Triune God, and in humble depend- 
ence on His aid. the establishment 
of a theological seminary. In this 
seminary shall be taught, in the Eng- 
lish and German languages, the fund- 
amental doctrines of the Sacred Scrip- 
tures, as contained in the Aucrs- 
burg Confession." Dr. S. S. Schmucker 
was made its first professor, and con- 
tinued in this position until 1864. 
Ihroughout his career he was a most 
prominent leader in educational matters, 
both as a teacher, author and organizer. 
in both his own church and throughout 
tlie entire country. 

Other Pennsylvania-German profes- 
sors have been Hazelius. Schmidt. Mav, 
Krauth, SchaefTer ( C. F.). \'alentine, 
iiaugher, Stork, Wolf, Richard, Lhll- 
hcimer, Singmaster, Kuhlman and 

1 his theolog:icaI seminary now has as- 

sets of over $400,000. and has graduated 
over I coo ministers and missionaries. Its 
chief benefactor has been Mr. Henry 
Singmaster, a Pennsylvania-German. 

The institution at once developed the 
need of a collegiate institution for the 
proper preparation of candidates for the 
ministry. The Seminary had been lo- 
cated at Gettysburg on account of its 
accessibility and because of a bonus 
($7000) given by that town (in compe- 
tition with Hagerstown and Carlisle), 
and thus the first Lutheran college was 
organized in the same place. Perhaps it 
should be stated in e.xplanation of the 
fact that both of these institutions were 
located west of the Susquehanna, and 
thus west of the Lutheran sirongliold. at 
that time, in tiiis country, that the Min 
isterium of Peimsylvania had withdrawn 
from the General Synod in iSj^, and 
thus had no part in the locating of tliese 
institutions. (.'Otherwise, it is probable 
that this collegiate and theological center 
would have been locatetl in some Luth- 
eran center east of the Susquehanna. 



We now come to the real bco^innings 
of the first Lutheran college in this coun- 
try, launched by Pennsylvania-Germans. 
The seminary having been started in 
1826, it was soon found that a large 
number of the students were deficient in 
preparation. ''Accordingly, one of the 
first class, David Jacobs, a graduate of 
Jefiferson College, Canonsburg, Pa. 
was asked to open a gymnasium or acad- 
emy. This he did with two pupils, June 
25, 1827, P>ut before the teacher who 
had begun the work could participate in 
the opening of a college, he had fallen in 
November, 1830, at the age of 25, a sac- 
rifice to his zeal and devotion to the 
cause.'.' His brother, T^Iichael Jacobs, 
D.D., was a beloved and scholarly teach- 
er in the gymnasium and college from 
182Q to 1871. The beginning of the col- 
lege was certainly a day of small things. 
This so-called academy was opened, as 
we have stated, June 25, 1827. The 
building had been previously erected by 
means of an appropriation of $2000 made 
by the Legislature. In 1829, a scientific 
department was added. The course of 
study in the "Gettysburg Academy" was 
arranged for five years, beginning with 
the study of the Latin and Greek lan- 
guages, its three-year course being about 
parallel with the Freshman year of the 
college course. In September, 1829, the 
building which they had been using was 
sold by the sheriff and purchased, in 
trust, by Professor Schmucker and oth- 
ers for educational purposes, they agree- 
ing with the citizens to form *'an asso- 
ciation for the establishment of a classic 
and scientific department in subservience 
to the objects of the theological seminary 
at Gettysburg, and for the purchase of 
the Adams County Academy." Thus the 
institution was bought and placed under 
the care of the stockholders of this as- 
sociation. The original stock consisted 
of $1100 at $50 per share. The stock- 
holders were all Lutheran clergymen, 
and their names should be cherished as 
the founders of what proved to be tJic 
first Lutheran College in America: S. S. 
Schmucker, John Plerbst, H. G. Stecher, 
J. G. Schmucker. C. F. Heyer, John 
Ruthrauff, Jacob' Criggler, Emanuel Kel- 

ler, Jacob Martin, J. W. Lleim, Benja- 
min Kurtz, David F. SchaefTer, John G. 
Morris. Abraham Reck. Dr. Fr. Schacf- 
fer. Michael Meyerhoeft"er, Jacob Med- 
tart, Lewis Eichclberger, C. Philip 
Krauth. \V. G. Ernst. Daniel Gottwald 
and Charles F. Schacffer. 

The Origin of Pennsylvania College 
Rev. David Jacobs having died in 

1830, Rev. 11. L. Baughcr, a graduate of 
Dickinson College, took charge in April, 

1 83 1. In the fall of 1831. under the 
leadership of Professor Schmucker. of 
the seminary, a meeting of prominent 
citizens was held to consider the ques- 
tion of the enlargement of the gymnasi- 
um into a college. Plans were approved 
and a committee "appointed to visit Ilar- 
risburg and secure a charter for the new 
institution." Professor Schmucker spent 
several weeks at Harrisburg in making 
plans for the measure, and delivered an 
address before the Legislature on "The 
Eminent Character and Services of the 
Germans in Pennsylvania, and their 
Claims for Recognition by the Legisla- 
ture." The charter was granted April 
7, 1832. and signed by a good Pennsyl- 
vania-German, Governor Wolf. It was 
compiled by Professor Schmucker from 
similar charters, and was written by him 
in the side room of the Senate. The char- 
ter specified that there must always be a 
German professorship, an unusual pro- 
vision for that day ! Arrangements were 
now made for the organization of the 
college, July 4. 1832. Trustees were 
elected and the following faculty chosen : 
Rev. M. Jacobs was made professor oi 
mathematics and physical sciences ; 
Rev. II. L. Daugher. of Greek language 
and belles lettres. Professors Schmuck- 
er and riazelius consented temporarily 
and gratuitously to assist in other 
branches, and Rev. J. A. Marsden was 
made professor of mineralogy and bot- 
any. The usual college course of four 
years was adopted, with a preparatory 
course of three years. The college was 
opened November 7. 1832. Dr. Hazelius 
retained his position for only one year. 
and then removed to South Carolina and 
was succeeiled. both in the seminary and 
college, by Rev. C. P. Krauth. 



At once the young institution felt the 
great need of increased income. The in- 
creased number of students required new 
buildings, and a larger faculty. Hence 
Professor Schmucker, who was practic- 
ally acting president at this time, again 
went to Harrisburg and vigorously urged 
the claims of this Lutheran college be- 
fore the Legislature. Dickinson, Wash- 
ington, Jefferson, Allegheny and Lafay- 
ette wTre also urging similar claims. 
Thus the contest was most spirited. By 
the aid of many friends, and particularly 
of Hon. Thaddeus Stevens, an appropri- 
ation of $3,000 a year for five years was 
granted, to begin June, 1834. Mr. Stev- 
ens was a resident of Gettysburg and was 
a trustee of the college from 1834 until 
his death in 1868. With the financial 
encouragement thus afiforded, it was de- 
termined to enlarge the faculty and elect 
a president. Professor C. P. Krauth 
was then chosen first president of Penn- 
sylvania College at the spring meeting of 
the trustees in 1834. He was president 
until 1850. Professor H. L. Baugher, 
D.D., was president from 1850 to 1868; 
Professor AL Valentine. D.D., from 1868 
to 1885 ; Rev. H. W. :\IcKnight, D.D., 
from 1885 to 1904, and Professor S. G. 
Hefelbower, D.D., has been president 
since 1904. Among its most distin- 
guished professors have been Dr. H. L 
Schmidt, later for 33 years professor at 
Columbia University ; General Herman 
Plaupt, the distinguished general and en- 
gineer; Drs. F. A. Muhlenberg and S. P. 
Sadtler, later professors in the University 
of Pennsylvania, all Pennsylvania-Ger- 

During these seventy-five years of the 
history of Pennsylvania College, the in- 
stitution has acquired a property valued 
at $250,000, a library of 30.000 volumes, 
and an endowment' of $250,000. Its 
funds have come from such Germans as 
Bittinger, Morris, Graefif. Ockershausen. 
Graff, Franklin and German professor- 
ships (by Pennsylvania Ministerium) 
and Strong. Its board of directors is 
almost entirely composed of men of Ger- 
nian ancestry. The attendance has been 
steadily growing until this year it has 
reached a total of 230 in the four college 
classes and 75 in the. preparatory depart- 

ment. During these seventy-five years 
1300 have been graduated and over 4000 
have attended. In June of 1907 the 
seventy-fifth anniversary of this college, 
a monument to Pennsylvania-Germans, 
will be celebrated, at which time it is 
hoped to be able to announce an increase 
to the endowment of $150,000. 

Two Theological Schools in Ohio 
Ten years after Pennsylvania College 
was founded at Gettysburg, it was re- 
solved by the Evangelical Lutheran Syn- 
od of Ohio "to ordain and establish a 
literary and theological institution in 
C)hio." This institution was incorporat- 
ed March 11, 1845, ^"<^ ^^'^s located at 
Springfield. Clark county, in southwest- 
ern Ohio. The incorporators, as the names 
will show, were largely Pennsylvania- 
Germans now settled in Ohio. They 
were John Hamilton, W. G. Keil, David 
Tullis, John B. Reck, Solomon Ritz, 
George I.eiter, John H. Lloflfman. Jacob 
Roller, Elias Smith, P. X. O'Bannan 
(!), John X. Kurtz. Philip Binkley. 
David Rosemiller,' Frederic Gebhart 
Peter Baker and George Sill. It has been 
conducted ever since by the five District 
Synods of the Lutheran Church, cover- 
ing the States of Ohio. Indiana. Ken- 
tucky and Michigan, and most of its 
trustees have always been of Pennsyl- 
vania-German stock. Its presidents have 
all been of Pennsylvania-German stock. 
namely: Ezra Keller. 1845-1849; Samuel 
Spreciier, 1840-1874: J. B. Helwig, 
1874-1882; S. A. Ort. 1S82-1900: J. M. 
Ruthraufl:, 1900-1002. and C. G. Ileckert 
since 1902. Other Pennsylvania-Ger- 
mans who have been connected with the 
institution as professors have been H. R. 
Geiger, Michael Diehl. F. W. Conrad, 
Isaac Sprecher. C. L. Fhrenfeld. S. F. 
Breckenridi^c. Edc:ar F. Smith. L. A. 
Gotwald. D. H. Bauslin and \*. G. A. 
Tressler. During these sixty-two years 
this institution has accumulated prop- 
erty valued at over $200,000 and a pro- 
ductive endowment of over $300,000. 
The chief gifts for endowment have 
come from such Germans as the names 
Weikert, Gebhart. Harter. Stroud and 
Hamma would indicate. Over 700 have 
been graduated from the college, and 
over 300 from the theological depart- 



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•^►. " " -^ ,_ '^Tr^M'^r'^ez^~T.t\-i^ ■ 

C -J:-- • • " ■•- .'"""''^•^ 


Founded 1S45. Rev. C. G. Ileckert. D.I).. Presid.-nt 

ment. The attendance last year in all 
departments was 386. 

The next Lutheran educational under- 
taking was the founding of Capital Uni- 
versity in Columbus, Ohio, in 1850. The 
theological seminary of the Ohio Synod 
had been in existence since 1830, and, as 
at Gettysburg, so here, a collegiate de- 
partment became a later necessity. Dur- 
ing the professorship of Dr. C. F. 
Schaefifer in 1843, delegates had been 
sent to the ^linisterium of Pennsylvania 
to secure its co-operation. Professors 
Lehmann, Reynolcls, Spielman, Green- 
wald and Loy have been distinguished 
Pennsylvania-Germans in the history of 
this important educational work at Co- 
lumbus. This school has had a domi- 
nant influence in the so-called Joint Syn- 
od of Ohio. This body has had a re- 
markablv prosperous history, and is now 
considering union with the lierman Iowa 
Synod. In such an event, the institution 
at Columbus would have a largely aug- 
mented power in the American Church, 
as the general body would then embrace 
over 2C)0,CKX) conmumicants. 

Susquehanna University — Mount Air>' Semi- 
nary — Muhlenberg College 

''Missionary Institute" was next 
founded at Selinsgrove. Snyder county, 
Pa., in 1858. It was founded largely 
through the efforts of Rev. Benjamin 
Kurtz, D.D. (grandson oi Rev. J. N. 
Kurtz), with the special object of edu- 
cating men advanced in life for the min- 
istry. There were also theological dif- 
ferences with the teachings at Gettys- 
burg which influenced Dr. Kurtz to or- 
ganize the new school. Here a prepara- 
tory department and a complete colle- 
giate course have now been provided. A 
very useful work has been done, many 
valuable workers having been furnislicd 
to both Church and State. Over 200 have 
been sent forth into the ministry from 
this school. Among the leading German 
names associated with this educational 
work in the midst of Pennsylvania are 
those ^-^i Kurtz. Ziegler. Dorn. Dimm. 
Inx^lu, Vutzy. Manhart and Aikens. Last 
year they had an attendance in all depart- 
ments of 224. It is governed by a board 
A directors, the great majority of whom 






arc of Pennsylvania-Gemian stock. They 
l^ave an ciulownient and property worth 
at least $2(X) CXDO. It is now bein^:: con- 
'liicted under the name of Susquehanna 

fn 1864. leaders of the Pennsylvania 
M.nisteriuni broui^ht about the or;:raniza- 
'»*'M of a new Lutheran thenloi^ical setu- 
' '-TV in IMiiladelphia. with three profes- 

sors— Drs. C. F. SohaetTer. \V. J. Mann 
and C. V. Krauth. Thus, ninety years 
after it had been first pro^x^scd, the pro- 
ject of Muidenber^i: was at last realized. 
In tlie past forty-three years over 600 
ministers have been grailuatcd and assets 
of over $ ;oo.cxx) acquired at Mt. Airy. 
A new stone library, to cost $100,000. is 
now being erected. 






VlE..DfcnA]/LI5RA^Y 'BUILI^C '>? 

Founded 1S64. Rev. H. E. Jacobs, D.D., President, 

In 1866, the IMinisterium of Pennsyj- 
vania (which had re-entered the General 
Synod in 1853) dissolved its connection 
with the General Synod. It would not be 
in place to recite the many causes which 
had led up to this dissolution. 

At all events, their further co-opera- 
tion in Pennsylvania College at Gettys- 
burg now ceased, and they founded their 
own college, named after the great patri- 
arch, Muhlenberg College, in 1867, at 
Allentown, Pa., with Dr. F. A. 2vluhlen-. 
berg as its first President. This, there- 
fore, was the next important educational 
effort on the part of the Pennsylvania- 
Germans in the very heart of the histori- 
cal Pennsylvania-German territory. 
Muhlenberg College has now had a his- 
tory of forty years, and has had a distin- 
guished line of educators as its presi- 
dent's in Drs. Muhlenberg, Sadtler, Seip 
and Plaas. They have recently built a 
magnificent new plant costing $200,cxx), 
on the outskirts of Allentown. Its trus- 
tees are elected by the. Ministerium of 
Pennsylvania, and, as might be expected, 
are entirely of German stock. The 
president of the board of directors is 
the Hon. G. A. Endlich, and the presi- 
dent of the college is Rev. J. A. W. 
Haas, D.D. During the current year, 
1907, the total attendance of the college 
and preparatory department enrolled was 
191. There have been 645 graduates, 

most of whom have entered the Luth- 
eran ministry. 

Carthage College— Thiel College 
In 1870, Carthage College. Carthage. 
111., was founded by General Synod 
Lutherans in that Staie. There had been 
a Western College established first at 
Hillsboro, and later, 1852, at Springfield, 
111. .The leading names in connection 
with this work were Drs. Springer, Har- 
key, Reynolds and Crall — all Pennsyl- 
vanians. L'nfortunately. this enterprise 
did not succeed, but it was the forerun- 
ner of another, which did. In 1S70. as 
stated, Carthage College at Carthage. III., 
was organized by special commissioners 
of the English Evangelical Lutheran 
Synods of Illinois and Iowa. Its first 
president was a Pennsvlvania-German. 
Dr. D. L. Tressler. The first class was 
graduated in 1875. Other Pennsyl- 
vania-Germans who have been its presi- 
dents have been Drs. Kunkelman. Dy- 
singer, Ruthrautl and Sigmund. the 
present incumbent. The present value 
of its campus, buildings and furnishings 
is at least $60,000, and the active en- 
dowment is $50,000. It has an otter. 
now. of gifts amounting to ii 
$100,000 are raised by the Church within 
the next year : in which event the produc- 
tive endowment would be over $^50,000. 
and would make the institution conipara- 
tivelv self-supporting. Its chief benefac- 






1 ^ 




tor has been a German, Mr. Henrv Den- 
liardt, of Washington, HI. Carthage 
C ollege has no theological department, 
hut last year in its colleq-e and special 
departments it enrolled 251. (.")ver 250 
have been graduated, and over 5000 en- 

During this same period the Pennsyl- 
yania-(;,crman Lutherans had been active 
Ml the western part of the State in edu- 
«^'»tinnal efforts. Li iSc'/) an academv 

had been established through the gener- 
osity of a Henns) Ivania-German. namely, 
A. Louis Thiel, in Phi'.ipsburg. Beaver 
ctnmty. Pa. Its first principal was Rev. 
F^. F. Giese. In i8c>8 he was succeeded 
by FVotcssor Henry Eyster Jacobs, who 
for the past forty years has been, per- 
haps, the most inrluential teacher in the 
English Lutheran Church in this country. 
In 1870 he was succeeded by Rev. H. 
W. Roth. At this time, tluoutjh a hand- 



some bequest of Mr. Thicl ($^o,ooo) 
the institution was enabled to be enlarj^^cd 
into a college, and removed to Green- 
ville, Mercer county. Durin"^ its entire 
history, Thiel Colle^re has been under 
great obli^^ations to Rev. W. A. Passa- 
vant, D.D., whose work for education 
and other philanthropies in the nineteenth 
century will give him rank with the oth- 
er great organizer, Henry M. Muhlen- 
berg, in the eighteenth century. Thiel 
College has been an important agency in 
the General Council division of the Luth- 
eran Church in Pennsylvania, and has 
furnished many candidates for the min- 
istry. For the past three years, on ac- 
count of litigation, it has been closed, 
but will reopen next fall at its old loca- 
tion to continue its important services. 
It has enrolled over looo students and 
has assets of $150,000. 

Penna.-German Educational Labors in the 


At this point we should probably al- 
lude to the very considerable educational 
work of Pennsylvania-Germans in the 
South. Roanoke College, Salem, Va., 
founded in 1853, is a ''monument to the 
earnestness and untiring zeal of its first 
president. Dr. D. F. Bittle. North Car- 
olina College at Mt. Pleasant, N. C, 
under the presidency of his brother, Dr. 
D. H. Bittle, had made a promising be- 
ginning in 1858, when it was overtaken 
by the calamities of the Civil War." 

Newberry College was incorporated in 
1856. Its property was occupied by the 
Confederate government, and rendered 
unfit for future use as a college. The 
theological seminary was also closed, to 
be reopened in 1892 with Dr. A. G. \'oigt 
as dean. F5oth Roanoke, Rev. Dr. J. A. 
Moorehead, president, and Newberry, 
Rev. Dr. J. A. B. Scherer, president, 
have during the past year enjoyed the 
greatest prosperity of their history : the 
former enroll 218 students, and the 
latter 212. They both have finely equip- 
ped plants, most of the buildings being 
thoroughly modern. The former has as- 
sets of over 5?20o,ooo, the latter $125.- 
000 ; both have bright prospects for more. 

Among the distinguished Pennsylva- 

nia-German teachers who have serv'ed in 

these institutions should be mentioned 
Drs. Hazelius, Stork CT.), Smeltzcr. 
Eichelberger. Stork fC. A.), Dosh. Drch- 
er, Scherer and Voigt. Roanoke College 
was the only one of the Southern schorjis 
to remain open during the Civil War. 

Educational Work of the General Synod 

The General Synod of the Lutheran 
Church, of whose founding by Pennsvl- 
vania-Germans in 1820 we have spoken. 
h^s always continued to be, predomin- 
antly, a Pennsylvania-German body — 
three-fifths of its membership being vet 
found in Pennsylvania and Maryland. 
Hence the action of this body at Harris- 
burg in 1885 in founding a Board of 
Education ''to render financial aid to 
educational institutions, and do such 
other things pertaining to and best cal- 
culated to promote the best interests of 
the Church," can properly be included in 
this account. The board appointed in 
1885 consisted of Revs. H. Rhodes, L. 
M. Heilman, T. F. Dornblaser, J. S. 
Detweiler, J. H. Culler, Messrs. Aug. 
Kountze, G. H. Maish and Robert W'ei- 
densall. It will he noticed that all are 
Germans and nearly all are Pennsylva- 

During the past twenty-two years, this 
board has disbursed almost $250,000 in 
carrying out these objects. 

In 1887 it founded Midland College at 
Atchison, Kan. This institution does a 
mc)St efticient work in that section of the 
country, having * graduated nearly k» 
from the college course and over 200 
from the academy and other depart- 
ments. In these twenty years over lox) 
young people have received Cvlucational 
training at this institution. It has accu- 
mulated property, including endowmeni 
and buildings, amounting to $II5.CKXV 
The principal gifts of endowment have 
come from Rev. George I). Gotwald anl 
Rev. Henry Heigard. Its two presiiienis 
have been Drs. J. .A. Clutz and M. 1* 
Troxell, both Pennsylvania-! lermans. 

.\nother of the important enterprise> 
oi the sainted Dr. W. A. I\'issavant was 
the Chicagii Theological Seminarv, 
founded in iSoi. It is in coinieciion \\itl» 
District Svnods of the General Council 




It lias prepared for the ministry over 200, 
.'UkI lias <2:rcatly aided hundreds of others 
tlirouj^h post-graduate and correspond- 
ence courses. It has acquired a very val- 
uable property, worth at least $175,000, 
and all within fifteen years. Rev. R. F. 
Weidner, D.D., has been its one presi- 
dent, and to him is largely due the re- 
markable career of this western work. 
Dr. Weidner, and the other three mem- 
bers of the faculty, Drs. Krauss, Gerber- 
ding and Ramsey, are .all Pennsylvania- 
( Icrmans. 

Another educational institution of a 
tlieological character is the Western 
Seminary of the General Synod, founded 
in 1895 by the Board of Education, and 
located at Atchison, Kan. It includes a 
German department, which is doing for 
the scattered Germans of the ^^liddle 
West a work very similar to that of the 
pioneers throughout Pennsylvania one 
hundred years ago. In its twelve years 
uf history, the Western Seminary has 
graduated 62, and has given a partial 
course to fully as many more. The 
president. Dr. F. D. Altman, and the 
other English professor. Dr. Dysinger, 
are both of Pennsylvania-German stock. 
The two professors of the German de- 
jvirtment came from Germany direct — 
without any admixture of Pennsylvania- 
(lerman influences. Funds for endow- 
ment and scholarships amounting to 
$20,000 have been accumulated. 

Foreign Mission Work of the Lutheran Church 

I>efore closing, we should also allude 
to the educational work in connection 
with foreign missions done by Penn- 
SNlvania-Germans in the Lutheran 

Church. The foreign work of the Luth- 
eran- Church in this country was begun 
in India by Rev. C. F. Heycr, who was 
sent out by the Pennsylvania Ministerium 
in 1 84 1. There is now being conducted 
under this mission at Guntur the magnifi- 
cent Watts Memorial College, which 
last year enrolled 985 students, and which 
is presided over by two Pennsylvania- 
Germans, Drs. L. B. Wolf and J. Aberly. 
The India mission work of the General 
Council at Rajahmundry is being con- 
ducted by Dr. J. II. Harpster. also of 

Another important enterprise of a dis- 
tinctly educational character is the dea- 
coness work. This was introduced in 
this country by Dr. Passavant in 1S49, 
and has since then spread not only 
throughout the Lutheran Church, but in- 
to many other den(jminaiions. By far 
the largest and most valuable deaconess 
training plant in this country is the one 
at Philadelphia, given by that noble Penn- 
sylvania-German, John D. Lankenau, 
erected at a cost of half a million dollars, 
supported during his lifetime by its lib- 
eral founder and sustained since his 
death by funds which he becjueathed. The 
deaconess work within the General Syn- 
od has also been largely carried on 
through the efforts of Pennsylvania-Ger- 
mans, among whom should be mentioned 
Drs. F. P\ ^lanhart. Charles E. Hay and 
W. S. Freas. The motherhouse and 
training school of the General Synod 
is located at Baltimore, and has property 
worth $50,000. either deaconess in- 
stitutions, founded by Dr. Passavant. 
were established at Milwaukee. Chicago, 
and Jacksonville, 111. 

Moravian Educational Labors Among the Indians 


THE chief aim of the early Mora- 
vian missionaries was doubtless 
to cz'angclicc rather than educate 
the American aborigines. The former 
came face to face with the so-called 
'noble savage," whom poetic fancy had 
I'ictured as 

;i>c poor Indian, whose untutorcil u\'u\d 
Sees God in clouds and hears Him in tlio wind." 

The missionaries found these "children 
of the forest" the willing slaves of the 
worst vices. They proclaimed liberty to 
those captives oi sin and Satan, not by 
means oi any nian-mado schemes oi re- 
form and education, but solely through 
the "preaching of the Cross" anvl the re- 
generating power of the Holy Ghost. 
Their aim was courcrsion rather than 



culture. They realized the truth of 
Young's well known lines : 

"Talk they of morals? O Thou bleeding Love, 
The true morality is love of Thee!" 

Evangelization and Education Combined 

Evangelization and education, how- 
ever, went hand in hand. In fact the one 
implied the other, for "how shall they 
believe in Him of whom they have not 
heard?'* (Rom. 10:14). Moravian mis- 
sionaries to the Indians not infrequently 
were compelled to "construct a language 
and then preach it ; had to create a moral 
sense and then appeal to it." The statue 
erected to Scotland's most famous -mis- 
sionary, David Livingstone, in the city 
of Edinburgh, represents the great mis- 
sionary standing on a lofty pedestal, with 
the calm confidence of a conqueror, his 
eager eye turned towards Africa, the 
Bible in one hand, while the other rests 
on an ^lissionaries have made "the 
echoes of the woodman's axe keep time 
with the story of the Gospel in opening 
up the regions beyond." Writing of 
Moravian missionaries among the In- 
dians the historian tells us : "Their time 
was necessarily divided between the dis- 
charge of spiritual and secular duties. 
They preached the Gospel and adminis- 
tered the Sacraments in houses built by 
their own hands. They wielded the axe 
as well as the sword of the Spirit." All 
this, we submit, was not only evangelist- 
ic, but also educational. Indeed the word 
"education" is of wide application, in- 
cluding not only, perhaps not even pri- 
marily, literary knowledge, but also in- 
dustrial and manual training, medical 
and domestic instruction, social and po- 
litical science, etc., etc. 

A Schoolhouse Built for the Indians 

The first effort put forth by the Mo- 
ravians to evangelize the American In- 
'dians was the erection of a schoolhouse. 
On August 13, 1737, five Moravian car- 
penters under the leadership of John 
Toeltschig, formerly Count Zinzendorf's 
flower-gardener, afterwards elder and 
preacher, began to build a schoolhouse 
on a little island in the Savannah river, 
Georgia, about four miles above the city. 
The first missionary and teacher was 
Peter Rose, at one time a game-keeper, 

who together with his wife labored 
faithfully and lovingly in teaching the 
little Indian children passages of Scrip- 
ture and hymns. On account of their 
refusal to bear arms the Moravians were 
obliged to leave Georgia and removed to 
Pennsylvania aficr several years of mis- 
sionary labors among the Indians. 

In this connectirn it may be remarked 
that certain spiritual experiences thro' 
which the Moravian church passed in 
the year 1727 had given the Brethren 
very decided views with reference to the 
religious needs and capabilities of chil- 
dren. They believed very strongly in 
the possibility and practicability of the 
spiritual conversion and culture of the 
child. Their leader. Count Zinzendorf, 
had enjoyed in his earliest childhood to 
a remarkable degree the Divine presence 
and favor, the account of which reminds 
one of the scholarly narrative of the 
conversion of the little four-year-old 
Phoebe Bartlett, Vvhich we have from the 
pen of New England's great theologian, 
Jonathan Edwards. 

Generally speaking, however, the edu- 
cational standpoint of the Moravian 
Church may be fairly expressed in the 
doctrine set forth by the great German 
educator and philanthropist. John Falk. 
of His biographer tells us: 

"But the children were depraved, and it 
was a principle of Falk's that the root of the 
evil had its thief source not in ignorance, but 
in sin ; that it was not enough, therefore, to 
teach writing and arithmetic; that that was 
the least part of education; that it was more 
important to impart the secret of a righteous 

A Teacher Among the Mohicans 
The second attempt to evangelize tlic 
Indians was made in the North and the 
first Moravian missionary in this sec- 
tion was the well known Christian Henry 
Ranch, who arrived in New York from 
Germany in 1740. He offered his ser- 
vices to two Mohican chiefs as teacher 
of their tribe and was accepted. Near 
the Indian hamlet he found a Gorman 
family, where he arranged for board and 
lodging on condition of keeping sch'>"»l 
for the children of the family. What 
kind of an evangelist and educator this 
German school-teacher was may l>e in- 
ferred from the testimony of one ot those 



chiefs, who soon became his most fa- 
mous convert and disciple. This extract 
is taken from a volume of lectures on 
"Moravian Missions," delivered by the 
late Dr. Augustus C. Thompson at the 
Andover Theological Seminary : 

"In recounting: his conversion," said Dr. 
Tliompson, ''the once sottish Tschoop gave at 
the same time a valuable lecture on preaching : 
'Brethren,' said he, 'I have been a heathen, 
and have grown old amongst. the heathen; 
therefore I know how the heathen think. 
Once a preacher came, and began to explain 
that there is a God. We answered: 'Dost 
thou think us so ignorant as not to know 
that? Go back to the place whence thou earn- 
est.' Then again another preacher came and 
began to teach us and to say: 'You must not 
steal nor lie, nor get drunk.' We answered : 
'Thou fool! Dost thou think we do not know 
that? Learn thyself first, and then teach the 
people to whom thou belongest to leave off 
these things. For who steals or lies or is more 
drunken, than thine own people?' And thus 
we dismissed him. After some time, Brother 
Christian Henry Ranch came into my hut and 
sat down by me. He spoke to me nearly as 
follows: '1 come to you in the name of the 
Lord of heaven and earth. He sends to let 
you know that He will make you happy, and 
cUliver you from the misery in which you lie 
at present. To this end He became a man, 
gave His life a ransom for man. and shed His 
blood for .him.' etc. When he had finished his 
discourse, he lay down upon a board, fatigued 
by the journey, and fell into a sound sleep. I 
then thought: 'What kind of a man is this? 
Tliere he lies and sleeps. I might kill him,- 
and then throw him out into the wood, and 
who would regard it? But this gives him no 
concern.' However, I could not forget his 
words. They constantly recurred to my mind. 
Even when I was asleep, 1 dreamt of that 
blood which Christ shed for us. I found this 
to be something different from' what I had 
ever heard, and I interpreted Christian Henry's 
words to the other Indians. Thus, through 
the grace of God, an awakening took place 
amongst us. I say. therefore' — and in repeat- 
ing, I would also adopt the words of that rude 
professor of homiletics — 'I say, therefore, 
brethren, preach Christ our Savior and His 
sutler ings and death, if you would have your 
words to gain entrance amongst the heathen.' "' 

David Zeisberger, Indian Missionary 

The greatest name in the history of 
Moravian Indian missions is unquestion- 
ably that of David Zeisberqer. Whether 
we consider his faithful, heroic and suc- 
eessful service of sixty years from the 
cvani^clistic or educational standpoint, 
his pre-eminence cannot be disputed. The 


facts of his life are. briefly stated, these: 
Born April ii, 1 721, in Moravia, he 
came to Philadelphia in April, 1740. 
During that summer he labored as a 
woodman and carpenter in the develop- 
ment of the George Whitefield tract at 
Xazareth, Pa., and afterward assisted in 
the building of Beddehem. Several years 
later he was appointed to accompany 
Count Zinzendorf on his return to Eu- 
rope. This was a manifest disappoint- 
ment to young Zeisberger. When press- 
ed for an explanation he replied : "I 
would much prefer to reniain in Amer- 
ica. / long to be thoroughly conicrtcd 
to Christ and to serve as a fuissionary to 
the Indians in tJiis country." His wish 
was granted, and within two years he 
had obtained the desire of his heart, viz. : 
salvation and service. His first mission 
to the Indians dates back to the begin- 
ning of 1745. He and a brother mis- 
sionary were arrested as spies in the 
Mohawk \'alley. Xew York. In their 
examination before Governor Clinton, 
the following was part of young Zeis- 
berger's testimony : 

"What did your Church command you to do 
among the Indians?" 

•To learn their languapc." 

"Can you learn this language so soon?" 

"I have already learned somewhat of it in 
Pennsylvania, and I want to improve myself." 



"What use will you make of this language? 
What is your design when you have perfected 
yourself in it? You must certainly have a 
reason for learning it?" 

"We hope to get liberty to preach among the 
Indians the Gospel of our crucified Savior, 
and to declare to them zchat zee have person- 
ally experienced of His grace in our on'n 

In such a spirit and with such apos- 
tolic purpose this young Moravian be- 
gan his sixty-three years' ministry among 
the American Indians. He departed to 
be with Christ when nearly 88 years of 
age, falling asleep amongst his brown 
brethren. The success of his labors re- 
sembles the brief but brilliant career of 
that devoted servant of Christ, David 
Prainerd. They both proved the power 
of the cross. Zeisberger testified : 

"If I have only succeeded with an In- 
dian so far as to bring hi)n to tJic cross of 
Chnst, I have then been able to lead him 
by a thread wherever I pleased, and 

where no one with a whip could have 
driven him whilst in his wild and uncon- 
verted state." 

These were no idle words. Some of 
those erstwhile "savages" furnished the 
highest proof of their genuine conver- 
sion and true Christian culture. During 
the Revolutionary War one of Zeisbcr- 
ger's villages was surrounded by a band 
of so-called ''militia-men," more proper- 
ly '"bushwhackers." These Christian In- 
dians surrendered without a struggle. 
The men were imprisoned in one house, 
the women and children in another. A 
council of war was held and they were 
told to prepare for death. They spent 
the night like Paul and Silas in the Phil- 
ippian dungeon, praying and singing 
praises unto God. When morning came 
they were all butchered in cold blood — 
"twenty-nine men. twenty-seven women, 
eleven boys, eleven girls, and twelve 
babes at the breast." "They prayed and 





sang until the tomahawks of the miHtia- 
men stuck in their heads." Truly these 
were "noble savages," and are now en- 
rolled in ''the noble army of martyrs," 
and "numbered with the saints in glory 
everlasting." On the very spot where 
they met and conquered the last enemy, 
in the beautiful Moravian town of Gna- 
denhiitten, Ohio, there stands a monu- 
ment bearing this inscription : 

Here Triumphed in Death 

Over Ninety Christian Indians 

March 8, 1782. 

David Zeisberger's missionary labors 
amons^st the Indians embraced the States 
of Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, 
Michigan and the Dominion of Canada. 
The following pen-picture of one of his 
Christian Indian settlements will give 
some idea of the educational value of his 
ministry. In describing an attack of sav- 
age whites which compelled David Zeis- 
bcrger and his brown brethren to aban- 
don their homes Bishop de Schweinitz 
says : 

"It was a sad journey. Zeisberger and his 
fellow-missionaries were turning their backs 
upon the scenes of more than eight years' in- 
dustry (1772-1781). and of a Christian com- 
munity never equalled in the history of mis- 
sions among the American Indians. They were 
leaving behind rich plantations with five thous- 
and bushels of unharvested corn, besides large 
((uantities stored in barns: hundreds of young 
cattle and swine roaming the woods; poultry 
of every kind; gardens stocked with an abund- 
ance of vegetables ; three flourishing towns, 
each with a commodious house of worship." 

The great value of Zeisberger's edu- 
cational labors among the Indians may 
be inferred from the following partial 
list of his literary productions : 

1. "Essav of a Dclan'arc Indian and Eng- 
lish Stclling'-Book:'' 

2. "A Collection of Flyinns for the Use of 
Christian Indians." 

3. "Sernio)ts to Children," translated by 
David Zeisberger. 

4- "The Bodily Care of Children," trans- 
lated by Zeisberger. 

5. "Ihe History of our Lord Jesus Christ," 
translated by Zeisberger. 

6. "Conjugatio)is of Delazi'are ITords." 

7. "Lexicon of the Ger)nan and Onondaga 
Languages," 7 vols. 

8. "Cranunar of the Ono)idaga Language." 
9- "A Grammar of the Language of the 

Lenni Lenape." 

>0. "A Dictionary in German and Dela- 

11. "A Delaware Grammar." 

12. "A Harmony of the Gospels in Dela- 

13. *' Zeisberger's Own Hymn-Dook in Dela- 
IV are." 

14. "Sermons by Zeisberger in Delaware." 

15. "Delazvare Glossary, Vocabulary end 

16. "Seventeen Sermons to Children in 

17. "Short Biblical Narratives in Delaware." 

18. "Vocabulary in Maqua and Delaware." 

We do not wonder that the librarian 
of Harvard University, where many of 
David Zeisberger's literary productions 
are preserved, publicly declared : 

"The manuscripts wer€ sorted, handsomely 
bound at the Hon. Edward Everett's expense, 
placed in a trunk provided and lettered 
e-xpressly for the purpose, and put in a con- 
spicuous place in the Library, under lock and 
key, that they may be carefully preserved for 
posterity, and at the same time often call the 
attention of visitors to the labors and sacrifices 
and zeal of as worthy a class of missionaries 
as have ever gone forth conquering and to con- 
quer the sins of the world since the days of 
the Apostles." 

Zeisberger's life and labors among the 
Indians were grandly heroic. His con- 
temporary and assistant, Benjamin Mor- 
timer, has well said : 

"His record of missionary service among 
the Indians in the eighteenth century is un- 
equalled. For sixty years, amid many and 
varied trials, he preached the Gospel among 
ihem. During the last f«^rty oi these years 
he was not absent from his post, at any one 
time, for a period of six months. Only three 
times in the same period was he a visitor in 
the home churches. The last visit of this sort 
he made almost thirty years before his death." 
* '^ * "He was a prudent man. who. al- 
though constantly exposed upon hi< incessant 
journeyings and wanderings in the wilderness. 
never sacrificed his health nevdlcssly. He 
never used intoxicating li(iuors as a beverage. ' 

Other Missionary Labors Among the Indians 
Moravian missionary labors among the 
Indians, whether evangelistic or educa- 
tional, have been largely influenced by 
the apostolic examjdc of David Zeisber- 
ger. even down to the present time. Less 
ihan a quarter of a century ago it was 
the writer's privilege to spend two sum- 
mers on a Canadian mission-station 
foiuulcd bv ZeisbiTger. The missionary 
in charge was the late J. A. J. Hartmann. 
who departed this life a few months ago 
in r.ethlehem and i>f wliom it was said: 
*'I>orn in Surinam. S. A., the son of a 




missionary, he went to scliool in Ger- 
many, was ordained as a missionary and 
married in Enp^land, worked for the 
heathen in Australia, then among the 
Indians' in Canada, made a missionary 
journey to Alaska, preached in Minne- 
sota and Illinois, and spent the beautiful 
evening of his life in Pennsylvania." 
More than a score of years ago the writ- 
er listened with profit to his plain and 
searching sermons, as he preached the 
Gospel to the Indians. Beside the church 
stood' the neat little schoolhouse built 
by the missionary's own hands, where 
the Indian children received a Christian 
education. A farm of some thirty acres, 
well tilled and worked by means of the 
best and latest machinery, furnished the 
Indians an object lesson in manual and 
industrial training. The well kept and 
profitable dairy, the serviceable windmill, 

invented and constructed by the mission- 
ary himself, were also /jf educational 
value to the natives. Later a home for 
orphans and neglected children made thii; 
Moravian Indian inission a model of 
equipment and usefulness. Eternity 
alone will reveal the incalculable results 
of ^loravian missionarv labors among 
the Indians. These missionaries were 
persons of the same type and spirit as 
those whom this little Church sent out 
to Greenland and Labrador. It was to 
them that England's great poet. Cow- 
per, referred in his well known lines on 
the Christian 'Tlope" : 

"See Germany send forth 
Her sons to pour it on the farthest North ; 
Fired with a zeal peculiar they defy 
The rage and rigor of a polar sky, 
And plant successfully sweet Sharon's Rose 
On icy plains and in eternal snows."' 

Rev, John H. Oberholtzer 

Teacher, Locksmith, Preacher and Publisher 

Note. — The following sketch was compiled 
from material furnished by Bishop N. B. 
Grubb, of the Mennonite Church, and by Rev. 
H. P. Krehbiel's History of the General Con- 
ference" of the Mennonites of North America. 

THE success of great movements is 
often due to the efforts and abili- 
• ties of a single person. This is 
true of the unification-movement among 
the IVIennonites in America. The pio- 
neer of this movement was John H. 
Oberholtzer, who did more than any 
other man to create and develop the spir- 
it of unity in his denomination. 

Ancestry and Education — A Boy Teacher 

Rev. John H. Oberholtzer was a great- 
great-great-grandson of Jacob COber- 
holtzer, who came to America from 
Switzerland in 1702, landing February 
22, and whose wife was a daughter oi 
John Krey and his wife Sydge op den 
GraefF, of Germantown. The subject of 
our sketch was born on a farm near Clay- 
ton, Berks county, Pa., January 10. 1809. 
His parents, .\braham and Susan Huus- 
berger Oberholtzer, were farmers anil 

readily permitted their son to take ad- 
vantage of the meager educational fa- 
cilities the country then afforded. That 
he made good use of his time at school 
is evident from the fact that at the age of 
sixteen he was engaged as school-teach- 
er. This was a quarter of a century be- 
fore the free-school system was estab- 
lished and at a time when schoolliouses 
were few. Sometimes several neighbors 
would join their interests and engage a 
teacher for their sons. As for the girls. 
it was generally conceded that they did 
not need an education to make gocni 
housewives. Sometimes a neighborhocxl 
would unite in the erection of a scho»M- 
house for the double purpose of having a 
school on weekdays and a preaching- 
place on Sundays. 

Bad Schoolboys and Hungr>' Swine 
.\botit two miles ni->rth of Iu\\eriov\n 
one John Ritter had a large farm and 
(jtiiie a number of sons. He conceiveil 
the idea that it would be best to have lu> 
own schoolhouse. This was about ninety 
vears ago. Vor this purpv-)sc he erected 







1 1 



a two-story building, the first story to be 
used for his pigs, of which he always 
kept from thirty to forty head ; the sec- 
ond floor was arranged for a schoolroom. 
Here John H. Oberholtzer taught school 
and gave instruction to the young Ritter 
boys. Other children of the neighbor- 
hood, upon the payment of a small sum, 
were admitted and shared the instruction. 
The Ritter boys naturally felt that they 
were at home and were entitled to first 
attention, and for them to claim special 
favors and rights was not an unusual 
thing. To deny them any favor asked 
for was to invite their ill-will, and by 
way of retaliation they would go down 
where the pigs' feed was kept and stir 
the swill-barrel. This^ of course, was 
sufficient to arouse the thirty or more 
hungry pigs kept there, and their un- 
earthly squeals would -bring confusion 
and disorder into the schoolroom, which 
invariably resulted in the dismissal of the 
school for that period. The young 
teacher, finding that he was unable to 
cope with such difificulties and being ut- 
terly disgusted, finally resigned his posi- 
tion. He then went to learn the trade of 
a locksmith, while the Ritter boys finally 
carried it so far that it was impossible to 
secure a teacher for the school. The 
combination pigsty-schoolhouse still 

stands, a silent witness of early genius 
and economy. Two miles to the east 
from this place, now the farm of Benne- 
ville Yoder, there is on the Landis farni 
another building of a similar character, 
where the late Rev. John Rechtel, also a 
Mennonite preacher, taught school ab«jut 
seventy-five years ago. 

A Skillful Locksmith— Pastoral Call 

When Young Oberholtzer had learned 
his trade he established himself in a shop 
at Milford Square, where he made locks 
and did other smith's- work. He became 
very skillful and his locks found a ready 
sale. In many dwellings erected at that 
time some of the German locks he man- 
ufactured are still found. He supported 
himself by his trade a!K)ut thirty 
years, his ministerial labors and later 
journalistic enterprise being causes of 
expense to him rather than sources of 

Determined to acquire a gocxi edu- 
cation, Mr. Oberholtzer continued to im- 
prove every spare moment in the pur- 
suit of knowledge, aiul as a young man 
he became an able writer and speaker. 
Meanwhile he united with the Mennonite 
church at Great Swamp, which called 
him at the age of thirty-three as assist- 
ant to their aged pastor. Samuel Mussel- 



mann. The latter lived only a few years 
longer, and then the whole charge fell to 
Obcrholtzer. He entered upon his call- 
ing with all the fervor of his soul and 
performed his work, as was then the 
custom, without pecuniary recompense. 
He was. a fluent, fascinating speaker and 
became one of the ablest and best known 
ministers in his Church. With much self- 
denial and great self-sacrifice he gave 
himself to his pastoral labors, not only 
within the limits of his own denomina- 
tion, but in ready response to any call, 
from whatever source it might come. 

Organizing a Sunday-school 
His life-motto ever was "Forward." 
As teacher he had learned the value of 
instruction and training. Almost the 
first advanced step he took was to organ- 
ize his young people for systematic in- 
struetion in the Word of God. For this 
purpose he met them on Sunday after- 
noons and to aid in this work he repub- 
lished, a catechism formerly used in Can- 
ada.. Later on this catechetical instruc- 
tion was extended to all children and the 
work gradually developed into a Sun- 
day-school. This oldest Mennonite Sun- 
day-school in America was organized in 
the spring of 1857.'^ 

' A Pioneer in Religious Journalism 
Reverend Oberholtzer early recog- 
nized the value of the free use of print- 
er's ink as a means of spreading the gos- 
per truth, in connection with the pulpit, 
for the upbuilding of the Church. No 
church-periodical of any kind then ex- 
isted among the Mennonites. With 
Oberholtzer the recognition of the want 
meant the effort to supply it. With sub- 
lime heroism he purchased with his own 
hard-earned and much-needed money a 
printing-press and set it up in his lock- 
smith-shop. Ht learned to set type and, 

• TJie first Mouiiouite Simday-^i-hool was orjranizt'il at 
Bertolet's MtMinoiule FriMlorirk. I'onim., 
in the siuiinier of 1,'<4S, \vitl\ George S. Nyoe as the 
superliitoiuU'iit. Aflt*r several yours the school ceased 
to exist for lack of svi()port. 

Till' fiftieth anniversary of the school orpanized by 
Obi^rholtzer with A. It. .Slit>lly as its snperintendont, 
was , celebrated on Anjriist Ml. Mr. Shelly, who was 
then the siiperlntentlent, Is now the pastor of the con- 
preK.HtioQ and has .served that congregation for 
forty-three and a half, years as Its pastor. 

■ N. B. G. 


in addition to his ministerial and business 
duties, began to publish a paper. June 
9, 1852. he issued the first number of the 
first Mennonite periorlical ever published, 
under the title, Rcligioscr Bofscluftcr. 
He did all the work of this publication 
himself; he was audior. editor, composi- 
tor and printer. It required herculean 
efforts to accomplish all he had under- 
taken. He says somewhere that not in- 
frequently he labored whole nights in the 
printing-office, without allowing himself 
any sleep, that he might supply the peo- 
ple with Christian literature. He con- 
tinued to edit this pai)cr. the name of 
which was afterwards changed to Christ- 
lie lies Volksblatt, until 1S6S. The direct 
result of this publication was to form a 
closer bond of fellowship between the 
scattered bodies of the Church, and a 
united effort for advanced education and 
missionary work at home and abroad. 

Origin of Eastern District Conference 
Soon after entering the ministry Ober- 
holtzer saw that the meetings oi his 
brethren in that section were barren of 
good results, largely for lack oi system 
and aim. and because no records were 
kept. To improve the situation he drew 
up a CLMistitution, which he submitted in 
1847 to the Franconia CeMiference. This 
body, fearing the innovation, refuseil 
even to consider the proposed constitu- 
tion and by a majority vote excluded 



( )l)orlioltzer, with sixteen other ministers 
who had supported his plan, 'from their 
CDiincil until they should recant. This 
they would not do, for they were not 
guilty of any error. They determined to 
organize themselves under the rejected 
constitution and did so October 28, 1847. 
{ )f this organization, now the Eastern 
District Conference, he for many years 
was the leading spirit. He lived to see it 
thoroly established and greatly in- 
creased, until it became by far the most 
efficient element in Mennonite life in 
eastern Pennsylvania. When in 1872 he 
resigned as chairman of the Conference, 
a position he had held almost from the 
bcgiiming, a resolution was passed by 
which his brethren "recognized and ap- 
preciated the blessings God had show- 
ered upon them thro' him and in grati- 
tude besought the Lord richly to bless 

Establishment of the General Conference 

Oberholtzer had never desired separa- 
tion and at all times sought to restore 
unity. In i860 he made a special effort 
in this direction by publishing a little 
book in which he gave some account of 
his life, gave reasons why he should not 
liave been excommunicated, and in a 
truly Christian spirit made overtures for 
a restoration of brotherly relations. He 
wanted harmony and co-operation, not 
division. About this time the general- 
conference movement, begun in Iowa, 
came to his attention. He promptly sup- 
ported this movement thro' his paper, at- 
tended the next meeting of Conference 
in i860, and served as its president many 
years. ^ Thro' him the Eastern Confer- 
ence joined in the new movement and 
s'lve it strength. Thro' his paper the 
niovement was brought to general atten- 
tion, and by his skill as an organizer it 
gained form and stability. 

A Supporter of Schools and Missions 

Oberholtzer earnestly supported all the 
<'-irly undertakings of the licneral Con- 
iVrence. The school at Wads worth. (^.. 
k'ained much from his personal intluence 
;«nd resourceful mind. He became one 
*'t the tirst members of the Mission- 

lioard, continuing in this position until 
1 88 1 and helping to establish the mis- 
sion among the Indians. He was al- 
ways an earnest supporter of missions. 

When Oberholtzer had reached his 
sixty-fifth year, his strength began to 
fail and he gradually withdrew from 
active work ; yet his interest in the cause 
to which he had devoted his life never 
ceased. At the ripe age of seventy-five 
he attended the General Conference held 
in 1884 at Bcrnc. Ind. Three years later 
Conference met in his own church in 
Pennsylvania. This was the last session 
he attended of the body he had helped so 
much to create. He was greatly pleased 
to see the spirit of brotherhood so much 
increased and the participation in the 
cause so largely multiplied. As late as 
October. 1894. when past his eighty-fifth 
year, he spoke at an evening service in 
his home church : but after this his 
strength rapidly failed. 

Altho' Oberholtzer preached for fully 
half a century without any thought of 
pecuniary remuneration, it was he who 
first and always advocated the choice 
of strong young men for the ministr)*, 
that these should be thoroly trained for 
the work, and then given a liberal sup- 
port by the people whom they serve. It 
is therefore not strange that in the mat- 
ter of higher Christian education, under 
the auspices of the Church, he always 
stood in the front ranks. 

His Departure and Grateful Memory 

At the age of eighty-six he had become 
quite feeble and was patiently waiting 
for deliverance from- the body. On the 
fifteenth day of February, 1895. ^vhile sit- 
ting on his couch in conversation with a 
few friends who had called to see him 
that morning, he asked for a drink of 
water. Having taken the drink he thank- 
ed them for it, then he said: "Now I 
die." He laid his head on the pillow 
and resigned his spirit to Him who gave 
it. His remains were interrcil five days 
later in the cemetery of the \\"est Swamp 
church. Tho no great moiuunont marks 
his resting-place, a grateful denomina- 
tion will increasingly ai>preciate his great 
and noble life. 




The Birth of the American Army 


(Reprinted ffom Harper's Magazine. Copyright. ISiii), by Harper & Brothers.) 

(Concluded from August number.) 

. White Hunters Learning from the Indian 

WASHINGTON was a strict dis- 
ciplinarian and observed mili- 

> ■' ■■ tary conventions whenever there 
was a sufficient reason back of them;. 
but he had a vein of hard common sense 
as well, and nowhere did he show it more 
conspicuously than in discardini^ the 
heavy and galling harness of the military 
dandy and substituting the light, easy- 
fitting, workmanlike dress of the fron- 
tiersman. The British soldier was con- 
demned to stagger under a burden fit 
only for an army-mule. He wore a 
heavy, long-skirted red coat, which made 
the best possible target for the enemy. 
His tight-fitting breeches impeded every 
movement and checked the free circula- 
tion of the blood. . His neck was bound 
in ,a high leather stock, which it was. act- 
ual torture to wear. ]Mr. Boss, editor of 
the Cornwallis correspondence, says that 
at Bunker Hill "the British moved to the 
a(tack in heavy marching order with 
three days' provisions — altogether a 
weight of 125 pounds." 

'*The first lesson in woodcraft that the 
backwoods-hunter learned was, "Go 
light." Every article in his scant outfit 
was cut down to the last practicable 
ounce — save only the barrel of his rifle. 
Finding that the Indian, who had re- 
duced marchinc: and camping to a sci- 
ence, could with ease outdistance any 
white man on a long journey, he studied 
the reason, and found it in the lightness 
of the red man's outfit and the remark- 
able skill with which he utihzed nature's 
supply-store. Adopting the Indian's 
dress and commissariat, the white hunter 
found himself equally agile and endur- 
ing. Citified people mistook this choice 
of dress for affectation, for a desire to 
appear bizarre. 'Tt was the silly fashion 
of those times," says a contemporary 
writer, "for riflemen to ape the manners 
of savages." This is the remark of a 
tenderfoot. Ages of experience had 
taught the Indian his woodcraft, and no 

race of civilized men has yet succeeded 
in matching it. The skill which can 
make the best of all possible canoes with 
no material but a growing tree, and no 
implement but a crooked knife, is not to 
be despised. 

Moccasins and Rockahominy — "Going Light" 
It has been said that only three human 
devices have ever reached perfection — 
the bow, the boomerang and the violin. 
Of these the savage has invented two. 
For perfect adaptation of means to an 
end, it would be hard to find better ex- 
amples than the Indian's moccasin and 
his rockahominy. The moccasin is the 
most rational and comfortable of all foot- 
wear. In it the feet have full play ; they 
can bend and grasp ; there is nothing to 
chafe or to impede circulation. In moc- 
casins one can move like an acrobat, 
crossing slender and slippery logs, climb- 
ing trees, or passing with ease and secur- 
ity along dizzy trails on the mountain 
side, where a slip might mean sure de- 
struction. The feet do not stick fast in 
mud. In the north, where the mercury 
is far below zero and no civilized boot 
will protect the feet from freezing, the 
savage sufifers no inconvenience. His 
moccasins, stuffed with dried grass, let 
the blood course freely. The perspiration 
may freeze on the hay in a solid lump of 
ice, but the feet remain warm and dry. 
The buckskin moccasin, Indian-tanned 
with deers' brains and wood-smoke, al- 
ways dries soft after a wetting. In au- 
tumn, when all tlie leaves and twigs arc 
dry as tinder, a man wearing siiocs 
makes a noise in the forest like a troop 
of'cavalrv; but in moccasins he can 
move swiftly through the woods with the 
stealth of a panther. The feet arc not 
bruised, for, after enjoying for a time 
the freedom of natural covering, these 
hitherto blundering members become 
like hands, and feel their way througli 
the dark like those of a cat. avoiding oh- 
stacles as though gifted with a special 
sense. Best of all. the moccasin is lii;ht. 



Inexperienced sportsmen and soldiers af- 
fect hi<;'li-toppe(l laced boots with heavy 
soles and hobnails, imagining that these 
arc most serviceable for rough wear. But 
these boots weigh between four and five 
pounds, while a pair of thick moose-hide 
moccasins weigh only eleven ounces. In 
marching ten miles a man wearing the 
clumsy boots lifts twenty tons more 
shoe-leather than if he wore moccasins. 

Rockahominy is the most nourishing 
and digestible of all condensed foods. It 
is simply Indian corn parched to a light 
brown and then pounded or ground to a 
coarse powder. It is ground coarse 
enough to mix with water without get- 
ting pasty. A few ounces, generally 
about four, are stirred in a cup of water 
and drunk. The corn swells in the stom- 
ach and the man is fed for five or six 
hours. Rockahominy will not mold or 
deteriorate in a moist climate, nor is it 
attacked by insects when carried in a thin 
muslin bag. Among the first white set- 
tlers of tJie wilderness it was known as 
"coalmeal" ; by the Mexicans it is called 
pinole. Our pioneers relied upon it as 
their sole provision besides game killed 
and made long campaigns on rockahom- 
iny iilone when game was scarce or fear 
of Indians prevented hunting. 

The backwoodsman had been quick to 
learn what it has taken centuries of hard 
knocks to hammer into the heads of mil- 
itary pundits : that the men who can 
march hard and shoot straight w^ill win; 
that any rule or tool that interferes • is 
criminal folly. I dwell at some length 
upon this matter of equipment because 
it explains in great part the extraordin- 
ary feats of marching without pack- 
trains which were performed by our 
riflemen in the Revolution. x\fter five 
years of campaigning, from Canada to 
the Carolinas, Morgan replied to General 
Greene's ofter of wagons for transpor- 
tation : ''Wagons would be an impedi- 
ment, whether we attempt to annoy the 
enemy or provide for our own safety. It 
is incompatible with the nature of light 
troops to be encumbered with luggage.'' 
We have noted the promptitude with 
which the riilemen were nuistered and 
marched to Cambridge. Cresap made a 
phetiomenal journey over ditlicult roads, 

leaving Frederick, Md., July 18, and 
arriving at the American camp on Au- 
gust 9, having covered 550 miles in 
twenty-two days ; this performance 'was 
in turn eclipsed by Morgan, who led his 
woodsmen, in bad weather, 600 miles, 
from Winchester, Va., to Cambridge, in 
twenty-one days. 

Washington Overcome— Dreaded Sharpshooters 
When Washington, riding along the 
lines one day, saw the fringed hunting- 
shirts of the Virginians approaching, the 
reserve of his naturally undemonstrative 
nature broke down. At the sight he 
stopped ; the riflemen drew nearer and 
their commander, stepping in front, made 
the military salute, exclaiming: "General, 
from the right bank of the Potomac." 
Washington dismounted, came to meet 
the battalion and, going down the line 
with both arms extended, shook hands 
with the riflemen one by one, tears rolling 
down his cheeks as he did so. He then 
mounted, saluted and silently rode on. 

The riflemen were at once employed 
as sharpshooters, and kept the enemy 
continually in hot water. Hitherto the 
British outposts had been safe enough 
within a stone's throw of the American 
lines, but they found, to their cost, that 
it was almost certain death to expose 
their heads within two hundred yards of 
a rifleman. So frequent became the re- 
turns of officers, pickets and artillery- 
men shot at long range that Edmund 
Burke exclaimed in Parliament: "Your 
officers are swept off by the rifles if they 
but show their noses." In the British 
camp the riflemen were called "shirt- 
tail men, with their cursed twisted guns : 
the most fatal widow-and-orphan-mak- 
ers in the world." Their presence was a 
godsend to the impoverished American 
army, as their fire was more effective 
than artillery and consumed but a tithe 
of the powder. 

Invasion of Canada — The Fall of Fraser 
In September three companies of the 
riflemen were ordered to join the expe- 
dition under Benedict Arnold which was 
to invade Canada. The harrowing de- 
tails of that long march through the 
frozen wilderness are well known to 
readers of Revolutionary historv. The 


THE pennsylvaxia-gp:rman 

riflemen formed the vanguard of the ex- 
pedition and "stood the frightful hard- 
ships of the journey better than any of 
the other troops. Many of the New 
Englanders, though better used to the 
climate, were daunted by the cold, star- 
vation and excessive toil, and deserted;- 
but not a rifleman wavered. In the as- 
sault upon Quebec which followed, ihe 
sharpshooters alone succeeded in pene- 
trating to the heart of the town. Had 
they been supported by the other troops, 
Quebec would probably have fallen. As 
it was, surrounded by overwhelming 
numbers, they fought desperately until 
further resistance would have meant 
massacre. The captives, including Mor- 
gan, were afterwards exchanged, and 
most of them re-enlisted. The nine other 
companies which had been left at Boston 
remained there during the winter and on 
the memorable first of January, 1776, 
were, recognized as the "First Regiment 
of Foot of the Continental Army." The 
next spring Washington wrote to the 
president of Congress recommending 
that the riflemen whose term would ex- 
pire in July should be induced to con- 
tinue in the service. "They are indeed a 
very useful corps ; but I need not men- 
tion this, as their importance is already 
known to the Congress." A large num- 
ber of them served through the war, win- 
ning distinction in nearly every import- 
ant battle, from Long Island to • York- 

These were by no means the only 
troops furnished by the backwoodsmen in 
our war for independence. The Pennsyl- 
vania Rifle Regiment (Colonel Samuel 
Miles), the Eleventh and Twelfth Penn- 
sylvania Continental Line, several com- 
panies of other regiments from the same 
colony, Colonel Closes Rawling's Mary- 
land Riflemen, the Augusta Riflemen and 
others of \lrginia. and several regiments 
from the Carolinas, were nuistered most- 
ly from the frontier. Pre-eminent among 
all these organizations was the famous 
corps of sharpshooters' which Morgan se- 
lected from the best shots in the whole 
army. At Saratoga, the turning-point 
of the revolution, the marksmanship of 
these riflemen virtually decided the bat- 

tle. Several times during this engage- 
ment Colonel ^lorgan had noticed a 
noble-looking officer of the enemy, 
mounted upon a splendid gray horse, 
dashing from one end of the line to the 
other, encouraging- his troops. Morgan 
recognized the brave fellow as an officer 
whose conduct he had admired in the 
battle of the nineteenth of September. It 
was General Fr?-ser, considered by the 
Americans a more skillful and dangerous 
leader than Burgoyne. Morgan himself 
regarded the issue of the contest doubt- 
ful as long as Fraser remained in the 
saddle. Soon after the action began. 
General Arnold, who well knew Eraser's 
ability, sought out Morgan and said : 
''That officer upon the gray horse is a 
host in himself; he must be disposed of. 
Direct the attention of some of your 
sharpshooters to him." Morgan's gener- 
ous instincts rebelled, but he saw the 
necessity of performing the cruel duty. 
"War." Macaulay says, "is never lenient 
but where it is wanton." Selecting 
twelve of his best marksmen, he posted 
them in a suitable position, and pointing 
out the doomed warrior said to his men : 
"He is a brave fellow, but he must die." 
Some of the riflemen climbed into trees 
to get better sight. Among them was 
Tim ?^Iurphy. a renowned scout from 
Northumberland countw Pa., "who. by 
means of a double-barreled rifle, then a 
novelty, had been uncommonly success- 
ful in the Indian wars. The shot was 
very difficult; the distance was nearlv a 
quarter of a mile, and the backwoods- 
rifles had no elevating sights. The 
riflemen rested their long pieces on tlio 
forks of limbs and began firing. In a 
moment the crupper of the grav horse 
was cut bv a bullet. . Within the next 
minute another ball passed through iIh^ 
horse's mane a little back oi his ears. An 
aide reiuarked to Fraser: "Sir, it is evi- 
dent that you are market! out for a par- 
ticular aim. Would it not be pruilent 
for you to retire from this place?" Fra- 
ser replied: "My duty forbids me to fU 
from danger." The next instaiu a bul- 
let from Murphy's rifle struck hini 
through the body, and he was carried 
lortallv wounded from ♦■'^•^ field. 



^ Always Skirmishing — Two British Riflemen 

The tactics of the backwoodsmen were 
essentially different from those practiced 
by the best military authorities. It was 
the rule of war for troops to attack in 
solid formation, reserving their fire till 
at very close quarters. Bayonets were 
feared m^re than bullets. The standard 
infantry-musket was very inaccurate, 
and had no rear sight. The musketry 
instructions simply required each sol- 
dier to point his weapon horizontally, 
brace himself for its vicious recoil, and 
pull the ten-pound trigger till the gun 
went off. The idea was that by drop- 
ping so many bullets upon a certain area 
containing a given number of enemy so 
many men would probably be hit. But 
the backwoodsman was a hunter, who 
shot to kill. Attack in close order against 
such men was suicidal. The backwoods- 
man fought always as a skirmisher, tak- 
ing advantage of every bit of available 
cover, exposing himself as little as pos- 
sible, and directing his murderous aim 
chiefly against the enemy's officers, be- 
cause the bravest troops are apt to lose 
heart and be stricken with panic when 
they see their leaders fall. The British 
regarded such tactics as "sneaking" and 
''cowardly." "Come out and fight in the 
open, like men!" they would say. On 
this sentiment military history has long 
since passed verdict. The backwoods- 
men were siniply a century ahead of the 
times in the methods of war. The Brit- 
ish themselves soon found it expedient 
to hire Indians and Hessian Jailer to 
fiQ:ht our sharpshooters, but neither of 
these mercenaries proved a match for 
the tall woodsmen of the Alleghenies. 

There seem to have been but two 
Knglishmen in the Revolution who were 
expert shots with the rifle. I'oth of 
them had learned to use and prefer this 
weapon while serving with German 
J'd\:^cr in the Seven Years' War. Both 
commanded riflemen in the Revolution 
and met our frontiersmen in battle. One 
of these men was George Hanger, sub- 
sequently fourth Baron Coleraine. who 
commanded a Hessian /(7i,'rr-company 
and rose to the rank of colonel. Hanger 
says in his book for sportsmen, j^ublished 
in 1S14. that the best shots among the 

American backwoodsmen, shooting in 
good light when there was no wind blow- 
ing to deflect the bullet, could hit a man's 
head at 200 yards, or his body at 300 
yards, with great certainty. As foreign 
rifles at that period could not be relied 
upon for accuracy at such distances. 
Hanger goes into great detail, explaining 
the reasons for the American rifle's su- 
periority, showing that he was a compe- 
tent judge and a trustworthy witness. He 
tells how once, when he and General 
Tarleton were making a reconnoissance. 
an American rifleman got in position full 
400 yards from them ( Hanger paced the 
distaiice afterwards) and fired two delib- 
erate shots at them. Hanger and the 
general were side bv side on horseback, 
their knees almost touching, and a 
mounted orderly was directly in their 
rear. The first shot passed between the 
two otffcers and the second killed the or- 
derly's horse. 

The other British rifleman was Major 
Patrick Ferguson, the inventor of a 
breech-loading rifle with which some of 
his men were armed. Ferguson com- 
manded the British forces at King's 
^lountain, where he was attacked by the 
backwoodsmen from Tennessee. This 
was the first pitched battle in civilized' 
war in which rifles were exclusively used 
by one of the contesting armies. The 
backwoodsmen carried by storm a posi- 
tion naturally more difficult than Bun- 
ker Flill or the heights oi Fredericks- 
bnr-^-. Feri^uson was killed with 390 oi 
his men and lost 716 prisoners, while the 
American loss was but 2^ killed and 60 
wounded. The only other battle fought 
between sharpshooters on the one side 
and ordinary troops on the other is the 
battle of Xew Orleans, where the de- 
scendants of these same backwoodsmen, 
intrenched on an open plain, but out- 
numbered two to one by the pick of 
W'ellineton's vet^^rans from the Penin- 
sular War. killed 700 of the enemv. 
wounded raoo and took 500 prisoners, 
themselves losing but S men killed and 
13 wounded. 

Where the Backwoodsmen Were First 

We have seen that the backwoodsmen 
of the .Alleghenies were the first to form- 
allv threaten armed resistance against 


Great Britain, the first outside colonists 
to assist New England, the first troops 
levied by an American Congress, the first 
to use weapons of precision and the first 
to employ the open-order formation now 
so universally prescribed. From the be- 
ginning to the end of the war these hardy 
pioneers were everywhere, doing the 
right thing at the right time, harassing 
the enemy, picking oflf officers and artil- 
lerymen at long range, stubbornly hold- 
ing their own in the basis line of battle, 
advancing to some forlorn hope, cover- 
ing a retreat to save the army from dis- 
aster, or disappearing like magic before 
a superior force, only to quickly reas- 
semble for attack upon some unsuspect- 
ing outpost or detachment. Lithe, sin- 
ewy, all-enduring, keen-eyed and nimble- 
footed, unencumbered with baggage, sub- 
sisting upon next to nothing, making 

prodigious marches over rough moun- 
tains or through an ice-clad wilderness, 
they were men of heroic mold, admired 
alike by friend and foe. Coming straight 
from the absolute freedom of a primeval 
forest, they appreciated the reasons for 
military discipline, and submitted to it 
without a murmur. Always cheerful and 
ready for any undertaking, they were re- 
garded by Washington himself as the 
corps d' elite of the Continental army. 
And in the darkest hour of the Revolu- 
tion, when half the army was in open 
mutiny, the great commander, sick at 
heart but still indomitable, declared to 
his friends that if all others forsook him. 
he would retire to the backwoods and 
there make a final stand against Great 
Britain, surrounded by his old comrades 
of the wilderness. 

The Dietrichs in Europe and America 

Historical Address 
Delivered at the Dietrich Family-Reunion at Kutztown, Pa., September 1, 1906 


Spellings and Translations of the Name 

THE name Dietrich is variously and 
multifariously spelt. In this mat- 
ter we Dietrichs surpass even the 
immortal Shakspere, whose name oc- 
curs in half a dozen or more forms. It is 
said that the name of Dietrich of Bern, 
the eponym or mythical ancestor of our 
family, w^as spelt in no less than eighty- 
five different ways in the various bal- 
lads and chronicles written about him. 
In one of the ancient manuscripts re- 
counting his adventures, the Wilkina 
Saga, the hero's name is Thidrek ; in- 
deed, because the poem concerns itself 
almost exclusively with his life, "some 
German scholars prefer to call it by the 
more appropriate name of Thidrek' s 
Saga." In ''The Ettin Langshanks" 
(Jamieson's translation) ^ we find the 
name Tidrick. In comparatively recent 
•times the spelling has been very diverse, 
even in the case of members of the same 
family. In the quiet country graveyard 
attached to Bender's church, in Adams 
county. Pa., are the graves of a luunber 

of my own ancestors. The tombstone of 
my great-great-grandfather bears the 
name '']o\\2in Nicklas Dietrich" ; on the 
tombstone of his wife the name is spelt 
"Diedrich," while on that .of a son we 
read ''Dietrick/' on that of the wife of 
the latter "Detrick/' on that of an- 
other dau2fhter-in-law is ''Deatrick.'* 
while a daughter's name bears the 
inscription, *Tn Memory of Margaret 
Tietrich." In" fact, on nine headstones 
at the graves of so many members oi the 
same family the naiue occurs in no less 
than six different forms. The spelling 
used by all the members of my own 
branch of the family I take to be an An- 
glicized form, introduced before the mid- 
dle of the last century by my father, then 
a student at college, who yielded to the 
influence of an Anglicizing movement 
then popular in educational circles, a 
movement which we must regard as un- 
fortimate. unwise and tending to con- 

The name, whether as a cognomen 
(family-name) or a praenomen (^individ- 



iial name), occurs in other larn^ua^res 
than the Teutonic. In Latin ft is Theodo- 
ricus. According to some philologists 
Thierry and Thiers are French transla- 
tions of the name. Dean F. W. Farrar, 
iij a note to his commentary, in the Ex- 
positor's Bible, on I Kings xii, 1-5, makes 
the name of Jeroboam, king of Israel, 
the rival of Solomon's son Rehoboam, 
mean the same, i. e.. 'Svhose people are 
many," as Theodoric and Thierry. If 
Farrar's philology were correct, we 
might trace our ancestry, in name, at 
least, back not merely to the "ten lost 
tribes,'' but to the king of the seceding 
tribes centuries before they were lost, 
and mv theme might be '"The Dietrichs 
in All 'the World" instead of 'The Die- 
trichs in Europe and America." But alas 
for any aspirations in this direction, the 
''higher criticism" comes in to dash this 
ancestral pride in Jeroboam to the 

Cheyne, a prince among these same 
higher critics, insists that the name of 
that wicked old king meant not what 
Farrar suggests, but rather "the kingdom 
contendeth." To be sure, other, critics 
interpret Jeroboam's name otherwise, not 
agreeing among themselves. So we do 
not lay claim to this founder of a rebel- 
lious dynasty as our ancestor. He is un- 
worthy of us, tho he would carry our an- 
cestry back two thousand years further 
than we can trace it otherwise. 

The First Great Dietrich in Europe 

is the hero of the Teutonic "Book of 
Heroes," Dietrich of Bern, the mythical 
chieftain, who has been identified with 
the historical Theodoric of Verona, the 
great king of the Ostrogoths and of 
Rome, "whose 'name was chosen by the 
poets of the early middle ages as the 
string upon which the pearls of their fan- 
tastic imagination were to be strung.' '• 

According to the legends of the saga- 
men, Dietrich of Bern lived In the fifth 
century. His grandfather was a Teuton- 
ic chief named Hugdietrich. his father 
was Dietmar. his mother Odilia, heiress 
of the duke of \'erona, or Bern, in north- 
ern Italy, which city had been conquered 
^y his father, Dietmar. At the tender 




iji^' xy 

■4 ii3 V 

V ^^^ , .-*« 

1- -'^-^ -'^'^e'. 

In the Church of the Franciscans at Innsbruck 

age of five years the young Dietrich was 
intrusted for training in knightly exer- 
cises and in the art of war to the fam.ous 
warrior Hildcbrand, son of Herbrand. 
one of the X'olsung race. Students of 
Teutonic mythology will remember that 
Volsung. Hildebrand's illustrious ances- 
tor, was the great-grandson of Odin or 
W'odan. from whose name is derived our 
Wednesday — a being possessed of crea- 
tive power, who was "lord of battle and 
of victory, the fountain-head of wisdom 
and culture, and tlie founder ^i writmg 
and of poetrv and history." As tutor of 
young Dietrich. Hildebrand showed him- 
self in every way capable and a worthy 
descendant kA ^o illustrious and divine 
an ancestry. Master and pupil became 
inseparable, lite-long companions, and 
their friendship has been in the folklore 
of northern peoples as proverbial as tliat 
of the classical Damon and Pythias or of 
the Scriptural David and Jonathan. 
A Fascinating Hero-Tale 
It miglu be interesting to tell the story 
<:>{ this ercat hero of the olden time. The 



tale of his multifarious adventures is an 
entrancingly absorbing one and you may 
profitably read it — if you are masters of 
the language of your forl)ears and of 
the fatherland — in the Hcldcnhuch or 
the T hid rck saga, or, if you are not equal 
to that, in one of the translations of the 
above-mentioned saga, or in Miss Guer- 
ber's entertaining ''Legends of the Mid- 
dle Ages/' No boy or girl of Dietrich 
lineage, with this last book available, 
should be ignorant of Dietrich's combat 
with the giant Grim and the giantess 
Hilda ; of the magic sword, Xagelring, 
given by the dwarf Alberich ; of the won- 
derful helmet, as famous almost as the 
shield of Achilles ; of the matchless steed 
Falke, or of the great Enckeaxe won by 
the defeat of the terrible giant Encke. 
His adventures in love, his deliverance, 
wooing and loss of Kriemhild, the cap- 
tive queen of the ice-castle and rose-gar- 
den of the Tyrolean Alps ; his unsuccess- 
ful suit for the hand of Hilda, daughter 
of King Arthur of Britain — his messen- 
ger made love for himself instead of his 
liege-lord, a sort of ^liles Standish-Pris- 
cilla-John Alden affair; his kingship in 
the Amaling land (Italy), his loss of the 
kingdom and twenty-year exile : his hap- 
py marriage to Herrat,- relative of Hel- 
che, the generous wife of Etzel, or At- 
tila, the Hun, who received him and gave 
him a home during his exile : the terrible 
battle of Raben or Ravenna ; the sad 
slaughter of the noble Xibelung knights ; 
the regaining of his kingdom and the ex- 
tension of his dominion until he was rul- 
er of nearly the whole of southern Eu- 
rope ; and, finally, of his saddened, lonely 
old age and mysterious death — all these 
would surely interest you. both young 
and old, were there time to tell it all and 
had your speaker the gift of a raconteur. 
Let me, however, borrow from Miss 
Guerber this brief story of the last days 
of the old hero : 

In his old ase Dietrich, weary of lite ifjul 
imbittered by his many trials, ceasecl to take 
pleasure in anything except the chase. One 
clay while he was bathinLj in the stream, his 
servant came to tell him that there was a tine 
sta^ in sight. Dietrich immediately called tor 
his horse, and as it was nox inst.intly forth- 

coming, he sprang upon a coal-black steed 
standing near, and was borne rapidly away. 
The servant rode after as fast as possible, 
but could never overtake Dietrich, who, the 
peasants aver, was spirited away, and now 
leads the Wild Hunt upon. the same sable steed. 
which he is doomed to ride until the judgment 

Ravenna and Its Antiquities 
Ravenna, the Raben of the Hcldcn- 
huch and of the sagas, is one of the most 
ancient towns of Italy, situated 270 kilo- 
meters (170 miles) due north of Rome 
and 150 kilometers (95 miles) south of 
\'enice. It is six miles distant froni the 
Adriatic sea. Originally it was a sea- 
port and under Emperor Augustus it 
was the headquarters of the Adriatic 
deet, but the harbor has long since been 
filled up by the deposits of rivers and the 
sea. Interesting to the student of litera- 
ture because here he may stand at the 
tomb of the great Dante, and may enter 
a house once occupied by the erratic By- 
ron, Ravenna is to us of greater interest 
because it contains certain antiquities as- 
sociated with the great Theodoric. king 
of the Goths and Romans, with whom. 
in the Teutonic myths, the fabulous Die- 
trich of Kern was identified. 

A long wide street, the principal thoro- 
fare of the city, the Corso Giuseppe Gar- 
ibaldi, extends north and south thru the 
eastern part of this ancient town. Mid- 
way along this street, as one goes south- 
west, on the left hand, stands a great ba- 
silica or church, erected fourteen hun- 
dred years ago by tlds saiue king Theo- 





(loric and originally intended as a cathe- 
dral for the Arian form of Christianity, 
which he professed. The basilica is well 
worth a visit and a description of its 
strange and interesting mosaics might 
well occupy our attention, did time per- 
mit. On the same street, a few paces 
south of the church, is a high wall, a part 
of the side-fagade of the palace of the 
illustrious Theodoric. From this isolat- 
ed ruin one may gather some notion of 
the magnificence of the palace of which 
it was once a part. 

Of yet greater interest is the Rotonda, 
or church of S. ^laria della Rotonda, a 
mile or less northeast of the city. This 
massive domed structure was once the 
tomb or mausoleum of Theodoric. It 
was probably erected by Amalsuntha, 
daughter of Theodoric and queen-regent 
of Italy, about the year 530. The sub- 
structure is of decagonal shape and sur- 
mounted by a flat dome, a single block 
of Istrian marble, about 35 feet in di- 
ameter, three feet thick and weighing, it 
is said, nearly 300 tons. This mausole- 
um was a work that excited the admira- 
tion of the contemporaries of its build- 
ers, and even today, it '*is a marvel and 
a mystery how, wdth the comparatively 
rude engineering appliances of that age, 
so ponderous a mass as the monolithic 
dome can have been transported from 
such a distance and raised to such a 

A Sacrilege — A, Great Man in His Age 

The body of Theodoric, deposited, ac- 
cording to tradition, in a porphyry vase 
in the upper story of this' grand mauso- 
leum, was not long suffered to repose in 
peace. The illustrious Ostrogoth had 
been an Arian and, altho he had exhibit- 
ed in his rule of the Italians the utmost 
toleration to the orthodox Roman church, 
^oon after his death, his corpse was igno- 
niinously taken out of the sepulcher and 
cast, as one story runs, into the fire-vom- 
iting crater of the volcano of Stromboli. 
*>r. as is more probable, thrown into the 
waters of the neighboring canal. This 
latter version of the sacrilege has been 
made more probable by the fact that in 

May, 1854, some laborers engaged in 
widening the canal found, about five feet 
below the sea-level, a golden cuirass, 
adorned with precious stones. Most of 
the gold was appropriated by the rascally 
laborers and found its way into the melt- 
ing-pot. A few pieces, however, were 
recovered, and may now be seen, cata- 
logued erroneously as part oi the armor 
of Odoacer, in the museum at Ravenna, 
where thev mav be seen bv anv rovin;^ 
Dietrich who may travel that way. 

To tell the story of tliis great king of 
the Goths and Romans would take many 
hours, as it fills a most delightful book 
which at least every one of the Dietrich 
lineage should read. I refer to ''Theo- 
doric the Goth, the Barbarian Champion 
of Civilization." by Dr. Thomas Hodg- 
kin, in the excellent ''Heroes of the Na- 
tions'' series. Let me dispose of this 
great hero of our name in the words of 
the opening paragraph of the volume I 
have recommended : 

Theodoric the Ostrogoth is one of those 
men who did great deeds and filled a large 
space in the eyes of their contemporaries, bu: 
who, not thru their own fault, but from 
the fact that the stage of the world was not 
yet ready for their appearance, have failed to 
occupy the very first rank among the founders 
of empires and the molders of the fortunes of 
the human race. 

Briefly I may add, a warrior like our 
own Roosevelt, he was ever a peace-mak- 
er among nations: a civilian, he stocnl al- 
ways for law and the inflexible adminis- 
tration of justice; long before our stren- 
uous President, he advocated *'a square 
deal for every man" : his wisdom was al- 
most that of a Solomon : a barbarian, he 
was a devoted patron of the arts. 

But it nuist be confessed that we can 
claim descent from Dietrich of Bern or 
Theodoric the Great only in the matter 
of name. These personages lived before 
the Teutons, at least, adopted the use k^x 
a cognomen or family-name. Dietrich 
was then only the name c^i an individual. 
Later it was taken as a family-name by 
a house or houses of the same race to 
which belonged this great champion of 



Tinctures: Or, Argent, Gules, Verd, Azure 

The Dietrichs of Germany 

Dietrichs have been numerous and il^ 
lustrious in the fatherland. Members of 
the family fought nobly in the crusades 
and to at least one branch of the family, 
because of their valor in these and other 
wars, the great honor was given by the 
German emperor of being raised to 
knightly rank commensurate with his 
own and the privilege of bearing on the 
escutcheon a field of red, an especial 
mark of dignity. It may be worth while 
to remember in passing that while we can 
not prove direct lineage from Theodoric 
the Great, it is yet equally difficult to 
prove that we are not bona-Ude descend- 
ants of the great Ostrogoth. 

The pleasure has been mine to read a 
letter from Hon. E. Theophilus Liefeld, 
United States consul at Freiburg, Ba- 
den. This letter, a lengthy one, enumer- 
ates no less than 33 Dietrichs who, in the 
past and present, have attained to emi- 
nence in almost as many fields of human 
endeavor in the fatherland. There are 
inventors, scientists, musicians, artists, 
litterateurs, physicians, lawyers, clergy- 
men and statesmen, as well as noted war- 
riors, in the long list. Possibly on some 
other occasion some account may be giv- 
en of these worthies and of other for- 
eigners, whose names should be added to 
the list furnished by the obliging consul. 
Indeed, it might have been better to limit 
this address to **The Dietrichs in Eu- 
rope." ^ 

A Large Family in America 
What shall I say of the Dietrichs in 
America? It is a question whether there 
is another family so large in all this great 
country of the West. Of course there 
are more Smiths, but then the Smiths 
have no common origin such as that to 
which we may legitimately lay claim. 
They come from all places, belong to all 
races ; they are one family only in name. 
We are one race, tho our names are so 
variously spelt. And we can muster the 
greatest reunion, as past occasions and 
the present one have demonstrated.^ 

When the history of the Dietrichs in 
America shall be written it will be found. 
I think, that they have contributed large- 
ly to the population and to the success of 
these United States. IIow many Diet- 
richs sought a home in early colonial 
times in this new country it is impossible 
now to say with any degree of exactness. 
When I -began this study it seemed pos- 
sible to make some approach to exact- 
ness of statement. Starting on limited 
lines, the secretary of the association and 
myself visited the capital of our State 
and called on the courteous and capable 
custodian of the public records, Luther 
R. Kelkcr, who immediately interested 
himself in our quest and who has, from 
time to time since, sent us copies of val- 
uable records, which limitations of time 
have prevented us from studying prop- 
erly or digesting accurately. 

Some Dietrichs settled on the Livings- 
ton Manor, along the Hudson river, 
nearly two hundred years ago. One or 
more of these Dietrichs came from New 
York into our own State, the name Diet- 
rich occurring on the list of those who 
came with Conrad Weiser into sections 
of our own county of Berks. 

By the courtesy of Mr. Kelker we have 
officially certified tracings of the signa- 
tures of no less than thirty-one individu- 
als oi diis name who arrived as immi- 
grants at the port oi Philadelphia from 
1 73 1 to 1802, besides thirty-one others 
who, for some reason, did not sign their 

•AN>ut three thousanil pe »ple attendrd tht? ronnH«a 
at whioU this address whs dellrenM. Seventt^n Sial«^ 
and two Territories were represocteJ, also Canada aaJ 



jiamcs, but merely made their mark or 
liad their names written by a clerk. So 
far we have been unable to secure similar 
lists of Dictrichs who arrived at other 
ports of entry. Doubtless there were 
some, perhaps many, who entered the 
country elsewhere than at Philadelphia. 
In addition to those recorded in the 
IVnnsylvania Archives, many have ar- 
rived in more recent years. Of some of 
these we have records, in case of many 
the records have not yet been obtained. 

However and wdienever our ancestors 
came, we are now a host, spread over all 
this s^reat country. In every part there 
are Dictrichs and from all parts, even 
from Canada, representatives of the vari- 
ous families are gathered here to-day. 

It was my purpose to enter somewhat 
into detailed enumeration of the Dictrichs 
who have achieved some measure of 
j>rominence in America. But there are 
too many of us and we must have some 
lime to get acquainted with one another. 

War-Record of the American Dietrichs 

Reference must be made, however, to 
the part taken by members of the family 
in establishing and maintaining the re- 
public of the ''noble free" in the land of 
their or their fathers' adoption. The 
war-record of the Dietrichs is a not 
in.^lorious one. In the War for In- 
dependence men of our name did 
tiicir part. From one county of 
Xew York (Ulster) sixteen Dedcricks 
wont forth to battle for freedom. At 
I>rcscnt we are looking up the records of 
men of our family from our State in the 
various wars, but the investigation has 
not progressed sufticiently to make ac- 
curate statements at this time. As ex- 
amples of the difficulties in the way sev- 
«.Tal cases must suffice. On the tomb- 
stone of William Deatrick in the grave- 
.^ard attached to Bender's church, are 
'hcse words: *'A patriot of the Revolu- 
i»"n." "L'ncle Billy," as he was famil- 
•arly called, must have been quite a boy 
when the war broke out, possibly a 
drummer boy. Tho search has been 
!uade now for several months in the arch- 
ives at Ifarrisburg, no record other than 
J'ii^ nn the gravestone has vet been found. 

Many muster-rolls of that early day have 
been lost or mislaid, and time is required 
to trace these records. 
Only this morning I received informa- 
tion, without details, of members of my 
immediate branch of the family who 
served in the Civil War ; out of one home 
four sons went forth, from others one or 

The same was true of Dietrichs else- 
where. In our own county of Berks four 
sons left a widowed mother at Lincoln's 
call, two of them to die gloriously on the 
field of battle. We know of fourteen 
who served their country in the Civil 
War, citizens of this county. What 
Bancroft said of the Germans in America 
is true of the Dietrichs as well : "Neither 
they nor their descendants have laid 
claim to all that is. their due." We appeal, 
therefore to all of our lineage to whom 
these words may come to look up the his- 
tory of their immediate relatives, sending 
letters and papers, or certified copies of 
the same, as well as all available data to 
the secretary of the association or to my- 
self, that the forthcoming History of the 
Dietrichs may be as full and reliable as 

The Dietrichs of the Present Day 

The Dietrichs of our day and gener- 
ation are, as sale-bills have it, *'too 
numerous for mention." They may speak 
for themselves. 

The study of the history of a family is 
not only interesting but also profitable. 
Such study leads to more purposeful 
study of history in general. Studying, 
with a personal interest, the story of the 
life of the great Theodoric, we are led. 
and our boys and girls may be led also. 
to study besides it the many movements 
and personages asscxiated with our hero. 
Familiarizing ourselves with the lives 
and characters of the great men who live. I 
in the past, we may profit by their ex- 
ample, imitating their virtues and avoid- 
ing their errors. But we must not tar- 
get that we are living in the present. 

Three things are of imix">rtance in eacii 
man's life: heredity, environment and in- 
dividuality. We Dietrichs have a splen- 
did hereditv. for which wc should be 



thankful. Our environment here in 
America is vastly more propitious than 
was that of our ancestors across the seas ; 
an environment conducive, in every re- 
spect, to the development of magnificent 
individuality. It remains for each of us, 
making full use of the resources of her- 
edity and environment, to give good heed 
to the full development of die individual- 

ity of each of us. Doing this, we shall 
best be fitted to our sphere and in time to 
come, I am confident, members of our 
family shall prove a blessing to the gen- 
erations in which they live, because thev 
shall ably serve their fellows, their coun- 
try and their God. Xo nobler epitaph 
can be written of any man than this: "He 
died in , the service of humanitv.'' 

German Surnames: 

Their Origin, Changes and Signification 


IV. German Family-Names 

FA:^nLY-XAMES had been unne- 
cessary during the early centu- 
ries, because the population was 
comparatively small, immigration and 
emigration slight and trade and inter- 
course of all kinds confined to small dis- 
tricts. Under these circumstances there 
was as little need of family-names in any 
community as there is need for a family- 
name among the members of the same 
family to-day. Since everybody knew his 
neighbors and since the number of peo- 
ple was comparatively small, one name 
was a sufficient designation for each 
man. • But this state of affairs was grad- 
ually changed. The Crusades made 
chau'^es in the possession of land, small 
country villages grew to be cities ; for- 
eigners came and settled in the land of 
the Germans and with the increase in 
trade and commerce came a correspond- 
ing increase in the number of legal com- 
pacts and litigations. In addition to all 
these circumstances, many of the Old 
German names died out at about this 
time and other German names, which 
were orii^inallv different names, were 
now contracted into a single form, as 
Baldhard. Baldraui and Baldwin into 
Baldo. From all these causes it became 
inevitable that in the large cities, which 
were the centers of intercourse, many 
people were found who bore the same 
name. We have already made mention 
of the large number of men who horc the 
natne ll'iUiclui, but Jl'ilhchn was not the 
only name which enjoyed such great pop- 
ularitv. We have records which show 

that at the beginning of the twelfth cen- 
tury there were fifty-nine men named 
Heriiian in Cologne, sixty-eight men 
named Burkliard in. DastI and seventy- 
three men named Hcinrich in Zurich. It 
is evident that this state of aflfairs caused 
endless confusion and could not be per- 
mitted to endure. In order to distinguish 
between these fifty-nine Hermans the 
people of that day resorted to many in- 
genious expedients. They added the 
name of Herman's occupation, as Her- 
man dcr Sell :r. id; or they added the name 
of Herman's father, as Hcdiuih dcr So/ui 
Dictrichs; or, if Herman held a munici- 
pal office, they added his title, as Herman 
dcr Vogt ; or they added the name of his 
place of residence, as Herman ion Xeu- 
markt; or they added the name of some 
personal characteristic to distinguish th.i? 
Herman from the other Hermans, as 
Herman der Rathe. These names graii- 
ually became fixed and descending from 
father to son they became surnames. 

The Introduction of Surnames 

Surnames were not introduced all over 
Germany at the same time, but were in- 
troduced in each district as necessity de- 
manded. They were introduccil first in 
South Germany. According to the great 
German philolo'::ist P>ecker. they were 
introduced in Cologne in iio(\ in Zurich 
in 1145 ^'^'^<1 i'l r»asel in i lU^. Surnan;c> 
wore wot introduceil into Middle Ger- 
many until the thirieentli century nor 
into Xorth Germany until the fourtecnih. 
centurv. Moreover the rich citizens oi 



tlie towns were the first to take surnames. 
All above and all below the rank of these 
rich burghers still clung to the old cus- 
tom for a long time. • The nobility had 
no need of surnames, since the names of 
their estates were always mentioned in 
ct)nncction with their Christian names. 
Similarly the monks and abbots needed 
no surnames, since the names of their 
monasteries were always connected with 
their names. The apprentices in the 
towns early began to imitate the richer 
citizens and took surnames, but as their 
ranks were recruited mainly from the 
rural population they more generally 
clung to the older custom of using only 
a single name. In the country districts 
the taking of surnames by the peasants 
is closely connected with their gaining 
their freedom. While the people of Uri 
took surnames as early as 1291, some of 
the peasants who remained vassals until 
a much later xlay took their surnames as 
late 'as the sixteenth century. It is in- 
teresting to note in this connection that 
the last Germanic people to take sur- 
names were those who inhabited the 
coasts of the North Sea, in Friesland, 
llolstein, Schleswig and Denmark. Un- 
til the middle of the eighteenth century 
it was the custom in these countries for 
each father to give to his son the name 
which his father bore. For example : 
(irandfather Clas, father Peter, son Clas, 
i^nandson Peter. This old Germanic cus- 
tom is still being perpetuated by the 
reigning family of Germany at the pres- 
ent day, the Elohenzollerns. Here we 
iiave a succession of rulers, each being 
the son of his predecessor, and bearing 
re<pectively the names of Friedrieh, W'il- 
liehii, FriedricJi, JPllIiebu (the present 
king), Friedrieh (the present crown- 

I'efore passing over to a more detailed 
^tudy of the manner in which the Old 
^ lerman Christian names became sur- 
names, we wish to emphasize the fact 
^hat the growth of German surnames is 
closely collected with the growth of cities 
m Germany, and that the custom of tak- 
j'\^^ surnames spread from the cities to 
'no rural districts, and not in the oppo- 
Mto direction, as some philologists have 
' rroneously supposed. 

Surnames Derived from Old German Names 

The simplest and most natural way of 
distinguishing several persons bearing 
the same Christian name was to add to 
their names the names of their fathers, 
especially if their fathers were well 
known individuals. We find the begin- 
ning of this custom in as early a monu- 
ment as the Xibelungenlied, where the 
phrases Hdtibrant Hcrihrantes Sunn and 
Siegfried Siginiindes Sun are found. 
When the name of the father was added 
to the name of the son in modern Ger- 
man times, it was added either in the 
phrase Sohn Arnolds or simply Arnolds, 
or in the Latin phrase Filius A mold i, or 
simply Arnoldi. From this statement 
it would appear that all German sur- 
names end either in s or in ?". But this is 
far from being the case, for gradually, 
when people added the name of the fa- 
ther to the name of the son. they placed 
the name of the father in the nominative 
instead of the more exact genitive case. 
This was done to make the name of the 
father appear more distinctly. Accord- 
inglv we find in an old German town- 
register of -the eighth century the entry 
Sigifridus Filius Siginiundus instead of 
the more exact Sigifridus Filius Sigi- 
inundi, while in 1030 we find the entries 
made with the word Filius omitted, viz.. 
Sigifridus Siginiundus. This is the ex- 
planation of the fact that so many Old 
German Christian names have become 
surnames without undergoing any 
change of form whatever. Among the 
German names which have undergone the 
least change in their transition from 
Christian names to surnames may be 
mentioned : 

Those compouiuled oi 

-bald, as Licbald 

Those conipouiulcd oi 

-fried, as Siegfried 

1 hoso coinpoundcti of 

-hart, as Eckhart 

TIioso coiupouiuleil oi 

-niiiun, as Ilcrmjun 

Those compounded of 

-rich, as Friedrieh 

'1 hose eompouiuled of 

■:y.\irdt, as AUIwirdt 

Tiiose eonipouiided of ■ 

breeht, as Siebrecht 

Those cotnpoundeil gf<T. as Ki^diizer 

Tliose eoMipoiMuled of 

-her, as 1 1 \i It her 

Tluwe compouiuled of 

-mar, as I'olkmjr 

1 liose ciMupoumled of 

-'iold. as Reinwald 

Those compounded of 

-:c;.ir. as Hartziis 

Those compounded oi 

-Xiin, as C»t*rt».*i« 

1 hose compounded of 

-ZK'oif, as SehJHCv:olf 

and Rudolf. 



Moreover, through "the influence of the 
various German dialects, each of these 
names gave rise to a large number of 
names similar to it. Thus, to quote only 
one example, the name Luifbald gave rise 
to the following twenty-one forms : IJe- 
haldt, Licbold, Lichhold, Liehcld, Liehel, 
Liepelt, Lippclt, Lippel, Leopold, Lcpold, 
Lepelj Leppclt, Lnppold, Luboldj Laiib- 
hold, Lcupold, Leybold, Leibcl, Leibhold, 
Lei p old and Lei pel. 

Numerous as are these dialectic vari- 
ations, they are far less numerous tJian 
the abbreviations. These abbrcviaiions 
may be divided into two general classes : 
those due to carelessness of speech aiid 
those used as terms of endearment. Of 
the first class we shall examine the three 
names Otto, Thilo and Hcino [from 
Lleinricli] as typical examples. At first 
the final o of these names weakened into 
an e and thus we got the names Otte, 
Thiele and Heine. Later this final e was 
dropped entirely and these three names 
became Ott, Thiel and Heyn. Turning our 
attention next to the diminutives used as 
terms of endearment, we find that we 
may classify these into two divisions : 
the High German diminutives and the 
Low German diminutives. ' The High 
German diminutives end in the conso- 
nant I, which may be modified by the ad- 
dition of a vowel or not. This method 
of forming diminutives is still found in 
the modern German suftix -lein. Among 
the surnames which belong to this class 
of High German diminutives may be in- 
cluded the following: 

Those ending in -cl, as Dictcl and Merkel 
[Common form]. 

Those ending in -I, as Dietl and \Icrkl 
[Bavarian form]. 

Those ending in -Ic, as Dictlc, Mcrklc and 
Eisele [Swabian form]. 

Those ending in -//. as Markli [Swiss form]. 

Those ending in -I'm, as Miirklin [Swabian 
and Swiss forms]. 

Those ending in -Icn, as Eisele n [Weakened 
form of -/!(/]. 

1 hose ending in -Iciu, as Marklcin and Dict- 
Icin [New High German form]. 

The Low German diminutives end in 
the sound of k, this method of forming 
the diminutive being retained in the mod- 
ern German suffix -choi. To this class 
of diminutives belong the followinc:: 

1 hose ending in -ke with connecting vowef, 
as Tcdike, Rcinicke, Rcinecke. 

Those ending in -ke without connecting 
vowel, as Rcinke, IVilke. 

Those ending in -k, as Tieck. 

Those ending in -iV/i or -i^ [High German 
form for k], as Dcdicli Siud ^Rii dig. 

Those ending in -ken [weakened form of 
kin], as Tiedken, ll'ilken. 

Those (jnding in -chcn [New Low German 
form], as Xoldcchen and Dietgcn. 

Ihose ending in -je [Frisian form], as 
Dietje, Biilje, Mcisjc [Madchen]. 

As may be seen from the examples, di- 
minutives in k or / take an Umlaut wher- 
ever that is possible, because of the i in 
the original forms [-iko and -ilo] of these 

In addition to these two most import- 
ant suffixes in k and / a third suffix is 
used in [Middle and South Germany to 
form diminutives. This is the suffix in z 
[Old High German form -izo]. By 
means of this suffix we get from Diet- 
ricJi, Dietze and Dietz; from Gottfried. 
Gotze and Goetz; from Ludwig, Lv.tzc 
and Liitz; and from HeinricJi, Hclnze 
and Heinz. Although these diminutives 
in .::: are, with the possible exception oi 
Fritz, seldom found in Xorth Gerniany. 
they are found very frequently in High 
German territory. The z of these dimin- 
utives frequently undergoes one of two 
changes. Sometimes the z is changed 
to oTj- or ^\ as in Diess, Russ and HeiJise. 
while in other cases it is changed to sch 
or tscJi, as in Gersch and Dictscli. More- 
over, as the German language is seldom 
satisfied with the simple diminutive form 
in naines. we have many compound ili- 
minutive forms, as for example, the fol- 
lowing diminutive forms of Dietrich: 

The form in -lieke [Old German -iliko]. i^ 
T fuel: eke and Tielkc. 

The form in -kcl [Old German -ikilo], a? 

The form in -rel [Old German -iri7t>). a> 

The form in -eke [Old German -tr:\v], a* 

The form which combines the three Old Ger- 
man diminutive forms [r, / and k], Dietcelkw 

Although it is true, as we have stated 
above, that most personal names ret.iin- 
ed their nominative form when thcv bi'- 
came family-names, yet it was inevitable 
that a lariie number of familv-na!no< 



should be in the genitive case. For as 
we have shown that the first family- 
names occurred in such phrases as Sohn 
Arnolds, we see that the grammatical 
rule requires that the family-name be in 
the genitive case, even if the noun Sohn 
is omitted. Accordingly we find many 
German surnames ending in the Latin 
genitive /, as Arndld\i and Hcnrici, the 
strong German genitive s, as Dictrichs 
and Hermanns, and the weak German 
genitive n, as Thieleyi and Often. A 
fourth genitive form — the Frisian — in 
-ena is also sometimes found in German 
surnames. As this ending has been ex- 
plained as a genitive plural form, refer- 
ring not simply to the father, but to the 
whole line of ancestors, it becomes ap- 
parent how these names in -ejia became 
mainly the names of kings and nobles. 
There are more German surnames which 
are genitives than might appear at first 
inspection. This is due to the many cor- 
ruptions of speech and orthography 
which they have undergone. German 
names in -ts are often written with tz, as 
Scifritz [Sdifrids from Siegfrids], Goui- 
pcrtz [Goniperts from GujidbrecJit]. Nor 
are the English the only race having 
trouble with their h's. The Germans are 
also inclined to omit this letter from 
names in w^hich it rightfully belongs and 
to insert it in names in which it ought 
not to be. The two names Reinartz 
[from Rcinhards] and Reinholz [from 
Rcinold] are the two most familiar ex- 
amples of this German tendency. An- 
other class of names which are really 
genitive forms, although the casual read- 
er would not suspect it, are those ending 
in y, as BcrnJiardy. These names are 
analogous to the many Latin genitives 
in t, as Arnoldi, Ruperti and Fredcrici. 
Of other German surnanies which are 
closely related to these genitive forms, 
We may mention firstly, surnames which 
are compounds of -sohn, as Volsitni^sson, 
H ihnscn and Volquardsen; secondly the 
South German patronymics in -cr and 
-^vr, as Sicboltcr and H artier [from 
Lconhard], and thirdly, a very few me- 
tn.nynncs, such as Vernaleken, which 
'ucans "son of Frau Aleke" [from Adel- 

Surnames Derived from Christian Names 

Having now considered at some length 
the German surnames derived from per- 
sonal names of the first class — Old Ger- 
man names — we shall next consider those 
German surnames which are derived 
from personal names of the second class 
— Christian names. These Christian 
names underwent very great changes be- 
fore they were adopted as family-names. 
With the exception of a few short names, 
such as Thomas and Lucas, most of 
these Latin Christian names contain four 
or five syllables. In pronouncing these 
foreign names the Old German always 
endeavored to move the accent, which in 
the Latin language fell naturally upon 
the penult or antepenult, to the first syl- 
lable, which was the syllable invariably 
accented in the Old German. This cus- 
tom caused such contractions as Ajui- 
christo for Antichristiis, CJiostanza for 
Constanfia and Matheiis for Matlucits. 
The Germans were so accustomed to ac- 
cent the first syllable of their words that 
whenever, in the case of foreign words, 
they departed from this rule and accent- 
ed any other syllable, the first syllable fell 
into disrepute, as it were, and the people 
soon did not pronounce it at all. We 
thus obtained such abbreviations as the 
Old High German word Post us for the 
Latin word Apostolus and the Old High 
German Span for the Latin Hispa):us. 
Later through the influence of the many 
Romance words introduced into the Ger- 
man language — especially the nouns in 
-ie — the custom of accenting foreign 
words on their last syllable was gradual- 
ly introduced into German. But in the 
case of proper names the tendency to re- 
move the accent to the first syllable re- 
mains to this day and this tendency has 
caused syllables at the end of many 
names to disappear. As examples we may 
mention Bendi.v from Bcncdietus and 
Xiclas from Xi col a us. In those cases 
where the original foreign accent was re- 
tained, syllables at the beginning of the 
name were lost — as .Ichini from Joaehhn 
and .Ism us from Erasmus. Sometimes 
syllables have Ikxii dropped from the be- 
ginning and from the end of the same 


THE pp:xnsylvaxia-germax 

name, as is the case in the name Fazi 
[from Bonifacins] and Nis [from Dio- 
nysiiis]. It is interesting^ to note in this 
connection that' in the case of Old Ger- 
man names no abbreviations could occur 
at the beginning of the names, because 
the German accent is always placed on 
the first syllable. 

From these abbreviated Christian 
names manv German surnames have ori- 
ginated. Sometimes with an abbrevia- 
tion at the end, as Mathcs from Mathics 
and sometimes with an abbreviation at 
the beginning, as Xandcr from Alexan- 
der, In a few cases one Christian name 
has given rise to family-names of each 
of these two classes, as the following 
illustrations will show : 

Amhrosch and Brose from Amhroshis. 
. Nickel and Clans from Xicolaus. 
Enders and D reives from Andreas. 
Barthel and Meives from Bartholomdiis. 

Sometimes, as in the case of the fourth 
example cited above, the two derived ab- 
breviations have not a single letter of the 
original name in common. Sometimes 
also these abbreviations are again ex- 
panded by the insertion of a zc or a g 
between two vowels, as for example, 
Pawel and Pa gel from Paul. These ab- 
breviations are often such that the prim- 
itive names from which they are derived 
can be discovered only with great diffi- 
culty. Examples of such names are Lex 
from Alexius, Xander from Alexander, 
Gille from Aegidius, and Grohns, RoJi- 
tier and Muss from Hieronymus. Nor is 
the fact that a name ends in ^' positive 
proof that it is a genitive form. Often 
the ,$■ is simply the remainder of a larger 
ending, as in the examples Staats from 
Eustathius and Mc:v\^s from Marx. 
Nouns ending in -ies (dissyllabic) are 
the German forms of the corresponding 
Latin nominatives in <us, as Barries 
from Liborius and Pldnnies and Loenmes 
from Apollonius. In the case of these 
Christian names properly so called we 
can be positive that they are genitive 
forms onlv when thev en^l in a distinctly 

genitive Latin ending such as ae or i, as 
for example, Matthiae and Pauli. These 
Christian surnames form compounds 
with -soJvt and this suffix is frequently 
weakened, as in the case of the Old Ger- 
man surnames. Examples are Andcr- 
soJin, Matthisson and Peterssen. Dimin- 
utives are seldom found among these 
Christian surnames. Kobke [from Ja- 
kob] and Jahnke [from Johannes] are 
the only common representatives of the 
Low German diminutive letter k. while 
Jacket and Hensel are the only represen- 
tatives of the High German diminutive 
sound /. The diminutive sound z is not 
found in these foreign surnames at all. 

The patronymic relation is indicated 
in the Christian surnames not only in the 
genitive forms and in the compounds of 
-sohn, but also in the names formed with 
the prefixes Jung and Klein. The father 
for example was called Andreas or Mich- 
el and then the son was called Jungandre- 
as or Klc'.nniicJiel. Just at this time the 
surnames became fixed and Jungandreas 
and Kleininichel became the names of all 
the descendants of these men. It is in- 
teresting to note in this connection that 
there are only five Christian names, viz.. 
Andreas, Johannes, Michael, Xicolaus 
and Paul, and two Old German names, 
viz., Konrad and Heinrich, which form 
patronymics in Jung- ^nd Klein-. The 
patronymics of these names gave birth to 
a large number of derived names through 
the usual corrupting influences oi abbre- 
viation and compounding, but of all these 
names the name JoJiannes has given rise 
to more surnames than any other. \ il- 
mar has found more than a hundred dif- 
ferent German surnames which owe their 
origin to the name Johannes. We thus 
see that Johau)ies became as popular as 
a surname as it had been before as a 
Christian name. We must confess how- 
ever that this name is an exception and 
that, taken as a whole, the Christian 
names, as we might expect, did not give 
rise to as many surnames as did the Old 
Gorman pergonal names. 



Myles Loring: 

A Tale of the Tulpehocken 

BY rf:v. alden vv. qui m by. 

Chapter XII. 

"A Rare Day in June" 

LOWELL'S description of June, in 
the "Vision of Sir Launfal," must 
have been written in the Lebanon 
valley. So at least thought ]\Iyles Lor- 
ing, when the early days of that month 
found him hastening through its eastern 
gates toward blissful Womelsdorf. The 
days had seemed long to him since his 
separation from Caroline, and still they 
moved on tardy axes, though schooldays 
were over forever. The seminary prep- 
arations for ministerial service had ceas- 
ed ; the goodbyes had been spoken, to the 
grave and kindly professors on one hand 
and on the other to the bright young men 
who were to attempt the commission of 
eighteen centuries agone, *'to go into all 
the world and preach the gospel to every 

Already licensed to preach, his letter 
of dismission to the presbytery of Le- 
high had been accepted and the call to' 
Womelsdorf congregation approved. Ab- 
solutely nothing now stood between him 
and the absorbing ambition of his life. 
To et)ter upon the holy service of the 
Christian ministry with the gentle spirit 
he had loved in childhood at his side as 
his wife beloved, to enjoy and cherish 
until death should separate them — this 
surely was the terrestrial Eden ! 

Although quite accustomed to driving, 
it was not Caroline who awaited him at 
the station, but her brother Thomas, a 
young attorney of Reading, one of his 
former schoolmates. Perhaps he felt 
Noinewhat embarrassed while passing 
til rough Womelsdorf, and was glad when 
tliey turned out of Franklin street, for in 
all probability the whole town knew the 
'^''•cret, and the arrival of the onuiibus 
«uul other vehicles from the station usu- 
ally attracted the attention of curious 

Never, however, had the old borough 
seemed so inviting. From the elevated 
ground about the station it appeared 
charming in its dress of red and white, 
the color of bricks -and trimmings being 
plainly perceptible, while the everlasting 
blue of the Kaii-ta-tin-chunk supplied 
the royal background of the picture. 
Riding through High street the shade of 
the trees furnished a pretty scene, and 
the old buttonwoods at the schoolmas- 
ter's seemed to gravely bid him welcome. 
The short mile to the canal was soon 
passed, for Thomas Filbert did not drive 
at his father's methodical gait : the cross- 
ing of the bright Tulpehocken and its 
business-associate, the v/ater-way. was 
followed in another moment by die 
alighting at the gate. 

]\lyles walked up the flowery avenue to 
the house quite unmindful of the bril- 
liant colors which lined it. and was greet- 
ed at the door by Caroline. The busy at- 
tention of her mother was wisely direct- 
ed toward some important culinary ef- 
fort in the basement kitchen : and wiien 
the bold sunshine was shut out of the 
sweet, cool room Myles folded his affi- 
anced to his heart, giving and receiving 
kisses which told that the old, old story 
was ever new. 

The evidences oi preparation for the 
wedding were complete. The greeting 
he received from Mr. and Mrs. Filbert 
and the second son, Henry, was so cor- 
dial and affectionate that it touched his 
heart. The thousand and one things 
which develop in connection with a wed- 
ding were referred to in little snatches 
of conversation during the day and. slow- 
ly though it seemed, the evening-time ac- 
tually approached. 

It had been arrani::ed that Eftie Fidler 



should be bridesmaid and Thomas Fil- 
bert groomsman at the very early cere- 
mony on the following morning. So it 
was eminently fitting that Eftie, accom- 
panied by Dr. Reed, should pay a little 
call that evening. The Filbert boys 
teased fair Effie with hints that she would 
soon follow suit in the matrimonial ven- 
ture, which she, though not without some 
beautiful blushes, stoutly denied. 

That last evening of the old relation- 
ship was ever sacred in memory to Alyles 
and Caroline. The company gone and 
the family retired, after a rather ex- 
hausting day, they li-ngered a little on 
the porch, yet scarcely conversing, be- 
cause of the fullness of their hearts. 
Gratitude to the Giver of all mercies was 
welling in Myles's bosom, and Caroline 
felt a divine joy and peace not inter- 
preted by her slight expression of re- 
serve. Fondly they traced the providen- 
tial leadings of their lives, and expressed 
their mutual hopes for a happy and use- 
ful future. Myles was very sanguine 
that their aspiration would have its fru- 
ition, while Caroline — perhaps the more 
practical of the two — thought it well to 
tread lightly on that ground. But the 
picture of the years to come was bright 
^even to her own modest prospect. 

The quick or droning sounds of the 
night, the ripple of the water in the creek 
as the moonbeams fell upon its curving 
course beneath the trees that lined its 
banks, until it hid itself in the shadows 
of the bend, invested the quiet scene 
with a strange fascination, until Caroline 
broke the spell by gently saying : 'T guess 
we had better close the house." Myles 
himself performed the necessary duty, 
and the good-night of a love as pure as 
that of the angels was sealed with a kiss 
so sweet that angels might envy it, who 
"neither marry nor are given in mar- 

The wedding-morning dawned, itself 
"a sweet bridal of the earth and sky." 
Breakfast was ^lot to be eaten until after 
the ceremony, for the minister — Myles's 
friend and the Filberts's pastor — was to 
partake of it with Efhe Fidler. Thomas 
drove over for Effie, althoui^h it would 

not have been a breach of the simple con- 
ventionality of the countryside if Effie 
had come alone or remained during the 

The minister, the Reverend Mr. Hack- 
man, arrived in good season, and at eight 
o'clock all was ready for the solemn ser- 
vice. Quietly the couples stationed them- 
selves near the front windows of the par- 
lor. The good pastor took his place be- 
fore them and read the opening sen- 
tences of the ritual. Mrs. Filbert's eyes 
were brimful of tears, and her undemon- 
strative husband's spectacles were 
strangely moist, as the pledges of faith 
were made. Even the boys felt a chok- 
ing sensation, as they heard the words 
so pregnant with weal or woe. But 
neither ]\lyles nor Caroline faltered in 
word, nor were their bright eyes dim- 
med by a single tear. They were wrapt 
in each other, soul to soul, at that mo- 
ment; the beauty of betrothal ripened 
into the holiness of wedded love, as the 
sacred words were spoken which made 
them one, as the earnest prayer for the 
divine blessing and the benediction fell 
upon their ears. Then the smiling pas- 
tor offered his congratulations to "'Mrs. 
Loring" and made way for the family. 

It was ]Mrs. Filbert who first slowly 
advanced to her daughter's side and. 
drawing her face down upon her bosom, 
wept as though her heart would break. 
It was the supreme moment in a moth- 
er's experience. Caroline's fortitude dis- 
appeared, and she mingled her tears with 
those of her mother, while she gave her 
embraces that almost moved Myles to 
envy. Then the beautiful mother, with 
her old shyness and a few simple but ex- 
quisite sentences, bestowed a modierly 
kiss upon her son. as she called him. 
Alerry Effie, as well as the boys and their 
wives, was sobbing like a child, as Mr. 
Filbert, quite broken down, shook hands 
with his boy. as he tried to call Myles. 
but dismally failed. The whole party 
might have dissolved in tears it the pas- 
tor, recovering himself, had not man- 
aged to turn the tide into the cheerful- 
ness of which the occasion was worthy, 
bv remarkim;" that, as "there was a lim* 



to weep, there was also a time to eat"; 
and though Mrs. Much Afraid, in the 
"Pilgrim's Progress," had taken to danc- 
ing after her recovery from Doubting 
Castle, he. like ^Ir. Despondency, was 
inclined to have something to eat. 
Whereupon the breakfast was immedi- 
ately partaken of with a relish worthy of 
its attractions. 

Ah, but the villagers were at the win- 
dows when the carriage went by on its 
way to the station ! As if they knew the 
lime to the minute, the pretty girls and 
the staid matrons and the ancient women 
were all on guard-; even the men folks 
were included in the gazers upon their 
departure. But there is a curiosity which 
does no harm, a gossip without which we 
would all be out of sorts, which is abso- 
lutely necessary to our social life ; if the 
"pair" could have heard the connnents 
upon their appearance, and the kindly 
wishes of the curious ones, they would 
have waved their hands and blown kisses 
to the spectators. 

Despite it all, however, Myles could 
scarcely wait for the train. The desire 
to. have Caroline all to himself was so 
strong that only the coming of the ex- 
press that touched at Womelsdorf could 
bring him absolute freedom of owner- 
ship. Like all other sublunary things, it 
came at last. 

What a wedding-trip it was I Up the 
I-ehigh valley from Allentown. past 
Mauch Chunk and ^dount Pisgah, past 
the fascinating Glen Onoko, on, up to the 
summit of the mountain, whence the 
glorious vale of Wyoming came into 
view, like the fairxland of a romance ; 
then for miles the fair valley of the Sus- 
quehanna and, as the day wore away, the 
mystic glen of Watkins, on little Seneca 
Lake. It was here, where angels might 
walk — in windin^^ recesses, anions: cas- 
cades and plashing waters, by deep, som- 
ber cliffs, overtopped with trees and 
garnished at their foot with ferns — that 
a few days of the honeymoon were spent. 

Then came another season by the wa- 
t^Ty abyss of Niagara, in some respects 
the most sublime sight in nature. Then 
Lake Ontario and Toronto, the summer 
sheen of the matchless Thousand Isles. 

the rapids of the famous St. Lawrence, 
the heights of Quebec and the historic 
IMains of Abraham, the foaming Mont- 
morency, and afterward that rival of 
Italian waters, Lake George, and the 
medicinal springs of Saratoga. Myles 
had proposed to include the White Moun- 
tains and Boston, but his bride shrank 
from meeting his relatives at the lattev 
place, preferring to receive them at 
Womelsdorf first. 

It was fitting that a trip down the 
Hudson should cap the climax of this 
acme of wedding flights. The passage 
through the Highlands ever seemed to 
Caroline the gradual fading of a dream 
of heaven, so splendid had been the scen- 
ery of the long route of travel. It had 
been so unreal that sometimes Myles 
was compelled to recall her attention to 
himself. , 

^lyles's impressible mind was also 
deeply affected by the scenic wonders of 
his wedding tour. It threw into his 
subsequent preaching a nobility of 
thought and a wealth of illustration 
which added greatly to its acceptability 
and effectiveness. Looking up "through 
nature to nature's God" sweetened and 
enriched the sermons which he found not 
a little difficult to prepare. When his own 
heart felt tlie afflatus of his message he 
could be sure that others would feel it 

But Myles's supreme joy was Caroline. 
Such love and tenderness as this journey 
had revealed ! Shy at best and full of 
maidenly reserve, the days of their 
courtship had seemed rather meager in 
expression on her part : but now her 
heart .was unveiled, and her husband 
could read its true and deep affection. 

Xow there came a longing to each to 
reach home again, and one afternoon, in 
response to a letter, old Jack, driven by 
Mr. Filbert, stood at the Womelsdorf 
station to take them to the liome on the 
Tulpehockcn. Gladness shone in the 
eves of the good man as he caressed his 
dauvrhter and shook hands with Myles. 
Having read Caroline's letters narrating 
the beauties and wonders of the scenery 
ot the Xorth. he was much gratified to 
luar exclaim, as thev caitie into full 


THE pexxjylva::ia-ger 

view of the beautiful Blue Mountain, the 
splendid settin^^ of ^reen vales and wood- 
ed ridges : ''O Myles, this is better than 
all we saw in our wonderful trip!" And 
Myles, drinking in the charms of his fa- 
vorite scenery with kindling eye, cried 
out: "The Lebanon valley forever!" 

What a welcome Mother Filbert gave 
them ! Like Friday, when he found his 
father in Robinson Crusoe's island, she 
seemed desirous of determining by per- 
sonal examination of Caroline's cheeks 
and hands if it were truly her long absent 
daughter. Upon the whole the late ab- 
sentees felt that the measure of their hap- 
piness was only full, now that they were 
in the midst of the delights of home. 

The same evening Effie Fidler and Dr. 
Reed called to express pleasure at their 
return, and thus the last day of what 
Myles termed his dolce far nicnte was 
spent in the agreeable converse of family 
and social fellowship. 

The news of their return had spread, 
and the morning brought Dr. Marshall, 
who wished to make arrangements for 
an early assumption by Myles of his pas- 
toral relation. It had been so long since 
Presbyterian services had been held in 
the town, that the little flock was hungry 
for their restoration. Preparations hav- 
ing been made by presbytery for his or- 
dination and installation, [Myles was re- 
quested to suggest a date for their con- 
summation. This revived a reference 
which had been made before to the oc- 
cupancy of the building by the "Shining 
Saints." The doctor remarked that those 
zealous disciples were aware of the new 
order of things, and while they had not 
been formally made acquainted with the 
plans of the owners of the building, they 
must certainly be expecting a quit-notice. 

It was agreed that the doctor should 
consult the ladies of the congregation 
relative to the selection of a time for a 
reception of the pastor, which should 
also be convenient to him and his bride : 
and the good physician departed, quite 
pleased with the prospect of a settled pas- 
tor so engaging and so providentially 
called as Myles seemed to be. 

From Mr. Filbert the young couple 
learned that a most desirable property 

was for rent in the town, located quite 
close to the church — a neat and invitinjr 
fraiue house recently built and hereto- 
fore occupied by its owner, who had been 
obliged by business-affairs elsewhere to 
remove from Womclsflorf. Although the 
fatigue of their journey was now begin- 
nino; to assert itself, the candidates for 
sober housekeeping felt so much interest 
in the selection of a home for themselves 
that they determined to look at the house 
spoken of without further delay, and the 
afternoon found them on their way to the 
town. It needed but a brief inspection 
of the neat and roomy frame building 
nearly opposite the church, to prejudice 
them greatly in its favor. Although it 
quite lacked some of the comforts which 
modern houses in the larger towns al- 
most invariably provide, they felt justi- 
fied in engaging it at once. 

So it was speedily settled where they 
should live, and when sufficiently rested 
from tlie weariness of travel they began 
the purchase of those household-articles 
which are so essential to the enjoyment 
of home. X'ot a few valuable articles 
were presented by Mrs. Filbert from a 
plenteous store of her own : the furniture 
patterns, conjointly the choice of the 
happy pair, were the result of much com- 
parison and meditation. 

It was really a red-letter day in the 
calendar of the Lorings when all was in 
readiness at last and the house-warming 
took place. A pleasant little ''surprise" 
upon the part of their many friends was 
tendered, and this was not at all confined 
to the members of the Presbyterian 
church. All the denominations were rep- 
resented, together with some of the 
''Shining Saints" and even a few per- 
sons whose church-relationship was de- 
cidedly hazy. The affair was quite in- 
formal, and with some light refresh- 
ments, the chattiest of evenings wa< 

The next morning, soon after the 
V breakfast-hour, the householders wore 
startled by the tolling of the bell in tiie 
steeple of the I'nion church o\\ the hill. 
The solenui strokes grew to eighty-nine, 
then Caroline said old Mr. Derr must 
have passed away. 



Chapter XIII. 
A Funeral and a Fort 

OLD Mr. Derr was not a Presby- 
terian, but a long-time member 
and trustee of the Reformed 
cliurch. The duty of the funeral service 
would not fall to the lot of ^lyles ; but, 
as the aged man was related by mar- 
riage to ^Ir. Filbert, both Caroline and 
Myles would b? among the notified 
Frciindschaft and must count upon at- 
tending- the funeral. Riders at once 
went hither and thither over the country 
to ''warn'' people of the demise of the 
patriarch and the time fixed for the fun- 
eral, while a little army of women com- 
menced immediate preparations for the 
funeral feast. 

The house of mourning, which was so 
soon to become a house of feasting, after 
the old German fashion, stood, not far 
from Xewmanstown. It was a substan- 
tial building of stone, erected upon a 
large farm, with the usual great barn 
supplied with curiously ornamented air- 
holes. Gossip was rife as to what dis- 
position had been made of the property 
by" the old man's will, there being "two 
sets of children." 

The labors of the kind-hearted neigh- 
bors can scarcely be conceived, but when 
the day of the funeral arrived they had 
achieved a triumph of hard-won prepa- 
ration. The house had been set in apple- 
pie order, and the apple-pies themselves 
were what rural sales-bills assert, ''too 
numerous to mention.'' Pies of all im- 
aginable material had been baked, and 
the array of custards and cakes would 
have revived the flagging powers of a 
gourmand overcome by ennui. There 
were dozens of loaves of whitest bread 
baked in the huge oven out of doors, 
roasts of fowl, beef and veal, cold meats, 
pickles and preserves. The ladies were 
hard-worked of necessity, for . the 
Prciindschaft was extensive and a large 
company was expected. 

The funeral was set at an early hour, 
for dinner must not be long delayed, and 
in view of the dignity and years oi the 
deceased, services would doubtless be of 

respectable length. The interment would 
be at Womelsdorf. 

Carriage after carriage approached 
the house, some coming from the direc- 
tion of Womelsdorf, some from the 
neighborhood of Myerstown. Indeed 
they came from all quarters, and the 
horses were tied to the fences adjoining 
the house. 

Myles and Caroline went to the fun- 
eral in ]\Ir. Filbert's carriage, the same 
which figured on that fateful day when 
the seeds of love were sown, at least in 
Myles's breast. The way to Xewmans- 
town was simply a continuation of Bone 
street past the "manse,"' as Myles called 
his residence. The Eagle's Head was in 
fine view as they rode southward, and 
the beautiful Kliift disclosed itself later. 
Xothing was seen of die hut of the Hex 
unless it were a thin column of smoke 
making its way above the trees which 
shut it in. 

Myles had not seen Xewmanstown 
since childhood, and the old-fashioned 
houses, which were of the simplest con- 
struction of logs, but as substantial, ap- 
parently, as when built, greatly enter- 
tained him with their quaintncss. His 
attention was especially claimed by the 
pump placed in the middle of the high- 
way, that all passers-by. whether man or 
beast, might drink. Knowing Myles's 
propensity for historic spots, Mr. Filbert 
called his attention to a building a short 
distance from the village of almost mas- 
sive strength, a story and a half in height, 
with walls two feet thick, the door-posts 
each a single sandstone and having 
double inch-board doors, pegged with 
wooden pins, the windows being square 

A strong spring, rising in a cavern in 
the cellar, gushed through an aperture 
in the foundation wall. Myles immedi- 
ately developed an overpowering thirst 
and alighted from the carriage to quatt 
from the pure fountain. With that free- 
dom which is so innocently practiced in 
the vicinitv he hurriediv entered the ven- 

\ • 



erable building", used chiefly for storage 
purposes, and glanced at its mammoth 
fireplace and fittings in general, even as- 
cending to the dark attic and noting the 
ancient staircase and floorboards. He 
Was quite prepared to Iparn from ]\Ir. 
Filbert that this structure, dating back 
to the year 1/45, ^^'^^ one'of the old In- 
dian forts, built for the express purpose 
of defence against marauding Indians 
and known as Zeller's Fort. 

Mr. Filbert repeated the well preserv- 
ed tradition of an Amazon who found 
this house both a hiding-place and an 
embarrassment in those perilous times. 
"Once, when she was all alone in the 
house, she saw three Indians approach- 
ing it. She barred the doors and closed 
the windows; but the Indians, one by 
one, effected an entrance by the opening 
for the spring. As they were not close 
together, the brave woman waited until 
the first Indian crawled partly through 
into the cellar and then struck him with 
an axe, killing him immediately. Imi- 
tating his voice, calling to his companions 
and pulling his body wdthin, she waited 
until the second followed suit, when she 
"dispatched him in the same way, also 
dragging in his body. The third Indian 
imagined that his comrades were enjoy- 
ing an easy victory and made haste to 
enter also, but met the same fate." 

"Horrible," said Alyles, ''but I should 
think that many people would look upon 
the house as haunted." "O yes," said his 
father-in-law, "it is often spoken of as 
haunted by 'spooks,' and some people 
would not go near it at night for any 

As it was drawing near the funeral 
hour, they quickened their movements 
somewhat. ^Nlyles was surprised to see 
a long line of carriages in the field back 
of the house of sorrow, and the public 
road actually beleaguered with more. 
Their carriage being placed as near the 
house as possible, these relatives of the 
deceased entered the dwelling and found 
accommodation in one of the rooms re- 
served for the mourners. 

The corpse rested in the center of the 
"best room," and a helpful woman 

among the "providers" kept brushing 
away the flies from the decrepit face. The 
undertaker flitted about with consider- 
able pomposity, and when Myles gazed 
at him with lively curiosity he noticed 
another relative covering her face with a 
handkerchief in a way that was more 
suggestive of a giggle than a pang of 
sorrow. The lady stood upon little cere- 
mony, for when Myles performed a tri- 
fling courtesy, picking up her handker- 
chief, she opened conversation in a whis- 
per and straightway confided to him the 
strange behavior of the undertaker, wiio 
was not a local professional, but came 
from a distance. 

"He wanted the family to go to the 
store and get a piece of black chintz for 
crape," she explained. Myles looked at 
the man, who, with his hair parted down 
the back of his head and his vest-cor- 
ners flowing, while his coat was remov- 
ed, sat leisurely on the porch-floor smok- 
ing a cigar. By and by, in the oddest 
style he came to the minister who was in 
'the same room with the family and gra- 
ciously gave him permission to proceed 
with the service. It was done so patron- 
izingly and so facetiously withal that 
Myles was almost tempted to laugh. 

Reverently the minister read selections 
from Scripture and prayed. Taking his 
text from the Book of job : "Thou shalt 
come to thy grave in a full age. like as a 
shock of corn cometh in in his season." 
he preached a general discourse upon the 
imminence of death ; at the close ho 
made some special reference to the long 
life of the departed and his endearing 

The service ended and the last look 
taken, the cofnn-lid was fastened in place 
and the business-like and jaunty old un- 
dertaker prepared the family and 
for removal. The hearse was an ancient 
vehicle, festooned with rusty curtains. 
and having a "buggy-top." that is, an 
oilcloth frame over the driver, which 
could be lowered or raisetl at will. It 
was drawn by one horse and served any 
other purpose but the conservation of 
solenuiity and reverence. However, the 
mourners in i^eneral seemed not to bo 



sensible of the ludicrous features of the 
occasion. Observing Myles's eye fixed 
on him and taking it as a compliment, 
the venerable man of interments nattily 
said to him in a sort of aside, yet loud 
enough to be heard several feet away : 
*'Vm going to get a new hearse once, 
with glass sides, one of these days, for 
some of these new fellows are trying to 
run me out of business. But I've been 
burying people for sixty years, and I 
rather guess I'll have the drop on 'em 
for a while yet." Then, waxing inter- 
ested and loquacious, he explained how 
he had ruined a good pair of shoes at a 
previous funeral. 

Recollecting, however, that he had not 
learned how many persons would need to 
be provided with vehicles, he thrust him- 
self into the presence of the weeping 
daughters of the aged man, whose coffm 
now rested in the hearse, with the query : 
'How many noses ?" When the carriages 
and the two omnibuses provided to trans- 
port friends- arriving by rail were pretty 
well filled, this singular character looked 
almost leeringly in at the house, and 
cried out very jocularly: '*Any more pas- 
sengers?" At this moment an ancient 
grasshopper flew into the second omni- 
bus, in which Dr. Fidler was seated, 
Avhereupon that irresistible humorist, 
loking as though the deceased were his 
dearest personal friend, mournfully said: 
^That's the same old hopper that used to 
play about here when I was a boy, forty 
years ago." The friends from a dis- 
tance were dumbfounded, but the na- 
tives were almost convulsed. 

The long train of mourners wound on- 
ward to the "old ground" in the ceme- 
tery on the hill, and all that was mortal 
of Benjamin Derr was laid at rest with 
the solemn ritual of the church and the 
final remark, "Peace be to his ashes!" 
Then the funeral company, transformed 
as by magic from weeping Jeremiahs to 
glad Davids, hastened back with light 
hearts and stomachs to the homestead 
where hundreds ate at a table groaning 
with rich provision, and like another 
hungry multitude, "until thev were all 
filled." There were some practiced cat- 

ers, both masculine and feminine, at these 
obsequies, having come many miles to eat 
long and w ell at the funeral feast of their 
"dear friend." One of these, extrava- 
gantly fond of pie, ate four or five pieces 
of her favorite dessert ; another ate at 
three tables in succession. Some of the 
family, quite according to the established 
fashion of the neighborhood, urged the 
people as a personal courtesy to remain 
and eat to the memory of the former 
master of the household. The old un- 
dertaker, himself fast verging upon the 
tomb, ate with freedom and cracked 
merry jests with the other eaters, who 
had recovered from their sadness and 
were at least fortifying themselves, 
against death by starvation. 

As it would have been a mortal oflPence 
to the family if the Filberts had not re- 
turned to eat, }klyles was compelled to 
partake of the viands. Although we must 
do him the justice to say that he abhorred 
the custom of mortuary feasts, yet his 
sharpened appetite being naturally un- 
affected by personal grief in this case, he 
was rather glad that so bountiful a din- 
ner supplanted the meager luncheon to 
which he was accustomed (when any 
was had) in the East. 

As the afternoon was scarcely advanc- 
ed in a locality where the usual dinner- 
hour, announced by a big bell on a pole. 
is eleven o'clock, Myles begged Mr. Fil- 
bert to take him to sec tb.e "Gold 
Spring" in the Kliift. \\"hen the 
adieus had been spoken in spite 
of the unfeigned pressure of the 
family to detain them, they drove their 
horses up the famous ascent, windinc: 
slowly through the beautiful gap. whose 
towering western side was now in classic 
shadow — up past die Hauswcrtins until 
they saw a gate leading into the woods 
on the right. Here they diverged from 
the highway, and as thc^ woods were in- 
terspersed with protruding rocks, the 
team was hitched to the fence. Then the 
t\iur occupants of the carriage walked 
down a hundred \ards or more to the 
little ravine in which, out of a white 
sandstone rock, the purest and coldest 
water burst forth in a strong, unfailing 
stream. Lingering in the welc<Mnc shad.e 



they drank and drank again of heaven's 
own bounty and laved their hands in the 
cok] current flowing over its rocky bed. 
It was in this vicinity that the "gokl 
mine" was being worked ; but a sign, 
"No Trespassing," forbade a visit to its 
rich pockets. On the return trip Myles 
closely scanned the mysterious home of 
die Haiiszi'crtiti, for he had heard some 
ugly rumors, connecting her with the 
still unsolved mystery of the numerous 
robberies. Perhaps he would have ' at- 
tempted to call upon the now notorious 
creature, but the howling of the vicious 

W'asser and the entreaties of Caroline 
and her mother prevented him. 

Myles was grateful to Mr. Filbert for 
proposing that they should go home bv 
way of Stouchsburg, another place asso- 
ciated with his early recollections. This 
very pleasant village, situated on a hill, 
recalled to him the days for whose his- 
tory he had a perfect passion, and the 
slow ride through its one street, embrac- 
ing a view of the historic Reed's church, 
gave him untold pleasure, for it was a 
ride through the avenues of memory.. 

(To be continued.) 

Clippings from 

Gennan-American Day at Jamestown 

•German- American Day was celebrated at 
the. Jamestown Exposition, August i, by ten 
thousand Germans from all parts of the coun- 
try. Special trains from Richmond and the 
West, as well as excursions from W'ashirig- 
toh, Baltimore and Philadelphia, brought in 
the crowds. After music by Fhinney's Unit- 
ed States Band and singing by the Gcsang- 
vcreiii Virginia of Richmond. Prof. Anton I. 
Koerner, of Xorfolk, made the welcoming ad- 
dress in German. Other speakers were Pres- 
ident Harry St. George Tucker, of the Expo- 
sition Company, E. K. Victor, German consul 
in Richmond, J. Taylor Ellison. Lieutenant- 
Governor of Virginia, and Dr. C. J. Hexamer, 
president of the German-American Alliance, 
who reviewed the part taken by the Germans 
in our struggle for independence and was 
loudly cheered when he declared there would 
have been no i nited colonial rebellion nor any 
United States of America but for the patriot- 
ism of the Germans in the colonies. A note- 
worthy feature of the musical program was 
the rendering of "The Lost Chord" by Mr. 
Napier, of Pittsburg, on the P'xposition organ, 
accompanied by the entire orchestra. 

Beautiful New History of Berks 

Subscriptions are being taken for the flis- 
torical and Biographical Annals of Berks 
County, Pa., now being prepared under the 
supervision of Morton L. Montgomery, Esq., 
and to be published in two large, richly illus- 
trated volumes by J. II. Beers & Co.. Chicago. 
\V. J. Dietrich, Esq., of Reading, who is as- 
sistant editor of this magnificent work, in- 
forms us that it will contain fully 1.500 hue 
family-histories, making it exceedingly valu- 
able for genealogical stu^ly. 

Current News 

Had an Outing at Emaus 

The Lehigh County Historical Society held 
its midsummer meeting, ' August 10, in the 
chapel of the Moravian church, at Emaus, one 
of the earlier settlements of the county. Tlie 
burgess, Dr. H. T. Wickert, being unavoid- 
ably absent, greetings were spoken in his 
name by Robert Stansheld and responded to 
by President G. T. Ettinger. Eleven mem- 
bers were elected, raising the active member- 
ship to no, and a number of books and docu- 
ments were donated. Secretary C. R. Roberts 
read historical and genealogical notes relat- 
ing to the early residents of Eniaus, and Rev- 
Allen E. Abel, pastor of the local Moravian 
church, presented the early history of the 
latter, showing that the first log church oi the 
congregation was erected in 174J on a hun- 
dred acres of land donated by Jacob Ehren- 
hard. The second -church was built in I74'">. 
the third in 1766. the present one in 1834. In 
1746 a girls' school was opened at Emaus. 
which was later moved to Bethlehem and 
merged into the Moravian Young La<iics' 
Seminary. The house built by Jacob Ehreti- 
hard in 1S03 is still standing near the Pcr- 
kiomen railroad. 

Old Home Week in Beinville and Bedford 

Two Pennsylvania towns. Bernville i" 
Berks and Bedford in Bedfonl county, cele- 
brated Old Home Week simultaneously. Au<,:- 
ust 4-10. I'he week's events in each town l»^-- 
gan with special services in the churches, thon 
followed in Bernville School -Dav. Lodge- Day. 
Reading Day, Old Home Day.* Old Settkr>" 
Day and Picnic Day. Bedford had a histori- 
cal meeting on .Monday, parades of lodges oi» 
Tuesday and Wednesday, the dedication or it^ 
Si>ldier>' Monument on Thursilay. a grand r*^"- 
union with races and gantes on Friday an<i a 
general good time for visitors on Saturday. 



Literary Gems 


Offered July 5, 1907, by H. A. S. 

Dear Baby John, so bright and gay. 
Three years of age this summer dav. 

What shall my birthday-greeting be? 
May the kind ]Muse inspire me well, 
In smoothly flowing lines to tell 

My love and best regards for thee. 

Never before to one so young 
With fondest feelings thus I clung. 

No child e'er claimed so larg-e a share 
Of my affections, be't confessed, 
Like thee was petted and caressed, 

The object of such tender care. 

Tiirce years — indeed, how short a span, 
A>< measured by the life of man. 

Docs seem the time thou hast been here! 
r>ays filled with play from morn till e'en. 
^Vitli noonday naps and nights betwcn?n, 

An age to thee it may appear. 

How far back does thy memory go 
Of summer's green and winter's snow? 

Couldst thou relate, if given speech. 
How 'neath the tree on yonder seat 
I-ast summer we would sit and eat 

The luscious pear, the ruddy peach? 

The ride upon, the trolley-car. 

The country wiiere the chickens are. 

The horses and the "moo-cow'' too, 
And Dorney Park, the journey down 
To Zionsville, the walks up town. 

Are readily recalled to view. 

Thv days are full oi joy and light. 

Oft spent in "work" from morn till night. 

While hanging up the wash to dry. 
Or digging in the garden-ground. 
Dragging the little auto routul. 

Or piling spools on steeples higli. 

Much we admire thy ready will 

To work when bid. the strength and skill 

So rarely bv a cliihl displayed: 
Thy curly locks, thv smiling face. 
Thv movements full oi c,\<q and grace. 

Thy simple trust, of none afraid. 

'Tis true thou dost not alwavs herd 
When elders warn of nausihty deed. 

But surely there's no ill intetU. 
O'ertlowing with activity. 
Thv tireless, youthful cnerg>- 

Must somehow cntt tind a vent. 



A little while tho wrath may burn, 
Thy tears. to laughter quickly turn. 

And — sweetest, tend'rest habit this — 
When we pretend to grieve and cr\' 
In pain, thou promptly wilt draw nigh 

And offer thy all-healing kiss. 

Now let us gently pull thy ears 
And wish thee many, many years 

Of health and growth, of strength and joy. 
Be ever fair in form and mind. 
Bright, loving, dutiful and kind. 

God bless thee ever, darling boy. 


By Charlf.s C. More, Philadelphia. 

XOTE. — Die Flett is a name aripli*"'! to a level 
stretch of laud in Li^wor .Maciin<rie, I>fhich cunty. Pa., 
in wLich lar^e quantities of irouore were mined thirty 
to forty years a^o. 

Wiescht hot er g'heessa — Johann Gottlieb 
Wiescht — un mer hot's em schun uf hunnert 
Schritt a'g'sehna, as er sei Xama gewiss net 
g'schtohla g'hat hot. Er war wiescht genunk 
for en noch viel wieschterer Xama zu hawa. 
Odder, w^ie der Billy Derr, unser Boss in der 
Coleraine Meind, als g'saat hot : "wiescht 
genunk for em Deiwel die Geil schei macha." 
Ich weess noch gut, wie er in die Meind 
kumma is for Erwet. Er war en derrer, Lin- 
ger Mann mit arrig grossa Hand an ferchler- 
licha Fiess. Sei magerer, knochiger Kop hot 
am a dinna, langa Hals schier grad vun da 
Schultera naus g'schtanna, wie en Knartza am 
a Fenzarigel. Sei Backaknocha hen sich raus- 
g'schowa wie die Hifta am a derra Gaul, un 
sei Backa wara ei'g'falla wie an ra Geig. Sei 
Maul hot schier bis an sei fiabbige Ohra 
gereecht ; sei Haut war so brau wie en g'- 
schmokter Schunka, so runzlig wie en gederrte 
Quitt un so voU Parplamohler as en Sib is mit 
Lecher. A^cr sei Xas erscht I Wie die X'a- 
dur a'g'fanga hot, sei Xas zu macha. hot sie 
wul ah net gewisst wann ufzuheera. War 
des awer'n Kolwa, un dazu war sie noch 
fcierrot ! Sie ho^t em grad gemahnt an en 
grosser Fingerhut, mit Lewer gedeckt. 

Es is aw^er kee Mensch alliwer wiescht, 
juscht so wennig wie er alliwer schee is. Die 
Nadur gcbt uns Menscha immer ebbes mit tor 
sei Ding gleich zu macha. Ma wieschta 
Mensch gebt sie gemeenerhand en gut Herz 
un ma scheena Mensch alsemol en Herz as net 
juscht so gut is. Viel wieschia Leit hen oft 
ebbes an sich, as sie viel schenner gucka macht 
wie's schenscht G'sicht sie gucka macha kennt. 
Viel scheena Leit hen alsemol Wega an sich. 
as sie wieschtcr gucka macha as der alt Harry. 
So war's juscht beim Johann Wiescht. Er hot 
en paar Aaga g'hat as so trei, santt un gut- 
mietig in die Welt nei geguckt hen, un wann 
mer in selle Aaga gaguckt hot, do hot mer sel- 
ler Feierkolwa vun ra Xas ganz vemessa. Mer 
hot gemeent, mer deet ma kleena Kind in die 
Aaga gucka; 's Herz is em dabei wecch warra. 
un mer het en gleicha kenna wie sei eegner 
Bruder odder bcschter Freind — wann er em 
gelosst het ! Sei Aaga hen awer immer so 
traurig un betriebt geguckt as wann sic sich 
uf en Art wie scluimma dceia, zu so ma 
wieschta G'sicht zu g'heera. 

Wann seilebdag en Mensch wega seim 
G'sicht genext is warra, dann war's dor arm 
Wiescht. Mer hot awer seilewa net g'heert, as 
er bees warra war driwer. I'r hot als selwer 

mitgelacht, awer er hot net prowirt uns en 
Hack zurick zu gewa. Alsemol, wann die 
Xexerei zu arrig warra is, hot er als ufg"heer: 
zu grubba, hot uns mit seina sanfta \aga 
a'geguckt un hot g'saat: -'-Ja ja, Buwa! Mci 
G sicht IS wul net schee, awer es hot mich viel 
gekoscht. arrig viel. Es hot gewiss meh ge- 
koscht as mei ganz Lewa wert is, gewiss t< 
hot, viel, viel meh I"' Dann is er widder an 
die Erwet un hot g*scheppt v.n gegrubbt as wie 
wann er arrig beesa un traurige Gedanka ver- 
treiwa wot. Mer hot's em a'g'sehna, dass 
ebbes in seinra Bruscht schafft as wie en 
Bump, im darnoh sin als paar Treena an seinra 
langa Xas runner gelorta uf die Grundscholla. 
Awer dann hot er erscht recht g'schafft ! ' 

Jerum, was hot der Mensch als schatta 
kenna ! Wie er 'scrscht in die Meind kumma 
is un hot sich so in die Erwet gelosst, do hen 
mir annera Kerls als gemeent, er wot sich 
juscht a'macha bei'm Boss, for meh Loh 
kriega as mir odder vilieicht ah Boss zu werra. 
un mer hen uns vorgeiuimma, en mol gedich- 
tig zu drescha odder aus der Meind zu krauda. 
Awer mer hen en seilewa net bei'm Boss 
g^sehna odder ebbes gemerkt, as er meh mit'm 
g'schwetzt hot as grad notwennig war. .ZuJi-ni 
hot er uns ah oft helfa die Karch zu lada, 
wann's der Boss net g'sehna hot, un wann 
alsemol eener vun uns schpot an die Erwc: 
kumma is, war immer ^^leind genunk gegrawa 
odder Karch genunk gelada. as wie wann 
mer all uf Zeit kumma wara. For all sei hut 
er awer ah net viel mit uns g'schwetzt. Mer 
hen ah nie net aushnna kenna, wu er hcrkuni- 
ma is odder was er friher getriwa hot. Wann 
er in die Meind kumma is, dann hot's boi cm 
g'heessa SchatTs, un wann er owets in sei 
Schiinty ganga is, hot er sei Dihr zug'sch!o-<.T 
un noh hot's g'heessa : "Jeder bleibt be: sich." 

Mir .\nnera hen als oft noch'm Supp^''"- 
wann die annera Meindgrawer als hecmgan.e.i 
wara. noch en Weil vor dor Dihr g'hockt u:i 
en bi-!sel geplaudert. eb mer in's Bett sin. Awer 
(lot Wiescht hot nie ken Zeit g'hat. or h>: 
immer ebbes g'schatlt. 's war grad as wann I'r 
sich for dor Ruh ferchta deot. Wann cr -ich 
in sei Schiinty eig'schlossa hot g'hat. dann ho: 
er als g'hockt un bis sclipot in die Xaciu lui 
gekunsidcrt : awer wann er gemerkt hot. d>- 
nior'n watscha, daim hot er sei Licht au>go- 
macht un is in's Bett. 

Ee Dag hot der Boss en Bull vun abiut 
dreizeh Johr in die ^[eind gebrocht. i' 
Kiirch zu treiwa. Dor Buh war daheoni dnrch- 
ganga un mit Zigoinor in die Gogond kuninn 
Er war en .schtillor, ufgowocktor lUih ; vl. r 
Boss hot en im Wiescht soi Schantv ini hot o;' 



.si) /ii iiiin an die Erwct gcdiih. Des hot da 
Wicscht a'fangs gar net g'suht; er is noch 
schtillcr un vcrschlossener warra wie davor. 
Allcmol as der Buh neekscht an en kumma is, 
liot cr'n so zarnig a'geguckt as sei Aaga gucka 
hen kcnna un is als weiter vun em weg. Der 
i'.uh hot Fred Schmerger g'heessa; seller 
Nania hot scheint's da Wiescht net recht 
j.i'suht, auer er hot's doch net a'lossa wolla. 

Ec Dag is der Buh vum Crusher zurick 
kumma un hot g'sunga, wie Buwa ewa duhn, 
wann sie guta Lunga hen un mit der Welt 
/.ufridda sin. Sei Schtimm war hell un klor ; 
iT hot en Lied g'sunga as uns all unbekannt 
war, juscht 'm Wiescht net. Der hot sich 
f^raci gebickt g'hat for en Schtick ]VIeind ufzu- 
licwa. as zu gross war for die Schip. Wie er 
.';el Lied g'heert hot. is er in die Heh g schnellt 
as wann er g'schtocha war warra, un hot den 
Buh a'geguckt. Sei Aaga sin em schier gar 
/um Kop raus kumma; sei rote Nas is als 
noch rotcr warra, un for's erscht mol is ebbes 
Rotes darch sei braune Haut uf die Backa 
kumma. Dann is er wedder die Meindleit 
iscdarmelt un hot mit der linksa Hand sei 
P.ruscht g'howa, as wann er sei Herz hewa 
wot. dass es net raus tschumpa deet. 

Mer sin beig'schprunga un hen en hewa 
wolla, awer er hot uns zurick g'schowa im is 
widder an die Erwet. Sei Schip is juscht so 
hi' un her g'tioga; zwee Mann hetten's em net 
nohmacha kenna. Bei all dem Schaffa hot er 
awer die Aaga net vun sellem Buh genumma. 
Wie mer Feierowet gemacht hen. hot er da Buh 
an der Hand kriegt un is schier g'schprunga 
mit'm noch seinra Schanty. Bis schpot in die 
Xacht war Licht bei em, un mer hen sei 
Schatta g"sehna, wie er als uf un ab ganga is. 

Da neekschta Dag an der Erwet war der 
Wiescht en annerer !^Iann. Er hot als noch 
•iruf los g'schafft. awer er hot sich doch die 
/-eit genumma. for'n freindlich Wart mit uns 
zu schwetza. Alsemol hot er even dem Italian. 
wu newig cm g'schatTt hot. uf die Schulter ge- 
kloppt un gelacht. Uf eemol hot er a'fanga 
■■inga! Hot der Wiescht en wiescht G'sicht 
Vhat, so war sei Schtimm doch noch vie! 
wieschter. un mer hen all gemeent. er wiir nau 
schur narrisch warra. 

Vun sellem Dag awer war er wie en Vatter 
zu sellem Buh. Schier alles was er verdient 
hot is ganga for dem Buh sei Kleeder un an- 
nera Sacha for en. Owets hot er g'hockt un 
iiicher gelcsa un dem Buh im Lerna mitg'- 
holfa. Er hot sich so narrisch mit em a'ge- 
losst, dass mer'n als g'frogt hen, eb er'n net 
"och heiera deet. Der Wiescht hot awer ken 
N'otis davun genumma. Er hot sich juscht 
noch tciter an den kleena Kerl g'halta. un er 
'•« bei Golly schenner warra im G'sicht I Was 
hot er uns net als vorg'saat, was er noch als 

duh wot for den Buh ! In die Schul deet er'n 
schicka un en grosser Mann aus em macha, un 
all so Dings. Owets noch der Erwet hot er 
sich mit'm vor sei Schiintydihr g'setzt, hot sci 
Hand g'howa un hot en singa macha; dann 
hot er die Aaga zugemacht un is in Gedanka 
weit fartganga — wul zurick an den Platz, wu 
all sei Truwel herkurnma is. 

So is der Summer vcrganga. 's Schpotjohr 
hot die Blatter brau g'farbt ; der kalt Wind hc»t 
sie vun da Beem gerissa un rumher g'schtreet. 
Der Buh hot sich reddy kriegt for noch der 
Schtadt in die Schul zu geh, un mir Annera 
hen so langsam a'g'fanga unsra Schantys 
ei'zurichta for da Winter. 

• Ee Dag hot der Buh, wie gewehnlich, sei 
Karch zwischa dem Italian un'm Wiescht 
neigebackt, for en lada lossa, un is 'm Italian 
mit'm Rad uf die Fiess kumma. Mit ma 
Krisch as wie en wild Dier un mit'm Messer 
in der Hand is der Mensch uf den Buh losg'- 
fahra. Mit eem Schprung war awer ah schun 
der Wiescht vor em, un der Schtich, wu 
gemeent war for der Buh. is ihm in die 
Bruscht ganga. Unne en Laut vun sich zu 
gewa. is der Wiescht nunner g'sunka. Mir 
Annera wara zu arrig verschrocka. for grad 
ebbes zu macha. Bis mer recht rumgeguck: 
hen, war der Italian fart, un mer hen'n seile- 
wes nimme g'sehna. 

Mer hen da Wiescht in sei Schanty getraga 
un uf sei Bett gelegt. Der Buh hot sich zu 
em g'setzt un sei Hand g'howa, bis sie kalt un 
schteif war; dann hot er sich iwer'n uf's Bett 
g'schmissa un g'heilt as wann sei jung Herz 
verbrecha deet. Mir sin selle Xacht bei em 
gebliwa. weil er's net geduh hot, dass er die 
Schanty verlossa deet. 

Wie er dann en bissel ruhig warra is. do 
hot er uns verzehlt, forwas der Wiescht so 
gut zu em war un en so geglicha hot. Dem 
Buh sei Mam war mol mit em arma Wiescht 
verschprocha gewest. awer wie er die Parpla 
kriegt hot un darnoh so wieschtgrickig warra 
is. hot sie ihr Wart zurick genumma un hot 
eener Schmerger g'heiert. Der Wiescht hot 
dann die Gegend verlossa un is so in der 
Welt rumgewandert. Er hot sei Medel awer 
seilebdag net vergessa kenna. un weil der Buh 
so viel geguckt hot wie sie un ah ihra Schtimm 
g'hat hot for singa, hot er'n in sei Herz g'- 
sclilossa. wu sei Mam drin begrawa war. 
Darch den Buh hot er dann widder en Blick 
in selle Welt kriegt, wu die Liob ganz allee uns 
gewa kann. 

So hot dann der arm Wiescht noch gelebt 
"tor dem Kind's Lewa zu seefa, dem Buh wu 
sei Mutter ihm sei eega Lewa so gut wie ge- 
numma hot g'hat. Un's war net emol sei 

Ihr misst net immer vorna dra sei 

Unalfert im a Schuss : 
En blinde Sau fnnt ab. ebmols 

Fn Eechel odder 'n N'uss. 

"Goethe von Berks." 

Dem ^Lann. wu im a Glashaus wuhiit, 
Sot's gar net netig sei zu weisa, 

Dass es erbarmlich g'f.ahrlich is 
For Scholia. Schtee un Prigel schmeissa. 
"Goethe von Berks." 



[Composed for the occasion of "Old Home Week" at Bcmville, Berks County, Pa., Aug. 
4-10, 1907, by M. A. Gruber, Washington, D. C] 

'Swar ehner Thomas Umbenhacker 

Hot g'hoert fum Union Canahl, 
Un messt ab Lotta fun seina Acker 

F'rn Schtettel im Nordkill Dahl. 

'Sis naechscht an neinzig Yahr /.urick, 

Wu die Nordkill sich bewegt 
Schier an der Tulpehacka Grick, 

War sell Schtettel ausgelegt. 

Die schoena Lotta lang und brehd 

Wara all glei ufgenumma, 
Und's Schtettel war au"; gar net blehd 

F'r recht g'schwind nfzukumma. 

Als Umbenhacker-Schtettel no' 

War's f'r Weil gekennt ; 
Doch BERXVILLE war glei druf der Go, 

Und sell is es now genenr.t. 

Wu die Garwerei ihr "Ruins" sin 

Bis nuf wu's Schulhaus schteht, 
Und zwischa yuscht zweh Alleys drin, 

Is Bernville lang und brehd. 

Doch sin noch "Suburbs'' nehwa bei, 

Wie iu'ra grossa Schtadt ; 
Die nemmt. of course, noch Bern\ille ei' 

Wann's Bralla eppes batt. 

Awwer yuscht fier Schkwaer is Bernville lang, 

Der Borough-lein no' zu geh ; 
Und darch zu kununa macht Trolleys bang, 

Der Profitt waer ganz zu gleh. 

F'r 'n yeders wehs wer die Zeiting lehst 

Dass 'n Riggelweg will Geld : 
Und der "Head" fun ehm mit die ann'ra raced 

F'rs reichscht zu sei in der Weld. 

Doch darch 'm Union Canahl sei Ztit. 

Wie der Towpath war schier wie'n Schtross. 
Sin Lent hie kumma fun naechscht und weit, — 

F'p die Business dort war gross. 

Fun alia Ecka in sellem Welddehl 

Sin Fuhra kumma zu hohla 
Maschiena. Backaschteh, Lodder. Oehl. 

Schtohrsach. Lumber und Coala. 

.•\m Weisa Schtohrhaus und au' rm Roda 
Hen die Bauera ihr Wehtza hie g'fahra. 

Und noch was anncr I-'rucht- is geroda 
In die guta alta Yahra. 

Awwer sellie Zcita sin nimmie meh dort. 
Sic sin ganga mil "m Union Canahl : 

Der Riggelweg hot der Canahl mit fort — 
Doch .'sis kenner im Nordkill Dahl. 

Und die gut alt Kirch, wu'n hunncrr Yahr 
War gepredigt, gebeht und g'sunga ; 

Wu alia Dahg, mit Schtimm so klahr. 
Die Elf-Uhr Bell war gerunga — 

Sellie Kirch is ganga, mit ann'ra Sacha 

Die f'r Alters wara schoe' ; 
Es war gemehnt sie schoenner zu macha. 

L^nd im Platz fun ehm sin now zweh. 

Au' nimmie naechscht is die Fischerti 

Wie sie war als Yahra zurick ; 
Was war's doch Luschta draus zu sei 

Mit Gcrt und Lein an der Grick! 

Awwer Bernville in ihr "Old Home Week" 

Hot gut Recht schtolz zu sei : 
Mahg's Frieda sei oder geht's in der Krieg. 

Hot Bernville blentie dabei. 

Die Schula sin net leicht zu bieta. 

Sell weisst sich mit der Zeit; 
Und bessera Lent sin net zu meeta 

Wann g'sucht wcrd lang und weit. 

Und draus in der Weld, in ball yeder Schtact. 

Und au' in ami 'ra Laenner. 
Wu gutie Arwet recht a'geht. 

Sin Bcrnviller Maed und Maenner. 

'S macht gar nix aus in was f'rn G'schaetf;. 

Fun Dahglenner nuf zu Parra. 
Wu a'srewennt werd Menscha-graefft 

Sin Bernviller g'funna warra. 

Sin blentie au' in Politicks, 

Und dchl in Washington. 
Doch war noch keimer so foil Tricks 

F'r zu macha Congressman. 

Die Lcut die die crschta Lotta hen kautt 

Sin awwer ninmiie do' ; 
Doch wer wehs ep net 'n Mancher lauft 

Mit leichter Schritt un> no*. 

L'nd in der "Home Week Jubilex?" 
Guckt herrlich. hi.^^chtig und froh 

Zu sehna dass tlie Lieb blcibt grue' 
I-"'r die alta Sacha do*. 

Dami lang leli' Bernville ! lang und schoe' 
.\Lahg's bleiwa im Nordkill Dalill 

I'nd mahg "C)U1 Home Week" immcr scinch 
'X .<choo' Ged.ieclunissmahl ! 




In Memory of German-American Patriotism 

0\ the first of Att^^ust, while we are 
writing these lines, the German- 
American National Alliance is 
cclchratinp: German Day at the James- 
tnwti Tercentenary Exposition. The 
dale has been chosen as the hundred 
thirty-second anniversary of the day 
when the German-Americans of Phila- 
delphia virtually declared their inde- 
])en(lence from England, eleven months 
l)cfore the Continental Congress formal- 
Jv sundered the ties connecting these 
colonies with the mother country. 

August I, 1775, according to Dr. Os- 
wald Scidensticker's Elistory of the Ger- 
man Society of Pennsylvania, this So- 
ciety, then about twelve }ears old, joined 
with the German Lutheran and Reform- 
ed Churches in issuing a pamphlet of 
forty pages, addressed directly to the 
church-boards, the officers of the Society 
and the German inhabitants of New- 
York and North Carolina. Its primary 
])urpose was to counteract the Tory ten- 
dencies of the Germans in Tryon county, 
Xew York, and North Carolina by set- 
ting forth in their own language the truth 
of. the political situation. The pamphlet 
contained reports of the battles of Lex- 
ington and Bunker Hill and the Acts of 
Congress bearing on the momentous 
fpiestions of the day. Further on we read 
this striking passage: 

D:iy by day we behold that the people of 
Pennsylvania, both rich and poor, unanimous.- 
ly approve the resolution of Congress. The 
^".'rnians of Penns\-lvania especially have dis- 
nnK'iiished themselves far and near by the 
lorniation of militia-corps and picked-rit1e 
corps that are ready to march whithersoever 
it may be necessary. And those Germans who 
can not render militar}- service are universal- 
ly willing to contribute to the common good 
•sccording to their means. 

An ai)peal was made to the Germans 
t'> prepare for armed resistance to Brit- 
'^h oppression, which was seen to be in- 
evitable. The Germans began to drill 
and on March 25, 1776. still in advance 
'»i the Declaration of Independence, their 

volunteers met in the Lutheran school- 
house, at Fifth and Cherry streets, 
Philadelphia, and marched afield. All 
these facts are set forth in the circular 
by which the German-American Alliance 
invited participation in the commemora- 
tive exercises of this day. 

What History Usually Fails to Tell 

The stand thus taken by the Germans 
of Pennsylvania so soon after the out- 
break of our struggle for is 
scarcely mentioned in our histories and 
not generally known even to their own 
descendants of to-day. Too often our 
people are made to appear in a secondary 
role, following the lead of the New Eng- 
landers, when they were actually in the 
front ranks. W'e trust the historical ad- 
dress to be delivered to-day by Dr. Hex- 
amer, president of the Gennan-American 
Alliance, will go far to enlighten the 
country as to what the Germans did for 
the great cause of liberty in those days 
"that tried men's souls."' 

A "Notorious Habit" of Pennsylvanians 

As we have already pointed cut. it is 
their excessive modesty, their habit of 
disregarding their own great men and 
their own achievements, that prevents 
the Germans from claiming and getting 
the credit they deserve. Ex-Governor 
Pennypacker lately called attention to 
this in a speech of which the Philadel- 
phia Public Ledger had this to say edi- 
torially : 

E.x-Governor Pennypacker uiilized die 
Fourth oi July again to call the attention of 
the people of Philadetohia and Pennsylvania 
to their notorious habit of neglecting to praise 

their own distinguished sons If 

there are Pennsylvanians who achieve some- 
thing, we think of them as citizens of some 
other State until we are forced to admit that 
they live at our very doors. It is comforting 
to be introduced to a Philadelphia author or 
artist through English praise, and in late 
years the puffery of a market-place like New- 
York has rilled us with complacency regard- 
ing genius which was struggling tor recogm- 
tion. The distemper — whatever it 

is — can probably at lengdi be got out of the 
system by repeated appeals to reason, aided a 
little bv ridicule. 



In these words The Pennsylvania- 
German recognizes a valid reason for its 
being and ample justification for asking 
the generous support of loyal Pennsyl- 
vanians, especially those of German de- 
scent. May we not hope by continued 
appeals to reason gradually to break up 
this ''notorious habit," to lift, as it were, 
the bushel under which our fellow-citi- 
zens have so long hidden their light? 

Words of Peace Fitly Spoken 
Coming at a time when the Second In- 
ternational Peace Conference is sitting at 
the Hague, the theme of the address de- 
livered by our State-Superintendent, Dr. 
N. C. Schaeffer, as president of the Na- 
tional Educational Association at Los 
Angeles, Cal., was eminently fitting. He 
spoke wisely and well when he said: 

It seems to me that our textbooks and our 
instruction 'should glorify the arts of peace 
above the art of war. In other words, his- 
tory should be taught from a more rational 
point of view. Whilst it would be wrong to 
rob the soldier of a just share of glory, it 
will nevertheless be wise to emphasize the vic- 
tories of peace above the victories of war. 

How can this be accomplished? In the first 
place, let us instill proper ideals of life and 
heroism. The pupil can be led to see that 
Past«ur, the scientist, has done more for hu- 
manity than Napoleon; that Carnegie, the 
philanthropist, has done more for civilization 
than the admiral who sinks a hostile fleet ; 
that the woman v/ho serves in the hospital as 
a nurse displays as much heroism as the otficer 
who serves his country. 

The Gravestone of a Great Teacher 

July 24, 1907, a hundred years had 
passed since the death of Rev. Dr. John 
Christopher Kunze, a son-in-law of the 
patriarch Muhlenberg. He taught in the 
University of Pennsylvania, at King's 
(now Columbia) College, was the first 
I.utheran minister in this country to re- 
ceive the degree of D.D. and the first to 
publish an English Lutheran hymnbook. 
He was buried in a cemetery at the cor- 
ner of Hudson and Leroy streets, New 
York, and later his bones were removed 
to the Lorillard vault. The modest mar- 
ble slab set over his first resting-place re- 

mained until last spring when workmen 
in demolishing an old building at the 
place found two old tombstones, of which 
some account was given in the dailv 
press. This attracted the attention of a 
Lutheran pastor. Dr. Wenner, who im- 
mediately went to the spot, examined the 
stones and, having satisfied himself that 
one of them was indeed the stone which 
had marked Dr. Kunze's grave, bought 
it for twenty-five cents. It is now in his 
study and, tho mutilated, the inscription 
is still legible. 

A biographical sketch of Dr. John 
Christopher Kunze appeared in The 
Pennsylvaxia-Gernf AN for July, 1902. 

Two Corrections and a Credit 

The duty of making corrections is not 
very pleasant, but must never be shirked 
by a conscientious editor, such as we try 
to be. 

In the article on Early German Catho- 
lic Parochial Schools, by Rev. J. J. Xerz, 
in the July issue, on page 297, second 
column, eighth line froni below, "about 
eighty-five families" should read "thirty- 
eight families" It should have been 
stated that the materials of that article 
w^ere chiefly drawn from "Catholic Pa- 
rochial Schools in Colonial Times," by 
Rev. James A. Burns, C.S.C, a well 
known authority on the subject, refer- 
ence being had also to Shea's "History 
of the Catholic Church in the United 
States" and the Parish Records. 

In the same issue the title of Rev. D. 
B. Shuey's poem, on page 335, should 
read Das Schulliaiis an der Kerch, not 
Krick. The editor misread the last word, 
a fact which points out anew to contri- 
butors the importance of writing plainly 
and distinctl}' every word of their com- 

The picture of the Bticks County His- 
torical Society's Museum in the August 
issue should have been credited to the 
courtesy of the Doylestown Intelligencer. 
The oversight was due to the editor's 
unfortunate forgetting. 

p:ditorial department 


Clippings from Current News 

To Gather New "Americana Germanica" 

At a late meeting held in Troy the German- 
American Alliance of New York unanimously 
resolved to appoint a committee of seven on 
(ierman-American history and literature and 
to request its local federations, the public press 
and German-Americans generally to gather 
publications of this class and send them to the 
New York Public Library, 425 Lafayette 
street, New York, in care of Richard E. Hel- 
big. Mr. Helbig also sent a request for publi- 
cations relating to German-American history 
and literature to the German-American Teach- 
ers' Federation, when this body met in Cin- 
cinnati at the beginning of July. 

Historic Spot Marked by Cannon 

Two of Admiral Farragut's old guns, taken 
from the U. S. steamer Richmond, were 
mounted July 4 at Newhope, Bucks county. 
on a triangular plot of ground known in Revo- 
lutionary days as Coryell's Ferry. Further up 
the old York road is the old Washington tree, 
under which, according to tradition, the bat- 
tle of Trenton was planned. The cannon are 
the gift of the Government. Addresses were 
made by Congressman J. P. Wanger, State- 
Senator Webster Grim and others. 

Honor for Berks County Educators 

At the meeting of the Pennsylvania Educa- 
tional Association at Greensburg, July 2 and 
3, Dr, W. W. Deatrick, of the Keystone State 
Normal School, was elected president of the 
Child-Study Section. One of the most not- 
able addresses of the meeting was that of 
Supt. Eli M. Rapp, on the Reorganization of 
Rural^ Schools. Mr. Rapp held the undivided 
attention of the audience and earned hearty 

An Aged Bible-Reader 

One of the oldest women in Berks is Mrs. 
Esther Keller, of Richmond. She was born as 
Esther Clauser at Pricetown, June 27, 1810, 
married John Keller and has been a widow 
about fifty-five years. She was the mother of 
fifteen children, of whom five only survive, 
besides forty grandchildren and five great- 
grandchildren. She spends most of the time 
reading her Bible and singing the old German 

The Centennial of Mechanicsburg 

Mechanicsburg, Cumberland county, cele- 
brated its hundredth anniversary July 3 and 4 
with historical addresses, parades, fireworks, 
ct)ncerts and general merrymaking. The prin- 
^-ipal speakers were Congressman ^L E. Olm- 
sted, of Harrisburg, Thomas K Donnallev, of 
Philadelphia, and Rev. W. H. Stevens. Henry 
StaufTer built a small cabin on the site of 
Mechanicsburg in 1807. The town has now 
'000 inhabitants and is one of the most pro- 
gressive in the State. 

Weiser Homestead Burned 
The old home of Conrad Weiser, near Wom- 
elsdorf, was destroyed by fire of unknown 
origin July 12. Weiser moved to this place 
from Schoharie. N. Y., in 1729, died there in 
1760 and is buried in a private graveyard 
nearby. The house was a stone structure, one 
and a half story high and 20 by 50 feet in size. 
(A sketch of Conrad Weiser's life with pic- 
tures of his home and grave appeared in the 
first number of The'ia-Germ.^n, 
January, 1900.) 

A Woman Deputy-Sheriff 

The first woman to hold the office of deputy- 
sheriff in Mitflin county is Ethel Traub. sis- 
ter-in-law of Sheriff A. C. Kemberling. Miss 
Traub is twenty-two years old and was a 
printer. Her first official act was to take a 
woman prisoner to the Morganza Industrial 
Reform School. 

Five Generations in One Family 

Adams county boasts of a family in which 
five generations are represented. 5lrs. Sarah 
Hoffman, of Cashtown, the great-great-grand- 
mother, is 79 years old. Mrs. Herr. the great- 
grandmother, lives with her husband, a pros- 
perous farmer, in Freedom township. She 
married at fourteen and a year later bore a 
daughter who is now Mrs. Alice Bollinger. 
Mrs. Bollinger is the mother of Mrs. Fannie 
Wagaman. who is eighteen and the mother oi 
Robert Carlinus Wagaman. aged one year and 
eight months. All these names point to a Ger- 
manic ancestry. 

•First Schwenkfelder Church-Wedding 

Altho the Schwenkfelders have been in ex- 
istence almost four centuries, no wedding was 
ever solemnized in any oi their churches until 
recently, when Dr. Allen A. Seipt, of Dela- 
ware, O., and Irene A. Schumo. of Philadel- 
phia, were united by Dr. O. S. Kriebel in the 
Philadelphia church, at Thirtieth and Cumber- 
land streets. The Schwenkfelders always ad- 
vocated plainness of dress and opposed all 
ceremonialism in worship; but in recent years 
innovations have been gradually introduced, 
the Philadelphia church generally taking the 

Archeological Contribution to Jamestown 
At the instance oi Dr. M. D. Learned, of 
Philadelphia, who has charge oi Pennsyl- 
vania's archeological exhibit at the Jamestown 
Exposition, H. \V. Kriebel, of East Green- 
ville, has sent thither a number oi valuable 
books, manuscripts and other relics. The col- 
lection includes two manuscript Schwenkfelder 
hymnbooks. a copy of the Mechlenburg Hifu- 
»iclsbr{tf, two volumes of sermons, dated ifJ^ 
and 1734. specimens of penwork. a med:cal 
treatise written in 1705 by Benjamin Schultz. 
etc., also a zither about a hundred years old. 



Services of Pennsburg Recruits 

Ex-Governor Jatnes A. F'cavtr, who in his 
coniniencenient address at Perkiomen Sem- 
inary, on June 28, alluded in an interesting 

- manner to the fact that a squad of recruits 
from Pennslnirg had joined the regiment 

■ which he commanded in the Civil War, has 
sent the Seminar}' a ropy nf rlie Mistory of 
the 148th Pennsylvania Volunteers, the regi- 
ment to which he referred. This is a book 
of 1096 pages and contains much valuable his- 
torical information. 

Tardy Recognition of First Treasurer 

- The picture of Michael Hillegas, first Treas- 
urer of the United States, appears on the new 
yellow-backed ten-dollar bills. This belated 
testimonial to a man whose services to his 
country long deserved recognition is due to 
one of his descendants. Rev. Michael Lee Min- 
nich, a Lutheran minister, to Ex-Treasurer 
Shaw and the late Secretary John Hay. The 
latter two favored the claims of Robert_ Mor- 
ris and Samuel ^Icredith until proof was 
found in the Government archives to support 
Mr. Minnich's contention. (A sketch of Mi- 
chael Hillegas appeared in The Pexnsylv.\- 
nia-Germax, October, 1901.) 

Brownback's Church Remodeled 
Brownback's Reformed church 'in Chester 
countv was remodeled during the suinmer and 
reded'icated July 28. Dr. J. W. Mcnninger, a 
former pastor, preached the sermon. Brown- 
bivck's congregation is one of the oldest hi 
eastern Pennsvlvania. Tt was organized in 
1743 with Rev.' Jacob Lischy as its first pastor. 
Its first log church was built about 1750. _A 
stone building followed in 1800. The third 


The season of familv-reunions- is agam m 
full swing. The following list comprises those 
that have been or will be held in Pennsylvama- 
Germandqm. as far as our information goes: 

July 20. RouTiion of Yost family, at Ziebor's Park, 
Mont^ouiory county.. 

Julv 27. Eij^'hth reunion of Ber-ey family, at Zie- 
ber's'rark; of Seushi-er family, at Edtremont Park 
near Slatinpton: third of dt-SLendants of David ami 
Mary William;^. pi(mt'ers . in Batboro, Moni^'omory 
county. „ ^ T, 1 

.Tuly 2S. Reunion of Ilalhnans. Barto. berks 
county, and of descendants of Joshua Kohler. at Esrypt. 
Lehish county. ^, . x- ^ 

July :U. Fifth reunion of Claii5s family, at >effs- 
vlllc." r.ehigh county. 

AufT. 3. Eighth reunion of Baers. at Kutztown l ars. 

Au<r. 4. Uounion of Spare family at Ziehers Park. 

Au-i. r.. Elcvontli reunion of (;rims. at Kutztowu 
Park: twelfth of Krauscs. at Neffsville. 

Au;r. S. Third reunion of Bortz family at Wes^os- 
vlllc. l.ehi;:h county; reui\ion of Peters family at N.-tTs- 
ville; reunion of Ilarler family at Columbia Park, near 

\i\ii. It^. Third reunion of Wotrinss. at Sand Si>rinK. 

Any. 14. Fourteenth reunion of Shoirers and third of 
Blttners and Worlcys. at NetTsviUe; eiclith of Kistlors. 
at New Tripoli, I.ehiirh county; ntntti of Ritters at 
Oorney Park, near .VUentown. 

Any. I'l. Fourth reunion of Haas family, at NelTs- 
ville; fifth of Sant family, in I'andora Park. Readins:. 

Aug. 17. Fourth reunion of Gory family, at Seisholtz- 
.vlUe. Berks county; .reunion of Kricks at Sinkim; 

church was erected about 1850, the fourth in 
1879. The church is named after Gcrhari 
Brownback, who settled in the vicinity in i7J5 
and donated the land for the church and 

The Evangelical Conference's Centennial 
The first annual conference of the Evangeli- 
cal Association, founded by Rev. Jacob Al- 
brecht, was held by the latter at the hou^e of 
Samuel Becker, near Kleinfeltersville, about ten 
miles southeast of Lebanon, Pa.. Xovenibcr 
15 and 16, 1807. The centennial of this event 
will be celebrated at Kleinfeltersville. Sept. 
18 and 19 of this year. Rev. A. M. Samp-cl 
will be master of ceremonies and among the 
speakers will be Rev. B. H. Xiebel, Bishop H. 
B. Hartzler. Bishop W. F. Heil. Rev. A. 
Stapleton, Rev. C. X. Dubs and others. Rev. 
Albrecht is buried at Kleinfeltersville with 
the family of George Becker, in whose house 
he died in 180S. A memorial church was built 
beside his burial-place in 1S50. 


Dk. Wilmam Ash mead Schaeffer, former- 
ly pa>tor of St. Stephen's Lutheran church, in 
. Phikidelphia. died there July 27. He was born 
in Harrisburg abouty fifty-five years ago as a 
son of Rev. Dr. C. \V. Schaeffer. and gradua:- 
ed from the University of Pennsylvania in 
1866. He held pastorates in Wil'kes-Barre. 
Easton and Philadelphia. Hx? served as cor- 
responding secretary of the Foreign-Mission 
Board and as president of the Publication- 
Board of the Evangelical Lutheran General 
Council, besides holding other positions. In 
memory of his parent> he built the Ashmead 
Schaeffer Memorial church at Mount Airy. 


SpriufT. of tJehnians at Zieber's Park, and ->f Twinia^* 
at Wycombe. Bucks lount.v : fourth of HelUrs. at Wind 
(Jap Park. Xortliami<ton county. 

Amr. 20. Eleventh reunion nf Gutli Tamily at fiiith'> 
Station, l.el'.i-li onnty: rcnniMU of Clewflls at Soh<v- 
neck. N(Uthanipton county. 

An?. 21. Twelfth reunion of n\iber-HooTer family 
at Chestnut Hill. Philadelphia: reunion of Keels «t 
Ziebor's Park, nf Kloizes at XetTsville. 

Au«. 22. Twelfth reunion of SlinsrlufTs. at Zl. 
ber's Park, and fourteenth of descendants of Heinri«h 
Pears(in. at East Stmudsburi:: sixth of DuukelN'ri:er> 
at Island Park. Sunbury. 

Aui:. 2:5. Nitith reunion of Lichtenwallners, at AJ- 

Auji. 24. Reunion of Rosenberpers, at IVrkasu- 
Park: of Scibcrts at Island Park, near Easttni. an.l 
third of Shimers. at Oaklaml . Park. Norihanipt »n 

Auu'. 2S. Reunion of Smith family, at John>onvjP.e. 
Northamiuon county, and of Trexler family, at Kuii- 
town Park. 

.Vuu'. 2;». Reunion of Kressie family, at Effort. M"" 
ro«' county. an»l of tJar^'es family in Ooylestown tow «■ 
ship. Bucks county. 

Auj;. 31. Third reunion of tJrubbs. at Sanat'«ca Park; 
third of KriebeU at ZiebtT's Park: sixth of Kex fam- 
ily, at NetYsville; sixth of Follweilers. at NetTsvilb-. 
third of FuM-ys. at l>orney"s Park, near Alleut-'wu. 
reunion of Movers, at Perkasie Park. 

Sept. 2. Third reunion of Royt-r family, Kt Kutxlown. 

Sept. 7. Reunion of Hajreiuau family, at Siles. Cu^i^ 

Sept. 14. Fourth reunion of Walters, at Wlllo^v 
i;rove; reunion of Schwenk famll,v. at Schwenksvilh*. 



Chat with Correspondents 

Dialect Stories and Idioms 

An E.'istoii reader thinks our dialect stories 
are rather long. Atiother reader suggests 
• foot-notes explaining dialect expressions. 

We do not consider our dialect stories too 
lung, as a rule. Tiie only one yet published 
that was not complete in one issue was "h>oon- 
astiel's" Trip iioch Fildelfy iin Canada. It is 
not always possible to write a good story i ■ 
very few words, nor is it easy to abridge one 
without loss. We try to kevp within suitable 
limits, both with stories and poems written in 
the dialect: the latter usually eive us more 
trouble in this respect than the former. Con- 
mibutors of verse should practict? condensa- 
tion as much as possible. 

The use of foot-notes explanatory of idio- 
matic expressions is not practicable to any 
large extent, bccaus.- we cannot know which 
o{ these idioms the majority of readers need 
to have explaiiied. A better way to enable all 
readers to enjoy the dialect gems would be to 
print full translations in parallel columns, but 
these our time and space forbid. ^^loreover, 
the dialect ha< a tlavo'- of its own. which is 
often lost in the translating process. 

What an Enthusiast Thinks and Wishes 

The following is from a reader and con- 
tributor in Washrngton. D. C. : 

I consider The Pexxsylvaxi.\-Germ.\x 
one of the best of magazines, as it coin- 
cides with my views of a magazine devot- 

ed to the subject. •! that come under its 
title. Of course, I am more or less an 
enthusiast on these subjects, and have 
wished I had the means of some persons i 
know. I would search tvery nook and 
corner oi Pennsylvania-Germanduni for 
records of the past and put them in abund- 
ant circulation. As it is. my time is limit- 
ed to the evening."^, and then I am away 
from the base of action. Vet. if you ever 
come this way. I may be able to sHow 
you a little .something that efforts during 
spare hours have produced, with self-de- 
nial, of course, in regard to other phases 
of enjoyment. 

Your magazine requires an active, ener- 
getic, patient worker to keep it agoing, as 
there is much uphill work and many a 
steep place to overcome. There are a 
number of our people who dO'Uot appreci- 
ate this work as they ought, yet who in 
other respects are excellent individuals. 
Where pride of ancestry has 
taken root, it is not so ditticult to get >ub- 
scribers ; but where the economical prin- 
ciple of not buying what one does not 
really needstiH rules, getting subscribers 
is no easy matter. 
Unfortunately. Brother G., our own canvass- 
ing experience fully corroborates all you ha\e 
said here. Could we but infuse a little oi 
your enthusiasm into all the people we are 
laboring for, our work would be immensely 

Genealogical Notes and O^^^i^i^^ 

This department Is open to all our subscribers. Co 
tion as clearly and brieriy as possible, being particularly 
of readers generally it is desired that answers to the 
this magazine. 


What K)f Peter Rumble and Family? 

Information is wanted concerning Peter 
l<um!)le or Rumple, who owned a sawmill at 
Oyakake. the railway station nearest to Weath- 
erly, Carbon county. What was his ancestr\'? 
^\ere any of his blood in the Revolution ? 
I lis wife. Barbara, was akin to the Craigs of 
1-ehigh Gap ; that was her name or perhaps 
the name of her sister's husband. Peter Ri-ni- 
i'le and wife had one son. John, born October 
'7. iJ^i. in North Whitehall township. Xorth- 
^mipton (now Lehigh) county, who married 
'■-lizabeth Rothermel. 

(Published in September. 1906) 

Jacob Frounwalder qualified at Philadelphia. 
^"\- 10, 1743, from the snow Endeavor. 
' houias .-\nderson. captain, from London. In 
^" X\| of the .\ppendix X(^ Ruiip's Thirty 
Li"U.s;ind Xames mav be found the name oi 
' ^ur h'ornwald, of Oley township, Philadel- 

ntributors will please state their questions and in forma- 

careful in writing names and dates. l-'or the benetii 

questions under this head be addressed to the editor of 

phia (now Berks) countv. He owned a hun- 
dred acres of land, on which he paid quitreni 
prior to 1734 There is no name approachmg 
either spelling of the names cited from 
Rupp except that of Johanjies Walder. wiio 
took oath Aug. 24. 1750. He came in the ship 
[brothers. Muir. captain, from Rotterdam, last 
from Cowes. Tho I have read Rupp's Xames 
from cover to cover several time>. 1 ha\ e never 
seen but these three that might belong to one 
family connection. Johanne> Walder did not 
write his name on the list, but the clerk at the 
courthouse wrote it — a practice that often re- 
sulted in '"freak spelling." 

( In Rupp's lists names not written lu" tiie 
inunigrants themselves are marked with a star. 
Jacob I'"r(Hmwalder*s name is so marked, and 
in the Pennsylvania Archives. Second Series, 
\'ol. XVH. page 24*9. where the same list ap- 
pears in revised form, is gi\i.Mi as Jacob Braun- 
t elder, a name' which ditYers >till more from 
X'ornwald. who was the subject of inquirv m 
Ouery No. VII.— Ed.) 



Our Book-Table 

Any book or pamphlet reviewed in these coluinns willtye sent to any address by the Publisher of The Penn 

sylvania-German on receipt of the published price. Postage must be added when It is mentioned separately. 

Any other book wanted by our readers may be ordered through us at the publisher's price. Inquiries will be 
promptly and cheerfully answered. 

The Making of a Teacher. .\ Contribution to 
Sonic Phases of the Problem of Relij^nou? 
EducHtion. By Martin G. Brumbauprh. 
Ph.D.. LL.D., 'Professor of Pedaj^oory in 
the University of Pennsylvania. (Fourth 
edition.) 351 pages, i2mo. Price, $1.15. 
This is a very valuable book, written by a 
teacher of wide experience and tried skill. "Pri- 
marily the book is intended for Sunday-school 
teachers : these need and should have all the 
assistance and guidance that experience and 
study can provide. The purpose has been to 
vitalize certain educational principles, to push 
their application home to the conscience and, 
if possible, to inspire in the heart of the teacher 
a great desire to make the most of the vital 
opportunities' that are his. The teacher of a 
secular school will find here the same under- 
lying guidance needed in his work." 

According to Dr. Brumbaugh, the. tc-acher 
must be made, not merely trained. Education 
is more than a transforming process, it is cre- 
ative. In the first chaptt?r he states the gen- 
eral problem quite correctly and succinctly 

thus: ''To know, to feel, to do. is to enrich 
the soul. To inform the mind is one thing: 
to enrich the soul is quite another. The teacher 
in Sunday-school above all other teachers mus: 
know how to enrich the soul — to occasion 
right thought, to secure keen feeling and to 
ensure right action.'" The book consist-s of 
twenty-eight chapters, each conveniently sub- 
divided and followed by questions and sugges- 
tions "for testing one's grasp of the subject 
and for discussion in teacher-training classes." 
It is an excellent textljook. seeming ^qvally 
adapted for private or school-study 

Das heutige Deutschtum in den Vereinigten 
Staaten von Amerika. \'on Gcorg vor, 
Bosse, ev.-luth. Pastor in Liverpool. X. Y. 
Stuttgart, Druck und Verlag der Chr. 
Belser'schen Verlagshandlung. Price, 35 
An instructive and entertaining pamphlet of 
fifty pages, forming Xo. 4 of Vol. XXIX of 
Zciifragen dcs christUchen J'olkslcbctis. a se- 
rial publication issued by the same firm. 

Calendar of Pennsylvania History 

JULY, 1907 

2-3. State Educational Association meets at 

3. Pennsylvania express and freight-train 
collide at Sunbury. Three dead, many injured. 

3-4. Centennial anniversary of ^lechanics- 

5. Federal Court at Pittsburg sends two 
former officers of the Enterprise Xational 
Bank to the penitentiary. 

6. F'irst Brigade of State-militia opens 
camp at Perkasie Heights, Third Brigade at 
Mount Gretna. 

• 8. Summer-school opened at the U. of Pa. 

9. Thirty-nintii annual meeting of State 
Dental -Society at Pittsburg. 

ID. Collapse of building in Philadelphia; 
two dead. 

Ti. White damp in coalmine at Honeybrook 
kills nine men. 

11-12. Gov. Stuart reviews militiamen in 
camp at Perkasie and Mount Gretna. 

12. Conrad Weiser home at Womelsdorf 

16. National Grand Lodge of Elks meets 
at Philadelphia. — 21.000 non-paying members 
of United Mine Workers dropped from list 
by district-convention at Wilkcs-Barre. 

17. Miners' convention at Wilkes-Barre de- 
nounces Assemblyman T. D. Hayes. — Ten 
heat-deaths in Pittsburg. 

18. Magnificent parade of Elks in Philada. 
■ — Meecker & Co., independent hard-coal min- 
ers, appenl to Interstate Commerce Commis- 

sion against Anthracite Trust. — Lincoln Beach- 
ey makes successful airship flight in Philada. 
— Destructive floods in western Penna.. 
storms in the southeast. — Seventh annual re- 
union of Susquehanna Lutheran A.-sociation 
at Selinsgrove. 

IQ. Elks make pilgrimage to Vallev Forge. 
— Fatal collision of freight-cars near Frce- 

20. Second Brigade goes into camp at .\1- 

21. Auto-busses used for passenger-tratVio 
in Philadelphia. — Mrs. John Wanamaker's art- 
coUection at Lyndenhurst destro>-x?d by fire. 

22. Annual festival of Bavarian Societv in 

2Ti. Iron-Molders' Union of Xor:h America 
meets in Philada. 

25. Twenty-first annual reunion of Luther- 
ans at Peinnar. — Riot of Jewish women m 
Philada. on account oi increased price of kosh- 
vr meat. 

26. State Medical Examining Board license- 
328 physicians. 

27. Excursion-train wrecked ar .sic Sta- 
tion, near Butler: three dead. — Rev. William 
A. SchaerTer. D.D.. Lutheran minister, dies i" 

31. Battleship Kearsarge successfully 
launched at new League Island drydock in 
Phihula.— l^rv at ^Ll^shalsea. Pittsburg's in 
sane asylum. 

>^ f .' if W ' ; ^ Hi t ^^ ii}i.j ^ if^vf^Vf>^^ 

vol . V!n, No. 10 

OCTOeE?^ 1907 

PRICE 15 Cents 





The Fourth Instalment of Our Illustrated Symposium 


With Articles on Reyormu) Sixoxdarv Schools and 
CoLf.F.GEs, Schools of the I^Iexxonite Settlers. 
The Germ ax Baptist' Brethren's "'Church- 
School" and XEiGHBOkHooD-ScHOOLS OR Pav- 

GExi-.RAr. JoHX Frederic Hartraxft, Union Leader 
and Governor of Pennsylvania (Pilustrated Bio- 
g-raphical Sketch) 

The First Two Germax Settlers ix Pexxsvlvaxia 

Berxvili.k : A Flistorical Sketch (with Illustrations^ 

Ax Oldtime Couxtry Frolic 

Myles Lortxg: A Tale of the Tulpehocken (Illustrated 
Serial Story), Chapters XIV' and XV 

Literary, Editorial Comment, Xews-Clirrixgs. 
corresroxdexts' cllat, genealogical xotes and 

OtERIES, etc., ETC. 
Full Table of Contents back of Frontispiece. Business Matters on next pAro- 


0t|f J^i^ntt0gluamci-®j?rman 

OCTOBER, 1907 





Frontispiece — Portrait and Autograph of General John Frederic 

Hartranft 458 

The PENNSvi.vA.^nA-GERMAx IN HIS Relation to Education — A 
Symposium (continued) 
Reformed Secondary Schools and Colleges — By Rev. S. L. Mes- 

singer, S. T. D - 459 

The Schools of the Mennonite Settlers — By Rev. A. S. Shelly . 466 
The German Baptist Brethren's "Church-School" — By Rev. G. X. 

P'alkenstein 470 

Neighborhood-Schools or Pay-Schools — Extract from Dr. James 

P. Wickersham's History of Education in Pennsylvania . . 473 
General John Frederic Hartranft, Union Leader and Governor of 

Pennsylvania 475 

The First Two German Settlers in Pennsylvania 477 

Bernville : A Historical Sketch . .- 480 

An Ol'dtime Country Frolic — Extract from Dr. \V. A. Helffrich's 

Autobiography . . . , 4S6 

Pennsylvania Historical Societies : Their Aims and Their Work 

For the Encouragement of County Historical Societies .... 488 

The Bradford County Historical Society 489 

The American Baptist Historical Society 489 

The Hoa[e — The Sampler 490 

A Land of Prosperous Farmers — By Col. J. ^L Vanderslice - . . . 492 

Der Bullfrog war versoflfa — By "Onkel Jeft" 493 

Clippings from Current News 493 

Myles Loring: A Tale of the Tulpehocken — By Rev. Allen W. 

Quimby. Chapters XIV and XV 494 

Literary Ge^^is 

Wann der Parra kummt — By "Solly Hulsbuck" 503 

En simpler Ivlann — By Calvin C. Ziegler 503 

Four Kinds of Men — Viererlei Manner 503 

Der Keschtabaam — By E. K 504 

Der alt Garret — By Frank R. Brunner, M.D 505 

. En vvicschter Draam — By Charles C. More 505 

Nooch d'r Daifi 506 

Editorial Department . . . * 507 

Clippings from Current News 509 

Chat with Correspondents 511 

Genealogical Notes and Queries 511 

Our Book-Table 512 

Calendar of Pennsylvania History, August, 1907 512 





,■ / 

\\ ^' 



tA. ■■ 

M)t ^mn^^l\tum(X-(^nm<xn 

Vol. VIII 

OCTOBER, 1907 

No. 10 

The Pennsylvania-German in His 
Relation to Education 

A Symposium of Historical and Descriptive Articles 
Edited by Prof. L. S. Shi^imell, Ph.D., Harrisburg, Pa. 

Reformed Secondary Schools and Colleges 



fnr^ HE Pennsylvania-German people 
of the Reformed Church gave 
early consideration to questions 
which concerned the future welfare of 
their beloved church. They clearly saw 
tliat, in order to perpetuate the noble 
work of their church and preserve the 
life of its infant congregations, an edu- 
cated ministry was indispensable. Ac- 
cordingly, they zealously endeavored to 
effect the means which would secure to 
the pulpits of their church a succession 
of liberally educated ministers. In order 
to afford special facilities for the requi- 
site training of such young men as had 
the gospel ^iiinistry in view, and to pro- 
vide advantages for the higher education 
of the German community at large, they 
early agitated the question of establish- 
ing a literary institution. They proposed 
plans; but, being without the financial 
ability to carry them into execution, the 
'.vorthy enterprise was delayed. Later, it 
was decided to solicit the co-operation of 
the Lutheran Church, another branch of 
the German churches in America, whose 
Hnancial inability had also deterred it in 
the establishment of a literary institution 
of its own. In consequence of this de- 
cision, these two German branches of the 
church in Pennsylvania united their ef- 
^"rts to supply a common need ; and. at 
length, these efforts were crowned with 

success. Money was contributed by the 
miembers of both churches, presumably, 
a considerable sum for that day. Benja- 
min Franklin, who had always cherished 
a warm regard for the Germians, made 
the largest individual contribution to- 
ward this project. The legislative As- 
sembly of the State was petitioned to 
make a contribution to this commendable 
enterprise, and it responded thereto by 
bestowing for the use of the proposed in- 
stitution "the public storehouse and two 
lots of ground in tlie borough and county 
of Lancaster." Operations for recon- 
structing ''the public storehouse at Lan- 
caster," in order to adapt it to its intend- 
ed use, and the erection of an additional 
building were commenced : and in the 
year 1787, with appropriate ceremonies,, 
the cornerstone of the new institution 
was laid. Benjamin Franklin was pres- 
ent at these services ; and. as a fitting ac- 
knowledgment of his personal interest in 
the educational welfare of the Germans 
they named the institution 

Franklin College 

When it was ready for occupancy, it 
was "formally opened in the most impres- 
sive manner." Leading ministers of both 
the Reformed and Lutheran churches 
were present and participated in the ex- 
ercis<\s. Its first board oi trustees in- 




eluded noted army officers of the Revolu- 
tionary war and four signers of the Dec- 
laration of Independence. However, the 
expectations of the founders of this col- 
lege were not realized. It proved to be 
of little benefit to either of the churches 
to whose efforts its existence was due. It 
lacked means sufficient for the support, of 
its professors, its charter provisions were 
defective, and it never rose above the 
claims of a local academy. I may say 
here that, in the. course of time, the Re- 
formed Church purchased the Lutheran 
interest in the property of this institution 
and made it the foundation for what is 
now known as Franklin and Marshall 
College of the Reformed Church. 
Marshall College 
The first college owned and managed 
exclusively by the Reformed Church was 
located at Mercersburg, Pa., and was 
called Marshall College in honor of the 
eminent jurisprudent and Chief Justice 
John Marshall. This institution grew out 
of the needs and demands of the Theo- 
logical Seminary of the Reformed 
Church which had been opened in Car- 
Hsle, Pa., on March ii, 1825. The Penn- 
sylvania-Germans of the Reformed 
Church were persistent in their efforts 
to establish an institution in which theo- 
logical instruction might be imparted, 
principally in the German language, to 
meet the needs of the church in the early 
years of the nineteenth century, when 
pulpit ministrations were performed al- 

most entirely in the German language. 
The original method of privately educat- 
ing students for the ministry was felt to 
be altogether inadequate to satisfy the 
growing demands of the church. 

At the annual meetings of its Synod 
there were frequent utterances to the ef- 
fect that the state of the Reformed 
Church imperatively demanded a theo- 
logical seminary which should exist un- 
der the direct denominational control and 
supervision of said church. After the 
maturing and failure of several plans for 
the establishment of this much needed in- 
stitution, at length, "at the Synod con- 
vened in Bedford, Pa., in 1824, a com- 
munication was received from the trus- 
tees of Dickinson College — then under 
the control of the Presbyterian Church — 
inviting the Reformed Church to estab- 
lish its theological seminary at Carlisle, 
in close connection with the literary in- 
stitution which they represented." The 
invitation was accepted, and Rev. Lewis 
Maver, then pastor at York, was called 
to the important position of teacher of 
theology. Rut this arrangement did not 
prove satisfactory: and. in consequence, 
the seminary was removed to York. Pa., 
where it was reorgani.zed and commenced 
operations on November 11. 1S20. Here, 
in order to give students the benefit of 
instruction in certain branches of study 
preparatory to their theological course. 
Rev. Daniel Young, and subsequently. 
Rev. Frederic A. ^ Ranch. Ph.D.. had 



been employed as assistants to Dr. May- 
er. The work of literary and classical 
study at the seminary had increased un- 
oier the patronage and encouragement of 
the Pennsylvania-German people of the 
Reformed Church to such proportions as 
to render it expedient to establish an- 
other institution, in order that the semi- 
nary might confine its work within its 
originally prescribed purpose. Hence 
the founding of Marshall College. Dr. 
F. A. Ranch was its first president. In 
1837 the seminary was also removed to 
Mercersburg, and the institutions labored 
side by side until 1853, when Marshall 
College was transferred to Lancaster, 

Heidelberg University 
Pennsylvania-German stock had set- 
tled and become numerous in Ohio, many 
among them being members of the Re- 
formed Church. They retained the Penn- 
sylvania-Cierman ideas of education. In 
1824 the Synod of Ohio held its first ses- 
sions. By this time already the work and 
growth of the Reformed Church in Ohio, 
and further westward, had developed to 
such magnitude and importance as to 
cause it to feel the need of literary and 
theological institutions within the bounds 
of its Synod. x\s the church continued 
to grow, such institutions became an ab- 
solute necessity. They were needed for 
the education of men for the ministry, in 
order to extend, the work of the church, 

as well as to provide educational facilities 
for the children of Reformed families in 
Ohio and adjacent States. The distance 
and traveling expenses to the college and 
seminary at Mercersburg were too great. 
Therefore, after considerable agitation of 
the subject, and the undertaking of sev- 
eral preparatory measures, Heidelberg 
College was formally opened in Tiffin, in 
rooms rented for the purpose, on Novem- 
ber 18, 1850. This institution was found- 
ed under the auspices of the Ohio Synod, 
and was named after the famous German 
university of that name, and also the for- 
mularv of the Reformed faith — the Hei- 
delberg Catechism. Its first president 
was Rev. E. V. Gerhart. D.D. The erec- 
tion of a permanent building for the col- 
lege was commenced in 1851, and the 
cornerstone was laid on May 13, 1852. 
The institution was very successful, and 
it soon became necessary to supplant the 
original building with a new and larger 
one. Thus a new building, beautiful in 
design, large and commodious, was 
erected and was dedicated with appro- 
priate ceremonies on June 16, 1886. A 
theological seminary has been operated, 
also, from the beginning of the college, 
under the same roof. Both collecre and 
seminary have their distinctive faculties. 
In 1890 the institution was organized 
into a university. An integral part of the 
institution is a well conducted academy. 
Its many buildings, with their splendid 




equipment, make Heidelberg University- 
rank among the best institutions in the 
State. Its organization is thorough, its 
\Torking condition is good, and its aim 
is to keep abreast with the progress of 
knowledge and culture. 

Catawba College 

This college of the Reformed Church 
is at Newton, N. C, and was founded in 
185 1. It is under the care of the Poto- 
mac Synod of the Reformed Church. The 
Reformed people in North Carolina are 
descendants of the Pennsylvania colony 
which came into that State as early as 
1785. True to their educational views, 
these Pennsylvania-Germans established 
a college for the church, which has been 
a rallying point for its people. It has 
both collegiate and academic departments 
and is in a prosperous condition. 

Franklin and Marshall College 

This institution of the Reformed 
Church, at Lancaster, Pa., is a consolida- 
tion of Franklin College, at that place, 
and Marshall College, which for eighteen 
years had been at Mercersburg. In 
1853 ^he Reformed Church became, by 
■ purchase, the exclusive owner of Frank- 
lin College. The two colleges were then 
consolidated ; and, in order to preserve 
the historical continuity of the educa- 
tional enterprises of the Church, so far 
as that was possible by the retention of 
the old names, this newly combined in- 
terest was named Franklin and Marshall 
College. The theological seminary con- 
nected with Marshall College was not 
removed to Lancaster until 1871. This 
institution of learning is acknowledged 
everywhere as one of the best colleges in 
the country. Its facilities have grown 
greater from year to year. It has been 
constantly increasing the number of its 
professors, erecting new buildings, and 
providing theni with new equipment and 
apparatus. In it is found every facility 
for the prosecution of a course of colle- 
giate study, whether such a course be 
regarded as an end in itself, or as pre- 
paratory to university or professional 
training. This institution, it is abund- 
antly acknowledged, has been oi great 
value, not onlv .to the Reformed Church, 

but also to the whole country. Of the 
thousands who have studied within its 
halls, many have distinguished them- 
selves as preachers, theologians and au- 
thors. A large number of its graduates 
have entered the legal and medical pro- 
fessions. Dr. G. W. Richards, of the 
faculty of the theological seminary at 
Lancaster, has stated that "among the 
representative alumni are governors, 
judges, State senators and representa- 
tives, superintendents of public instruc- 
tion, professors in seminaries, colleges, 
normal schools, high scliools and acade- 
mies, missionaries in China and Japan, 
rising young scientists and prominent 
authors." Any country might be justly 
proud of the long list of names borne by 
the great Pennsylvania-Germans con- 
nected with this institution. President 
Harris, of Bucknell, said : "Franklin and 
Marshall has the reputation of making 
men, and so long as this world needs men 
it needs such work as this college is do- 
ing." At the same place is the theologi- 
cal seminary, which is the oldest of the 
literary institutions of the Reformed 
Church, and which successfully continues 
its work of training an efficient ministry 
for the church. The history of Franklin 
and Marshall Academy runs parallel 
with that of the college. It was origin- 
ally organized as a preparatory depart- 
ment to the college. It is now a separate 
and distinct institution, and it aims to be 
''in the best and highest sense a training 
school for those who desire to prepare 
for college, and also to furnish a com- 
plete academical course for those who do 
not purpose taking a full collegiate 
course of study." 

Mercersburg College 
After Marshall College removed to 
Lancaster, its spirit still lingered around 
the buildings of its former habitation. 
The outgrowth of that circumstance was 
the founding of Mercersburg College. It 
was chartered in 1S65. Owing to tinan- 
cial embarrassment, it was temporarily 
closed in iSSo; but it was reopened in 
1881, and for a number of years it en- 
joyed a good degree of prosperity. But 
about fourteen years ago, the institution 
was reduced to the rank of a high grade 







'•- J 

academy. In 1893 William ]\Iann Irvine, 
Ph.D., became its president; and since 
then the school has had a phenomenal 
5:rro\vth, Many new buildiniT^s have been 
erected and nearly four hundred boys 
have been enrolled in it, annually, for 
several years. It ranks among- the best 
academics in the countrv. 

Allentown College for Women 
The Pennsvlvania-German has not 
been behind others in the matter of pro- 
vidinc: hii;her education for women. In 
the Reformed Church there are several 
colleges for the education of women, and 
they arc among the best schools of their 
kind. Allentown College for Women was 



chartercvl in 1867. The institution is 
progressive and thorough, aiming to 
serve its patrons with the latest and most 
improved methods of instruction. 

Ursinus College 

This institution ^of the Reformed 
Church is situated in the borough of Col- 
legeville, ^Montgomery county, Pa., in the 
charmingly picturesque and uniquely 
beautiful valley through which flows the 
Perkiomen. It is "beautiful for situa- 
tion," also, from a moral and social 
standpoint. Like most other colleges, it 
had its origin in religious impulses. The 
immediate impulse which led to its es- 
tablishment lay in a holy zeal for the 
conservation of the doctrines and usages 
of the Reformed Church in their true his- 
torical sense. It was to offset and check 
certain dangerous tendencies in the 
church that the need of another college 
began to be felt. Those who shared this 
feeling held meetings at various places; 
and at a gathering of clergymen and lay- 
men in Philadelphia, in November, 1868, 
it was 

"Resolved to go forward in the establish- 
ment of an institution for the Reformed 
Church in eastern Pennsylvania, devoted to 
the doctrines of the Reformation and true to 
the creed of the noble men who effected that 
great movement in the progress of religious 
and civil liberty and in the return to the pur- 
ity and simplicity of the apostolic times." 

Funds began to be contributed for the 
new project at once. At a later meeting 
held in Philadelphia, a board of direc- 
tors was chosen. The formal organiza- 
tion of the board of directors was ef- 
fected on January 12, 1869, when also a 
committee was appointed to prepare a 
charter. The act of incorporation was 
procured from the Legislature of Penn- 
sylvania on February 5, 1869. The 
charter is a very liberal one, containing 
the rights, and privileges of a university 
charter. The buildings of Freeland Sem- 
inary were purchased, and in them Ursi- 
nus College was opened for the reception 
of students in the autumn of 1870. As 
the reliirious impulses in which this col- 
lege had its origin embodied a desire to 
furnish men for the Christian ministry, 
steps were taken toward the establish- 

ment of a theological department already- 
before the close of the first academic 
year. Both the College and the School 
of Theology have been notably success- 
ful in the work undertaken by them. A 
high grade academy, as one of its depart- 
ments, has also been successfully oper- 
ated. Alany thousands of young men and 
women have been educated at this insti- 
tution of learning. The quality of the 
work done at Ursinus, in its several de- 
partments, has always been decidedly ex- 
cellent : and yet every step of progress 
marked by larger equipment and in- 
creased facilities has been stamped by an 
equivalent improvement in educational 
methods and the organization of instruc- 
tion, until to-day it stands second to none 
among the progressive colleges of the 
State. Animated by a liberal and pro- 
gressive spirit, the institution has always 
welcomed every advanced educational 
idea that would in any way contribute to 
the success of its efforts to meet the 
wants of the times. The instruction of 
the collegiate department is organized 
according to a regulated elective system 
under which six regular courses of study 
are offered, each leading to the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts. Rev. J. H. A. Bom- 
berger, D.D., LL.D., was its president 
from the beginning until his death in 
1890. Ten years ago. the L'rsinus School 
of Theology was moved to Philadelphia. 
Just now a union has been effected be- 
tween it and the Heidelberg Theological 
Seminary, the purpose of which is to 
make a strong general theological semin- 
ary for the Reformed Church. It is called 
the Central Seminary of the Reformed 
Church in the United States, and for the 
present time it is located at Tiffin. Ohio. 

Mission House — Women's College — Academies 

L'ndcr the name of Mission House the 
German people of the Reformed Church 
have, for many years, conducted a first- 
class institution oi learning at Franklin. 
Wis. In includes a college, academy and 
theological seminary. 

The Women's College is at Frederick. 
Md. It is about fifteen years old, and it 
is a successful, progressive, well organ- 
ized and equipped college for women. 

p-^-. — . 








J. \ 



^«^V ' ^£«fckL»sa 

^'. ^-^^ %L-*> VCJI. ^ ■^^•' ^^^*' 

^tTifrFir^W^rfT--f;iiiit#i^ Mi-liTiJ- III rVrifi-atii-ffiYT'w-n 

Its faculty numbers twenty-four regular 

The Alassanutten Academy is a high- 
class secondary school of the Reformed 
Cluirch, at Woodstock. Va. 

The Interior Academy is another 
school of the same class at Dakota, 111. 
Other Secondary Schools and Colleges 

It is plain that the Pennsylvania-Ger- 
mans of the Reformed Church have 

shown 1:0 lack of interest in the matter 
of education. 

They have founded and operated many 
other secondary schools and colleges. 
some of which liave ceased to exist, and 
others have passed under the control of 
other relig:ious bodies. Such was Palat- 
inate Collcixe. at Myerstown. Pa., found- 
ed in iS6S. For a time it had seven in- 
structors and over two hundred stu- 



dents. It became Albrii^ht College, un- 
der the control of the Evangelical 
Church, Others were Calvin College, at 
Cleveland, Ohio ; Wichita University, 
at Wichita, Kan. ; International Acade- 
my, at Portland, Oregon ; Clarion Colle- 
giate Institute, at Rimcrsburg, Pa. ; Jun- 
iata Collegiate Institute, at Martinsburg, 
Pa. ; Pleasantville Collegiate Institute, at 
Pleasantville, Ohio; Greensburg Female 
Collegiate Institute, at Greensburg, Pa., 

and Claremont Female College, at Hick- 
ory, N. C. 

I must add that the Reformed Church 
owns and operates North Japan College, 
at Sendai, Japan. This is the largest and 
best equipped institution of learning: in 
the ]\Iikado's empire. The Miyagi Girl-' 
School, at the same place, is a school of 
the Reformed Church : so are the Boys' 
School and the Girls' School at Yochow, 

The Schools of the Mennonitc Settlers 

Love of Letters a Oerman Racial Trait 

IT has truly been said of the early 
German immigrants to this country 
that they came with a fair share of 
common-school learning, and that they 
early established schools to educate their 
children. The love of letters is a racial 
characteristic of the Germans, who have 
been leaders among the nations of mod- 
ern times in matters of education and 
literary work. They have to their credit 
such vanguard work as the invention of 
printing, which has brought literature 
within the reach of the common people, 
and the Kindergarten system, which 
takes time by the forelock in the educa- 
tion of the child and makes the. acquisi- 
tion of knowledge and culture a pleasure. 
This educational bent was hindered, 
but not effaced, by the terrible experi- 
ences through which the ancestors of 
most of our Pennsylvania-Germans 
passed before the doors of this western 
asylum opened for their reception. In 
the conflicts which devastated large por- 
tions of the German states, the peasantry 
naturally suffered the most, and it was 
from this class that the majority of im- 
migrants came to these shores. How- 
ever, though peasants of the hard-work- 
ing classes, they were intelligent and 
possessed of a good share of the national 
love for knowledge. They took their 
position by the side, in some respects in- 
deed in the lead, of their English neigh- 
bors in matters educational, setting up 
printing-presses for the issuing of books 
and periodicals and establishing schools 
for their children. 


What has just been said of our Ger- 
man immigrants in general, is true of the 
■\Iennonite immigrants in particular. All 
the fearful suffering which they had 
passed through in the old country, being 
persecuted for their faith, their property 
being confiscated, themselves driven 
from place to place as though they were 
the offscouring of the earth, many of 
their number tortured and put to death 
in horrible fashion, their mere assem- 
bling for worship or other purpose gen- 
erally provoking renewed persecution 
and violence — all this had not availed to 
crush their indomitable spirit. Though 
amidst such persecution the maintaining 
of schools for their children was made 
exceedingly difficult, if not impossible, 
and though their experience set them 
against the institution of higher educa- 
tion, which seemed to foster the unchrist- 
like spirit animating their persecutors, 
they still retained their love for what 
they considered a true education, in 
which the ability to read understandingly 
the words of Divine wisdom was a main 

Worship and Education Considered First 
Wherever they took up their abode in_ 
the wilderness of the Xew WorUl. one oi 
the matters of first public concern was 
to provide a place oi meeting for wor- 
ship and for the systematic instruction 
of their children. Generally, at first, one 
house was put to this twofold use. tlui< 
closely associating their schools with 
their religion. The records of thest' 
schools were seldom preserved : but well 
authenticated traditions in most of the 



Mcnnonite communities give strong 
o-round for the assertion quoted by Wick- 
crsham in his History of Education in 
I^eimsylvania, that ''every old Mennon- 
ite meeting house was either used as a 
schoolhouse, or there was a school con- 
nected with it or in the neighborhood, 
supported by Mennonites." 

Christopher Dock's Schools and Others 

Instances corroborating this statement 
may be adduced. Thus, it is known that 
the first log meeting house at German- 
town, built in 1706, was used for school 
purposes. The beloved teacher from 
Skippack, Christopher Dock, occupied 
the teacher's bench here four years in 
succession. His school in the settlement 
on the Skippack was held in the house 
built in 1725, which was probably used 
also for worship, the grant of land made 
to the congregation by Mathias van Beb- 
ber in 1717 mentioning as one of the pur- 
poses, "to build a schoolhouse there to 
have their children taught and instruct- 
ed." Dock's other school in Salford was 
in all probability held in the meeting 
house of that settlement. 

In the Mennonite settlement at Deep 
Run, Bucks county, the first log building 
erected on land deeded to the congrega- 
tion by William Allen in 1746, was used 
for school and public worship, being- 
continued in use as a schoolhouse long 
after a separate house of worship had 
been built. 

The Mennonite settlers in what is now 
Upper Milford township, Lehigh county, 
erected a log building probably before 
^750- This was in two parts separated 
by a swinging partition, thus providing 
a convenient room for a school. 

In the settlement in Chester county 
they built a schoolhouse before they 
erected a church. The same relative de- 
JTree of concern for school-benefits is in- 
tlicated by a statement made regarding 
niany settlements in Lancaster county. 
that for a time they held their religious 
meetings in their schoolhouses. W'ick- 
crsham says of these last-named com- 
munities : ''They kept no records relat- 
ing to schools. But soon after the war 
of the Revolution, forty communities 

were reported and it is certain that most 
of them had schools." 

The writer remembers seeing in the 
old meeting house of his boyhood days, 
in Milford township, Bucks county, the 
evidence of a partition by which in ear- 
lier times a part of the house was con- 
verted into a schoolroom, and tradition 
dates this practice back to the early days 
of the settlement. In 1838 or 1839 a 
separate house was built for the school, 
and this was used till in 1849 the school 
was merged into the public-school sys- 

General Character of Those Early Schools 

Similar evidence is found in almost 
every Mennonite community. To what 
extent these schools may properly be 
designated "church-schools" is a point 
which, in the absence of all records, can 
not, at this distance, be easily determined. 
\\'hether the congregations in their or- 
ganized capacity usually provided for the 
maintenance of the schools and exercised 
control over them, is not definitely 
known, as far as the writer has been able 
to ascertain. We are probably close to 
the facts when we think of the leaders 
of the communities interesting them- 
selves in getting some capable persons to 
make use of the place provided and con- 
duct a school there ; the teacher thus 
secured looking for his remuneration to 
the payment of a certain tuition fee by 
those sending children, and usually 
boarding around with the patrons : the 
children of poor people probably having 
their instruction paid for out of the fund 
for charitable helpfulness maintained in 
most or all of the congregations : each 
teacher being, in matters relating to the 
branches to be taught and the general 
conduct of the school, a law unto him- 
self, guided of course by the general sen- 
timent of the community, the extent of 
the course of instruction being largely 
regulated in each case by the law of sup- 
ply and demand. 

Schools Open to All — Dock's School Methods 
Both as to teachers and pupils the 
schools were not exclusively Mennonite.- 
The donor of the ground for the school 
at Skippack, for instance, definitely stip- 


THE pp:nxsylvaxia-german 

ulated that all the cliildren of the neigh- 
borhood should share in the advantages 
of the school. Christopher Dock writes 
in his explanation of his school-methods 
that he received into his school children 
fro]ii homes of different religions opin- 
ions and practices and that therefore he 
did not instruct them in one form of the 
catechism, l^arents, he says, taught the 
catechism at home, but in the school he 
used hymns and psalms, since of both 
spiritual hymns and psalms the Holy 
Spirit is the author. 

A good idea of the nature of the in- 
struction imparted in these early schools 
is afforded by Dock's School-Methods 
above referred to. This "pious school- 
master from Skippack," as he has ap- 
propriately been called, upon the urgent 
request of friends interested in the pro- 
motion of school-interests, reluctantly 
consented to write what is called on its 
title page "A Simple and Elementary 
School Discipline, setting forth clearly 
not only how^ children may best be led 
into the branches commonly taught 
in schools, but also how to instruct them 
in godliness." In this little work, wdiich 
came from the press of Christopher 
Saur in 1770, and which for many years 
was a lonely pioneer in the literature of 
this country on the subject of teaching, 
the author gives a detailed description 
of his methods of teaching and school- 
management w-ith his reasons for the 
methods he adopted in preference to 
others that might and to such as should 
not be used. It was written in German, 
but the interested reader will lind an 
English translation thereof in Penny- 
packer's Historical and Biographical 

Dock laid great stress on the moral 
training of children and took advanced 
ground in favor of moral suasion in pre- 
ference to a too habitual resort to physi- 
cal punishment. On the necessary equip- 
ment of a loving interest in children, he 
says : 

I fervently thank the dear Lord that, as I 
have been dedicated by Him to this calling. 
He has also given me the mercy that I have 
an especial love for the young. Were it not 
for this love it would be an unbearable bur- 
den; but love bears and is not weary. 

Again he says : 

Though we are placed over these youihr, 
Christ also is our head and we must govern 
our conduct with the young according to Hi^ 
command. Therefore it can not turn out well 
with ourselves, if we act tyrannically witii 

Si)eaking of certain evil habits, he 
says : 

It will go hard with parents and teachers to 
answer, if they do not earnestly strive to keep 
the young entrusted to them from these habit>. 
How heavily this often rests upon my heart, 
no one knows better than myself. 

The Xew Testament and the Book of 
Psalms were largely used for reading. 
That such teachers as Dock, while they 
taught the children the art of reading, 
failed not to endeavor to impress their 
yoimg minds and hearts with the moral 
and spiritual truths of the text, is seen 
from the following quotation : 

I have labored to bring it about that the 
Xew Testament might be well known to them, 
so that they could turn to passages quoted. 
The door was thus opened to them that they 
might collect richly the little tiowers in this 
noble garden of Paradise, the Holy Scriptures. 

One of his exercises in this is thus de- 
scribed : 

They are told all to sit still and pay atten- 
tion to their thoughts, and dismiss all idle 
thoughts, but the tirst quotation that came 
up in their mind they should search for and 
read aloud. In the course of this exercise I 
have often been compelled to wonder how 
Go^ has prepared for Himself praise out oi 
the mouths of babes and sucklings. 

Mennonite Schools in Minnesota 
A recent communication to the^ writer 
of this article from a leading teacher in 
a large Mennonite settlement in Minne- 
sota throws light upon the subject under 
consideration. These Mennonite immi- 
grants of more recent years, coming 
from the steppes of Russia and other 
sections of the old country, seeking now 
homes under more favorable conditions, 
bear a striking reseniblance in their pe- 
culiar characteristics to the ancestors ot 
our Pennsylvania-German Mennonitcs. 
The way in which they at once grappled 
with the school-question in their new 
surroundings, gives evidence of a similar 
interest in the education of the young. 
That they advanced with compara- 




atively more rapid strides from elenien- 
lary into secondary and higher training 
is due largely to the difference in cir- 
cumstances and times. 

Tlie writer of the letter says: : 
Two characteristics belong in a peculiar de- 
j^rt'O to our people: a devotion to the church 
and a concern for the proper training of their 
children. In regard to both of these our set- 
ticnu-nt here has passed through periods of 
trial and struggle. Today it may be said that 
there are few if any settlements in the State 
where more has been done, both in the matter 
of church and of education, than among the 

They found a system of public schools 
i!v operation in the State when they came 
there. "But," says my informant,, "the 
condition of these public schools was 
such that our people soon came to look 
upon them with aversion. Something 
more and better than they offered was 
wanted, and our fathers soon saw that 
they had an important duty to perform 
in the direction of proper schools for the 
edtication of the rising generation of 
citizens. Properly qualified teachers be- 
ing the first desideratum under the cir- 
cumstances, a band of interested men 
soon united in establishing a school for 
the training of German-English teach- 

It is to be noted that there, as in the 
Pennsylvania settlements, one leading 
thought in the arranging of their schools 
was the preservation of their mother- 
tongue. Another was the desire to have 
religious instruction imparted in their 
schools. These two considerations en- 
tered largely into the catise of whatever 
of lukewarmness or opposition the 
Mcnnonites of Pennsylvania manifested 
toward the public schools when they 

To 1)ring the history of education in 
that settlement down to the present, an- 
other paragraph from the letter will suf- 

In the years 1901-1907, 560 students have 
'akon instruction in our teacher's training- 
school, which instruction is given in German 
and English. Twenty of these young people 
•'i*e at present successful teachers in the public 
•^^hnols and congregational schools (held in 
'ho interims between the public-school terms). 
1 hirty are known to be active Sunday-school 
t'Mchers. A goodly number are pursuing stud- 

ies in higher institutions of learning, and one 
is in India, in the Mennonite mission at 

This is a fair sample of the educational 
efforts in almost every Mennonite settle- 
ment in the country. The history of the 
school-movement among the Mcnnonites 
of Kansas and Nebraska, leading up to 
the highly developed system of today, 
with Bethel College at the head, is of ex- 
ceeding interest. For its beginning one 
must go back to the formation of those 
settlements and note the educational 
spirit of those immigrants, in common 
with their brethren in other parts, 
. brought with them from the old country. 
Institutions for Higher Eiucation 
Among the Pennsylvania-German 
^Mcnnonites and their descendants in this 
and other States, the advancement to- 
ward an appreciation of the value of a 
higher education was much slower than 
among the later immigrants. The aver- 
sion to higher institutions of learning 
mentioned earlier in this article was 
deep-seated and hard to overcome. The 
efforts of those who sought to lead in 
this direction met at times with sore dis- 
appointment, the usual lot of pioneer ef- 
forts in all lines of progress. However, 
notwithstanding the slow pace and the 
almost stubborn conservatism to be over- 
come, the efforts were not without avail. 
Some of them were later turned into 
other channels, where the impulses start- 
ed by Mcnnonites helped along the gen- 
eral movement for higher education. A 
striking example in this line was the 
school started by Abraham Hunsicker 
under the name of Freeland Seminarv, 
out of which developed the present Ur- 
sinus College, at Collogeville. Of the 
founding of this school in 184S the son 
of the founder writes : 

Having been called to the ministry he real- 
ized his insufficiency to meet properly the re- 
sponsibilities of so important a calling. His 
min.d was at once directed to making provision 
for the better education of young men in gen- 
eral, and especially those of his own denomi- 

Twenty years later the first distinctly 
^^ennonite school for higher education 
was founded by the united efforts of a 
number of Mennonite congregations in 



Pennsylvania and other States, the 
school being located at Wadsworth, 
Ohio. In this movement, John PI. Ober- 
holtzer, himself a teacher of many years' 
experience in congregational and com- 
munity schools and a leading minister of 
the church in this State, was one of the 
leading spirits. For twelve years the 
school at Wadsworth under the direction 
of the united congregations, known as 
the General Conference, did good work 
in the line of academic and religious in- 
struction, and though it then closed its 
doors for lack of sufficient patronage and 
financial support, owing largely to other 
reasons than indifference to higher edu- 
cation, the influence of the school did not 
die with the institution. Several Men- 
nonite schools of today are in a large 
measure indebted for their existence and 

success to the impulse received and the 
lessons learned in the Wadsworth ex- 

Besides Bethel College at Newton, 
Kansas, and the Preparatory School at 
Mountain Lake, Minnesota, already men- 
tioned, there are the following promin- 
ent Mennonite institutions for higher 
education in successful operation: Cen- 
tral Mennonite College, at Bluffton, 
Ohio, and Goshen College, at Goshen. 
Indiana. ^Mennonite youth are found in 
many seminaries, colleges and universi- 
ties and in ]Mennonite pulpits today are 
found young men who have studied in 
undenominational institutions as well as 
in the schools of other denominations. 
The old indifference to scholastic train- 
ing for the ministry, as well as other 
callings, has in part passed away. 

The German Baptist Brethren's ^'Church-Schoor' 


The Pennsylvania-German in History 

UNTIL comparatively recent times 
the Pennsylvania-German, as 
such, had little or no recogni- 
tion upon the pages of history. If any 
notice was given him there, it was usu- 
ally uncomplimentary, even discredit- 
able. When the Pennsylvania-German 
Society was organized a little more than 
a dozen years ago, with the avowed pur- 
pose of thoroly investigating the part 
this people had played in the upbuilding 
of our Commonwealth, its publications 
amazed the uninitiated and roused wide- 
spread interest in the United States and 

That the Pennsylvania-German has a 
religious history is not strange. Many 
of his ancestors came hither for religious 
reasons. They fled from the ravages of 
war and persecution in the fatherland to 
enjoy the civil and religious freedom of 
the New World. Still it is a matter of 
surprise to many to learn how much of 
our religious life to-day is due to the 
molding influence of our pious German 

Our Forefathers' Life and Character 
Recent historians have made some as- 
tonishing claims for the character and 
services of. the Pennsylvania-German. 
Not many years ago he was without 
name or fame, each succeeding genera- 
tion seeming to come and go unnoticed 
by the larger world outside. Now all tliis 
has changed. The veil of the past has 
been lifted, and we have been permitted 
to behold wonderful things. That un- 
known and unhonored German has 
sprung out of the dead past into a living 
reality. We have seen our. own forefa- 
thers, among the early German immi-* 
grants, land upon these wild, unhospit- 
able shores. We have watched tho-e 
sturdy and devout home-builders pa-s 
into the trackless forests, to erect their 
homes and churches, lay out their fiekis 
and gardens. They had rough hands and 
strong muscles, but underneath their 
rough exterior they bore noble purpo-cs 
and lofty aims. In their log dwellings 
they laid deep the foundations of the 
Christian home, the richest legacy thoy 
have left us. Whether under tlic canopy 



of heaven, in the sheltering shade of the 
trees or in their little churches of log or 
stone, they brought into their services 
the sweetest songs of praise and the pur- 
est spirit of worship. 

Their Educational Needs and Struggles 
To many perhaps the most astonishing 
claims yet made for the Pennsylvania- 
Germans are the facts set forth in this 
Symposium concerning their early strug- 
gles for education. Some would imag- 
ine those hardy settlers to have been 
children of nature, like their barbaric 
neighbors, the red men of the forest. 
They settled in the midst of nature in all 
its wildness in order to subdue and tame 
this wildness, so that nature in all its 
richness and fullness might minister unto 
them. Amid surroundings that produced 
neither comfort nor plenty, the courage 
of our German forefathers made their 
environments harmonize with their no- 
bler selfhood. They were not unlettered ; 
they had been taught and disciplined for 
centuries. Large experience had en- 
abled them to know their needs and to 
I)rovide for them. This was true, npt 
only with regard to material resources, 
but in educational matters also. 

In the foregoing I have described con- 
ditions as they existed, not only among 
the Brethren, but in agricultural com- 
munities generally. ]\Iany there were 
who felt the need of schools and educa- 
tional facilities of some kind, but the 
problem was hard to solve, among the 
r>rethren as well as among others. There 
were individual efforts, but as there was 
no government aid or organized means 
of school-support, many a brave attempt 
was defeated by discouragement. 
The •'Church-School"— Position of the Brethren 

The Christian Church must ever take 
the advance steps in Christian civiliza- 
tion. The ''church-school." as the, mo- 
ther of the public school, is an interest- 
ing study and has a complex history. It 
was not always the same in character. 
In some denominations it was entirely a 
creature of the church, local or more 
Is^tncral, being absolutely under the 
ehurch\s government and' control. In 
^ome cases it was rather an individual 

eft'ort, but receiving church sanction, and 
so it became a "church-school" by official 
endorsement. In this light we must view 
educational efforts in the German Bap- 
tist Brethren's church, prior to the pub- 
lic schools. It is not strange therefore 
that the colleges of the Brethren to-day 
are "church-schools" only by official en- 

The object of the foregoing remarks 
was to present educati<:)nal conditions in 
agricultural regions, which the Baptist 
Brethren so largely occupied. 1 do not 
wish to claim for these a position in ad- 
vance of other denominations. The 
country was naturally slower than the 
town to take forward steps in education. 
It is an easy matter to overestimate his- 
torical claims, but I have no desire to 
overdraw the picture. It is not neces- 
sary. I know that a proper presentation 
of the Brethren's early educational ef- 
forts will give them a creditable position. 
Community Schools — Germantown a Center 
In some churches there were com- 
munity-schools, a sort of church or 
union schools, established by the united 
eft'orts of churches or of individuals. 
The Brethren joined in some such efforts 
by communities. The Germantown 
Academy, which has existed a century 
and a half, has a very interesting history. 
It is a most- notable school of its kind. 
Some Brethren were early identitied 
with this work, assisting in the financial 
support of the Academy. 

Germantown was the first congrega- 
tion organized in Anierica. the "mother 
church." Therefore it naturally became 
the center of influence for the Brethren's 
denomination and remained such for 
more than a hundred years. German- 
town, so justly celebrated for her wealth 
of interesting history, occupies a place 
of imperishable fame. Her printing- 
presses produced the first German Bibles 
published in America : from there came 
also the early hynmbooks and other pub- 
lications. Germantown was the stand- 
ard-bearer of progress in those days. 
"The Select School" — Susan Douglas, Teacher 
It is only proper, therefore, that I 
should j^o to Germantown for the con- 



6611 Germautown Avenue. Philadelphia 

Crete Illustration of which we know 
most and which constitutes the type, as 
it' were, of the ''church-school" among 
the German Baptist Brethren. It was 
familiarly and locally known as "The 
Select School." It is impossible in this 
connection to trace its full history, and 
I shall offer onlv a few facts relatins: to 
its existence and work, to illustrate our 

Susan Douglas, a member of the Ger- 
mautown congregation, was the well 
beloved teacher of this school. To have 
been her pupil meant to be her lifelong 
friend. Being a most successful teacher, 
she was very popular and had a large 
school, sometimes numbering seventy 
pupils. In those days copies were set by 
hand, instead of being printed, as they 
are now. Some years ago the daughter 
of Sister Douglas, Rachel Douglas Wise, 
then over eighty years of age, told how 
as a young girl she used to set the copies 
for her mother, in order to have them 
ready for the day's session. Sometimes 
she would begin setting copies at four 
o'clock in the mornincr. 

A "Church-School" in the Parsonage 
This school, taught by a member of 
the church, needed no further official en- 
dorsement to mark it as a "church- 
school" than permission to be held on 
the church-grounds and in the church- 
house, or parsonage. Here was remark- 
able activity and work under the direct- 
ing control of the church. The church- 
property was located at what is now 
Nos. 66ii and 6613 Germantown avenue. 
Philadelphia. At the east end of the 
yard was the stone church, which is still 
standing. On the north side was the 
Old Folks' Home. Facing the home, on 
the south side, was the parsonage, in 
which was the school. A triangular 
space formed a sort of open court for 
these three buildings, representing the 
threefold church activity of education, 
charity and worship. 

While residing in the old parsonage 
during my pastorate it was my rare gck^d 
fortune to be familiarly associated with 
the old schoolroom. It was then divided 
into two parts, one of which was the din- 
ing-room, the other my studv. Here I 




met more than one person of ripe old age 
who related with youthful enthusiasm 
some of his experiences and recalled 
j)lcasing' incidents of the days spent 
in that schoolroom. Most interesting as 
well as most remarkable was the testi- 
mony of these people concerning the 
branches taught and the character of the 
work done by this teacher of almost a 
century ago. Such a conception of edu- 
cation as she had would do credit to a 
modern master of pedagogy. 

The work did not stop with practical 
instruction in "the three R's." In addi- 

tion to these and other common branches 
due consideration was given to laying 
the foundation for industrial and artistic 
traininsf. Scwincr and fancv-work were 
taught, also drawing and painting. 

The public free school came at last. 
This ''church-school," so eminently suc- 
cessful, had served its purpose and serv- 
ed it well; Sister Douglas dismissed her 
school and, as she and her pupils walked 
out of the parsonage forever, they closed 
the most triumphal chapter in the history 
of the education of the German Baptist 
Brethren's church. 

Neighborhood-Schools or Pay-Schools 


WHILE the German religious de- 
nominations represented by the 
early settlers in the State built 
many schoolhouses and maintained many 
schools, while church and school were 
planted together in almost every com- 
nnmity where a congregation of like 
faith could be collected large enough to 
sustain them, yet the number of schools 
established in this way was entirely in- 
adequate to the accommodation of all 
tlie children who desired to obtain an ed- 
ucation. Had there been a school at 
every church, many children lived at too 
great a distance to attend it. But vast 
sections of thinly settled country were 
wholly without churches, and in others 
the churches were so scattered that they 
could not be reached by young children 
going to school. xAdults frequently trav- 
eled to church on horseback or in wag- 
•Mis five or even ten miles : it was im- 
possible for little boys and girls to walk 
^uch long distances, often through un- 
broken forests. Hence arose multitudes 
of schools, sometimes composed of the 
children of a single family or of several 
families, and generally growing into 
schools of little communities or neigh- 
borhoods. Such schools may appropri- 
ately be called neighborhood-schools, al- 
though widely known by the name of 
pay-schools or subscription-schools. 

^n proportion to population, the neigh- 
'>'>r]i()od schools were fewest in the old- 

ata and over the Alleghenie 
gling socially 

est settled parts of the State : for as the 
people moved west into the Cumberland 
vallev, aloiig- the Susquehanna and Juni- 

and in business, out of 
common toils, common interests, there 
necessarily came to be common schools.* 
I\Ic]\Iaster, in his History of the Peo- 
ple of the United States, speaking of the 
educational condition of America direct- 
ly after the close of the Revolutionary 
War, states that "in Xew York and 
Pennsylvania a schoolhouse was never 
to be seen outside of a village or a 
town." He is mistaken. In Pennsyl- 
vania there was scarcely a neighborhood 
without on.e. At the time of the adop- 
tion of the common school system, in 
1834, there must have been at least four 
thousand schoolhouses in the State, built 
by the volunteer contributions of the 
people in their respective neighborhoods. 
Thoroughly republican in principle, these 
schools of the people grew apace with 
the progress of republican sentiment, and 
it only required the legislation of after 
years to perfect the form and systematize 
the working of what had already in 
substance been voluntarily adopted by 
thousands of communities throughout 
the State. Such schools were at that dav 

*n.v a rt'ferenoe to the new<pap«=rs of the time we 
rind tlKit the lis^ts of sv.l>sor:*-«rrs <s.r.t.<iineJ iiliiit Oer- 
man naiiios as woll as Tra-iiti >n d-'wn 
by our ciand fathers anJ crini!a:.'lhf rs telU us that 
thero were nian.v such schools In the German coanties. 



without precedent. They were estab- 
lished by the early colonists only from 
necessity; but as the people of differ- 
ent denominations and of none mingled 
more and more togetlier, their sectarian 
prejudices and customs of exclusiveness 
acquired across the sea began to wear 
away, and they finally discovered that 
neither sect, nor class, nor race, need 
stand in the way of the cordial union of 
all in the education of their children. 

The early schools established by the 
people for themselves were at first neces- 
sarily crude in organization, narrow in 
their course of instruction, poorly taught 
and kept in rooms or houses often ex- 
temporized for the purpose and seldom 
possessing any but the roughest accom- 
modations. xAs a class they were infe- 
rior to the church-schools, for these 
were generally supervised by the minis- 
ters, who sought to engage the best qual- 
ified teachers that could be found and to 
insure good behavior and fair progress 
in learning on the part of the pupils. As 
at the church-schools, but probably v/ith 
less discrimination, those able to pay for 
tuition did so, while the children of those 
unable to pay were admitted almost 
everywhere gratuitously. Doubtless 
many children remained away from 
school whose parents were too poor to» 
pay for their schooling and yet too proud 
to accept charity ; but be it said to the 
credit of the schools of all kinds in 
Pennsylvania from the earliest times, 
that inability to pay tuition-fees never 
closed their doors asfainst deservinsf 
children desiring admission. The educa- 
tional policy of the people of Pennsyl- 
vania for one hundred and fifty years 
after the coming of Penn was to make 
those who were able to do so pay for the 
education of their children and to edu- 
cate the children of all others free, and 
the few known departures from this 
policy on the part of either church or 

neighborhood-schools make the record a 
noble one. 

A school was frequently started in 
this wise. The most enterprising man 
among the settlers in a community, hav- 
ing children to educate, would call upon 
his ncighlx)rs with a proposition to es- 
tablish a school. This being well re- 
ceived, a meeting of those interested was 
called and a committee or a board of 
trustees appointed, whose duty it was to 
procure a suitable room or, if so direct- 
ed, build a schoolhouse, ascertain the 
number of children who would attend 
the school, fix the tuition-fee, employ a 
teacher, and in a general way manage 
the school. The trustees were usually 
elected at an annual meeting, composed 
of those who patronized the school or 
contributed towards the erection of the 
schoolhouse. Women sometimes at- 
tended and took part in such meetings. 
As land cheap, a site for the school- 
house was in most cases obtained v/ith- 
out cost, and the house itself was not in- 
frequently erected almost wholly by the 
gratuitous labor of those most interested. 
Skilled in such work, it is said that it 
was not uncommon for a party of set- 
tlers to construct a rough log cabin, 
which they deemed suitable for a school- 
house, in a single day. When money 
was needed for building purposes, it was 
raised by voluntary subscription. 

XoTE. — There are few communities in the 
German counties of Pennsylvania in which do 
not linger the names of German schoolmasters 
who taught the neighborhood-school for years. 
They were not itinerants, like the Yankee 
teachers, but residents of the community, 
known far and wide as wise counselors of the 
youth and safe keepers of their morals. The 
curriculum of those schools was about the 
same as that of the church-schools. Many 
families still treasure as relics the German 
Xew Testament and Psalter, the arithmetic 
(such as Enos Benner's in German or Pikes 
in Plnglish'l. cyphering-books. copy-books and 
notebook (for musical instruction) used by 
some ancestor while attemiing the oldtimc 
subscription-school. — L. S. S. 

An Ancient Sickle 

Amy H. Diehl, of AUentown, thirteen years 
old, lately became tiie owner of a sickle made 
at Emaus in Revolutionary days by J. Christ, 
whose name is stamped upon the blade. It 
was bought in 1776 by Matthew Kern, of Mil- 

ford, who left it to his son David. Daniel X 
Kern, a grandson of the t\rst owner, in lS«i5 
gave it to his daughter. Mrs. Henry H. Dichl. 
the mother of the present owner. The sickle i*? 
nearly two feet long and in excellent condi- 



General John Frederic Hartranft, 

Union Leader and Governor of Pennsylvania 

(See Frontispiece Portrait and Autograph.) 

A SOLDIER from necessity, like 
Washington ; successful in arms 
by prudence, courage and pa- 
triotism. As a politician, shrewd, cau- 
tious and lucky. In statesmanship or 
j)olicy, a friend of the common people by 
instinct, like Jefferson. As a citizen, 
looking to* the public good rather than to 
his own emolument." This is the 
summing up of the character of John F. 
Hartranft in M. Auge's Lives of Promi- 
nent Citizens of Montgomery County, 
Pa., from which much of the material of 
the following sketch has been taken. In 
our galaxy of famous Pennsylvania- 
Germans his place is indisputable. 

His Ancestry and Education 

John Frederic Hartranft, seventeenth 
Governor of the State of Pennsylvania, 
was born December i6, 1830, at New 
Hanover, Montgomery county, Pa., as 
the only son of Samuel Engel and Lydia 
Bucher Hartranft. He was of German 
origin, being a descendant in the sixth 
generation of Tobias Hertteranfft* and 
his wife Barbara, nee Jackel, two of the 
Schwenkfelder refugees who landed Sep- 
tember 22, 1734, at Philadelphia, to seek 
and find in Penn's new colony the free- 
dom of worship which had been denied 
them in their Silesian homes. 

Young Hartranft, always a quiet, 
thoughtful, manly boy, was educated in 
Marshall College at Mercersburg, Pa., 
and in Union College at Schenectady, 
^'. Y., where he graduated in 1S53. Lie 
was proficient in mathematics and short- 
ly after graduation was engaged as 
civil engineer to survey the line for rail- 
roads from Chestnut Hill to New Hope 
by way of Doylestown and from Mauch 
Chunk to Whitehaven. After he had 
'served four years as deputy-sheriflF of 

'The derivation of this name is srlven as follows In a 
•«rnian book on names: .\u ancestor of the familv 
*«'» nanird Uart Ragonfrid, Hart meanini; bold anil 
««4;enfrid powerful In peace. Aocordinc to common 
';'«"*:•• tlie family. niimo nas abbreviated to Rauft. 
««-Qit. aamph, and combined with Hart. 

his native county, he studied law and 
was admitted to the bar October 4, i860. 
Upon the outbreak of the Rebellion, im- 
mediately after President Lincoln's call 
for 75,(XXD men, he ofifered his services 
to Governor Curtin as colonel of a regi- 
ment of militia, which was mustered into 
service as the Fourth of Pennsylvania, 
April 20, 1 861. This regiment was sent 
to join the army of the Potomac under 
General Butler, as soon as equipped. Its 
three months' term expired shortly be- 
fore the battle of Bull Run, but Colonel 
Hartranft continued in the service and 
took part in the battle as an aide to 
Colonel, afterwards General, Franklin. 

Distinguished Military Services 

In November, 1861, Colonel Hart- 
ranft was mustered into service anew as 
commander of the Fifty-first regiment 
of Pennsylvania Volunteers and sent to 
North Carolina, where he took part in 
the battle of Roanoke Island. His regi- 
ment fought in the second battle of Bull 
Run,* at Chantilly, South 2^Ioantain and 
Antietam.f Then it was sent to the 

•On the last night of the second battle of Bull Run 
when the Union line had been broken and the army 
was in full flight toward Ale:sandria. his regiment — 
which was among the last to leave the tield — was sur- 
rounded by a large furce of the eueaiy and a sur- 
render was demanded. He immediately auswfred; "No, 
never!" adding "Follow me, my men." and htmseir 
leading the way, his command broke through the line 
and escaped.— Biographical Encyclopedia of Pennsyl- 

■fit is mortifying to remember that tkKvker, of the 
right wing of tlie (Utiion) army, was k«.pt engaged 
alone at Antietam until late in the day and then, to 
turn the tide of battle, our Kitty-first and other brive 
troops were remorselessly slaughtered at the bridge. 
During all those weary hours of con'.bat fifteen thou- 
sand of our men stood aside aud never pulled a trig- 
ger. . . . Other troops had been repulstd In the 
attempt to take the bridge, when .McClelian sent word 
that it must be carried. So General Ferrer came 
dashing up and said: "t;eneral Bumside orders the 
Fifty-tiist rennsylvania. Col. Hartranft. to storm the 
bridge." Kurnside knew from what he had seen of 
that regiment in North Carvdina that he Oi>uld rely 
upon it for a forlorn hope, and . . the result shv>w- 
ed that he did not err in the choice. The three prin- 
cipal otlicors dashed over with their men. and the 
key to the battle was secured, but with the loss of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Bell killed and Captain Bolton des- 
perately wounded, also tl;e sacritioe of many other 
valuable lives. The actual casualties were twenty- 
one killed and fifty-eight wounded, whose names are 
in the report, tho the otliclal account places the num- 
ber of both at one hundr>?d twenty-Bve, — .\u((« in 
Lives of rromlnent Citiieus of Montsomery County. P». 



West and took part in the siege of Vicks- 
burg. There Cok:)nel Ilartranft was 
prostrated by the cliniatc and compelled 
to go to the hospital. 

In November, 1863, he rejoined the 
Union army at Knoxville, which was 
successfully held by his engineering 
skill. Early in January, 1864, the Fifty- 
first regiment came home on a thirty 
day's furlough. Having such a com- 
mander and such a record, it was quickly 
recruited by new men and the re-enlist- 
ment of battle-scarred veterans. When 
it rendezvoused at Annapolis, Md., the 
Ninth corps, numbering 20,000 men, 
was, in the absence of Burnside, as- 
signed to Colonel Ilartranft, a high but 
deserved honor to a man who, from the 
neglect of his government or by reason 
of his own modesty, had during import- 
ant battles acted as major-general, tho 
but a colonel in rank. 

Finally Colonel Flartranft was sent to 
join Grant's army in \'irginia, with 
which he took part in the battle of the 
Wilderness and other sanguinary strug- 
gles. May 12, 1864, almost two years 
after Antietam, he was appointed brig- 
adier-general. For his gallantry in com- 
manding the Third division of the Ninth 
corps during . the attack upon Fort 
Steadman, March 25, 1865, he was 
brevetted as major-general. His bri- 
gade had the honor of marching into 
Petersburg, when this town had fallen 
into the hands of the Federal troops, and 
himself was surnamed the Hero of Fort 

GeneraV Hartranft's war record was a 
brilliant one. During his service in the 
Union ariuy he took j^iart in the follow- 
ing battles: P^irst battle of Bull Run, 
Va., July 21, 186 1 : Roanoke Island. N. 
C. February 8, 1862; second battle of 
Bull Run, Va., August 30, 1862 ; Chan- 
tilly, Va., September i, 1862; South 
Mountain, ^Td., September 14, 1862; 
Antietam, Aid., Se])tember 17, 1862 ; 
Fredericksburg. \'a., December 13, 1862; 
Vicksburg, Miss., July 4, 1863 : Jackson, 
Miss., July TO, 1863 : Campbell's Sta- 
tion, Tenn., November 16. '1863 ; Knox- 
ville, November 29, 1863 : Wilderness, 
Va., May 6, 1864 ; Spottsylvania, \'a.. 

May 8-12, 1864; North Anna River, 
\'a., May, 1864; Cold Harbor, \'a., 
June 3, 1864; Petersburg, \'a., June 17 
and 18, 1864 ; explosion of mine at Pe- 
tersburg, July 30, 1864: Weldon Rail- 
road, Va., August 18, 1864; Ream's Sta- 
tion, \^a., August 25, 1864; Poplar 
Spring Church, \'a., September 30, i8'")4 ; 
Hatcher's Run, Va., October 27-29. 
1864; Fort Steadman, \'a., March 2^. 
1865 ; Richmond, Va., April 2, 1865. 

Upon the close of the Civil War Gen- 
eral Ilartranft was ordered to Washing- 
ton, where he was charged with the exe- 
cution of Payne. Haruld, Atzerott and 
]\Irs. Surratt, who had been condenmed 
to death for conspiring to kill President 
Lincoln, Secretary of State Seward and 
other heads of the Federal government. 

His Political Career 

In acknowledgment of his valuable 
services General Hartranft was given 
unasked the appointment of colonel of 
the Thirty-fourth regiment of Regular 
Infantry, then stationed in Kentucky, 
but declined. September 17. 1865. he 
was nominated by the Republican State 
convention at Harrisburg as auditor 
general of Pennsylvania and elected to 
this office twice in succession. In 187 1 
he declined a third nomination, and 
Colonel David Stanton was elected his 
successor : but when Stanton died after- 
wards, the Legislature decided to con- 
tinue Hartranft in office until the fol- 
lowing year. April 10. 1872, General 
Hartranft was nominated by the Repub- 
lican State convention as Governor of 
Pennsylvania, and elected the following 
autumn with a plurality of 35.5.37 votes 
above his Democratic opponent, Charlo> 
R. Buckalew. Three years later, in 1875. 
he was re-elected, defeating Cyrus L. 
Pershing. Democrat, with 12.030 votes. 
thus serving two successive terms, from 
1873 to 1S70. I'pon his retirement from 
the Governor's chair President Hayo< 
appointed him postmaster of Philadel- 
phia : July 15, 1880, he was made col- 
lector of the port of Philadelphia. This 
ofHce he held until July, 1885, when John 
Cadwaladcr became his successor. 

The last public office held by General 
Hartranft was that of a member of tho 



Cherokee Indian Commission in June 
and July, 1889. Still later he was named 
as the successor of Commissioner of 
Tensions Tanner, but declined the ap- 

General Hartranft as Governor 

General Hartranft possessed great ex- 
ecutive ability and performed the duties 
of every office he held with efficiency 
and courage. In his first inaugural ad- 
dress as Governor, January 22, 1873, he 
drew, particular attention to the growing 
evil of special legislation for private 
ends, and at the assembling of the Legis- 
lature of 1874 vetoed eighty-two bills of 
this character in a single day. Lie also 
advised that the power of pardoning 
convicts be lodged with a State board, 
which has since been done. The severest 
test of his whole military and civil ca- 
reer was the task of quelling the terrible 
railroad-riots that, like an electrical tem- 
pest, sw-ept over the country in 1877. By 
ordering out the whole military powder 
of the State at once and appealing also 
to the Federal government for help he 
met the trouble as Washington did the 
Whiskey Rebellion — frightening the riot- 
ers at the outset. The result proved the 
wisdom of his measures ; after the Gov- 
ernor arrived on the scene of disorder 
scarcely a life was sacrificed either by 
the military or the people. W^ith great 
earnestness Governor Hartranft recom- 
mended the founding of industrial 
schools and compulsory education, also 
maritime schools, in which idle young 
l)oys might be trained into seamen. His 
urgent appeals for the insane were sec- 

onded by the Legislature and the grand 
hospitals erected at Xorristown and 
Warren are the result. Another public 
measure which he advocated was the 
scheme of postal savings-banks, to be 
operated by the National government. 

His Death and Burial 

General Hartranft belonged to many 
associations, such as the L'nion League, 
the German Society of Pennsylvania, 
the Swiss Charitable Society and others. 
He died at his home in Xorristown, Pa., 
October 17, 18S9, after having been bed- 
fast about ten days. He had been suf- 
fering with kidney-trouble for some 
time, but the immediate cause of death 
was an attack of pneumonia. He was 
sincerely niourned by hosts of personal 
and political friends, particularly by his 
former comrades in arms, the members 
of the Loyal Legion and the Grand 
Army of the Republic, as well as of the 
State militia, whose commander-in- 
chief he had been for a long time. His 
remains were buried October 21, with 
imposing military and civic honors, in the 
municipal cemetery of Xorristown. A 
handsome monument, erected by the Na- 
tional Guard of Pennsylvania, marks his 

In person General Hartranft was tall, 
of dignified, commanding appearance, 
dark complexion, with fine prominent 
eyes, well preserved by temperance and 
sobriety. He was married January 26, 
1854, to Sallie Douglas Sebring, daugh- 
ter of Hon. William L. Sebring, of 
Easton, who survived him with two sons 
and two daughters. 

The First Two German Settlers in Pennsylvania 

The following article was coniributed to the 
I'lniilicn-Freuud of Milford Square. Pa., in 
'^M hy H. B. S., who states tlie substance of 
>t was gathered from a little history belonging 
'<» Mr. I). K. Cassel, of Xicetown. Philaclel- 
!'hia.— Ed. 

AT the beguming of the year 16S0 
two bright, sturdy young Ger- 
mans sat together confidentially 
talking in an inn of Rotterdam, on the 
<"^'ast of Holland. They appeared nuich 
pleased, and ^heir beaming faces showed 

that the subject of their conversation 
nuist be of an agreeable nature. 

One of these men was aged about 
twenty-four and named Heinrich Frey. 
The other, Joseph Plattenbach. was two 
years younger. 

Frey was a carpenter. Plattenbach a 
blacksmith. When they had finished 
their apprenticeships, they went to Hol- 
land, which was said to be a good field 
for competent workmen. On reaching 




Holland, however, they were badly dis- 
appointed, for in spite of dili.c^ent seek- 
ing they could not find employment. 
Then a baker advised them to go to 
America, where a certain Mr. Penn had 
been granted a large tract of land by the 
king of England, which tract he pro- 
posed to call Pennsylvania and in which 
he was about to found a city. This city 
was to be built between two beautiful 
streams, the Dela\vare and the Schuyl- 
kill, and to be called Philadelphia, or 
City of Brotherly Love. 

Upon hearing this advice those two 
Germans quicklv decided to go to Amer- 
ica, sailing in the ship ]\larcus. After a 
voyage of eighty-eight days the shores 
of the western w^orld came in sight, and 
they sailed up Delaware Bay. Here and 
there on both sides of the river they per- 
ceived little cabins and men busily toiling 
near them. 

Soon after their arrival Frey and Plat- 
tenbach built a carpenter-and-blacksmith 
shop near a beautiful spring, in the shade 
of an enormous chestnut-tree, upon the 
spot now at Front and Arch streets. One 
day, while they were busily hammering, 
a stalwart young Indian appeared at the 
door of the smithy and looked on with 
genuine astonishment, as the two pale- 
faced men struck the red-hot iron, mak- 
ing the sparks fly, and finally beat it into 
shape. When the blacksmith perceived 
the w^ondering savage standing at the 
door, he kindly beckoned him to draw 
near. Then he showed him an ax, a hoe 
and a big knife, and explained to him by 
various signs that these things had been 
made out of red-hot iron — all of which 
still increased the young red man's won- 
derment. Early the next morning he re- 
appeared at the door of the smithv, and 
these visits were repeated regularly for 
several weeks. When he saw there was 
something heavy to hold or to carry, he 
was always ready to give help. 

It was now late in the fall and the In- 
dians' season for hunting big game, their 
harvest-time, had come. x\s Minsi 
Usquerat had joined these hunts every 
year since his boyhood, he requested his 
white friends and employers to allow 
him to assist his fellow-tribesmen in their 

camp in their preparations for the chase. 
The two German settlers gave the Indi- 
ans a number of objects made of iron, 
which excited their wonder to the high- 
est degree. At that time the Indians had 
hardly any knowledge of iron, their ar- 
rows, battle-axes, knives and the like be- 
ing fashioned out of hard stone. When 
all preparations for the hunt were com- 
pleted, about a hundred sturdy, well 
equipped men gathered on the spot, pro- 
posing to go as far as the Blue Moun- 
tains. There game was still found in 
large numbers, especially in the valleys 
adjoining: the mountain-ridge, in what is 
now^ Lehigh and Northampton county. 

The winter of 1680-8 1 was a terrible 
time for the settlers on the Delaware. 
Both Delaware and Schuylkill were 
frozen over for a long time ; the snow- 
storms were so unusually severe that for 
several days the settlers could not go 
from one cabin to another, and the cat- 
tle suffered greatly, because it was so 
difficult to bring them food. Before the 
cold weather set in. however, the In- 
dians had returned from their hunting- 
expedition to the north, heavily laden 
w^ith game, and before the snow covered 
the paths their chief returned the kind- 
ness of the Genuans by sending them a 
present of skins of bears, deer and foxes, 
also of excellent deer's meat, and re- 
questing them to visit the Indian village 
as soon as the cold weather would end. 

On a beautiful spring morning, when 
the earth was beginning to renew her 
garb of flowers and verdure and the 
leaves were unfolding upon the trees, our 
two Germans and their young Indian 
friend left the settlement on the Dela- 
ware to visit the Indian village. They 
bore manv presents which thev had made 
during the long, hard winter. If the 
Lenni Lenapes — bv which name the In- 
dian tribe living there was known — had 
been surpriseil by the presents sent bv 
the Germans in the fall, their astonish- 
ment hardly knew any bounds when thev 
received those saws, hanuners. spears. 
knives, hoes and planes, and were shown 
how to use them. 

Before leaving Rotterdam our two 
young Germans had bought two guns 



and laid in a good store of ammunition. 
They now decided to add one of these 
i^uns to the presents they were bringing 
tlie savages. The young Indian who had 
spent the winter with them had thoroly 
learned the use of a gun while out hunt- 
ing, and now began to show his copper- 
colored brethren how to handle the ''ma- 
cliinc." First he showed them the black 
j^rains of powder, took some in his hand 
and let them roll into the barrel so that 
a!i could see. Then he made a paper 
wad and rammed it down hard with a 
nul upon the powder. Next he rolled a 
hall down the barrel, put a wad on this 
also, then lifted the gun, opened the 
touch-pan and poured some black grains 
on that. The savages watched all these 
j)rtxecdings with profound attention. 
lUit when Joseph stept aside, raised the 
<;un, took aim and pulled the trigger, 
and they saw the flash and heard the re- 
port, most of them ran away in fear, be- 
lieving that Joseph had drawn thunder 
and lightning from heaven. 

Next morning the chief requested the 
two Germans to take a walk with him. 
They walked to the top of a hill which 
oflered a charming prospect of the sur- 
rounding country. There the chief stood 
still and began to speak. ''You pale- 
faced men," he said, "have not come to 
disturb our peace, to cheat us or to teach 
lis bad manners, and as we are the own- 
t'rs of all this region, we have decided to 
make you a present of a fine tract of this 
land. Will you accept the gift? As it 
i^ given with a good heart, answer Yes." 

The Germans answered with a hearty 
^^.*s, stept up to the chief and grasped 
hi^ hand. The tract, which was beauti- 
fi'Hv l<)cated, was then paced oft", and the 
limits were marked by cutting chips from 
^rccs. When this was done the Germans 
called their land Au\fgchcnde Sonne, Ris- 
niLT Sun, a name which it has kept until 

Irey and Plattenbach now received 
J'-ttcrs from their parents by way of Rot- 
^^rdam, conveving hearty greetings, 
njose letters were not read, however, un- 
^d they had eaten a meal; it was consid- 

ered proper to eat before receiving news, 
which might easily spoil one's appetite. 

The Indian village stood where now 
the railroad leading to Germantown 
winds around a hill below the town of 
Rising Sun. There, according to tradi- 
tion, the cabin and smithy of those two 
German settlers still stood during the 
Revolutionary War. 

At length these Germans were greatly 
surprised by the arrival of their parents, 
brothers and sisters from Fleilbronn. 
They were glad to find their kinsmen so 
unexpectedly in the Indian village and 
came hurriedly to meet them. When 
everything was arranged, Frey and Plat- 
tenbach decided to visit the land given 
them by the Indians with their parents, 
return thanks for it and inspect it care- 
fully. A short inspection convinced them 
that the soil was excellent for the culti- 
vation of grain, and they resolved to 
make their dwelling there. 

Two years had scarcely elapsed since 
the families of F^rey and Plattenbach had 
moved to their new home. Every Sun- 
day the two young men would come up 
from Philadelphia to -visit them on the 
farms, where they were always received 
with joy. As a result of these frequent 
visits little Cupid began to put in his 
work. Plattenbach was passionately 
fond of fair Eliza Frey, and Heinrich 
Frey would not live longer without the 
lovely Maria Plattenbach. As the girls 
reciprocated these feelings, an agreement 
was soon reached. A day was set for 
the double wedding, and a young minis- 
ter just arrived from Germany, Julius 
Falkner. united the two couples on the 
farms of Rising Sun. 

The families of Frey and Plattenbach 
lived long, happy and contented upon 
their farms and in Philadelphia, until 
death severed their tender ties and re- 
turned them to the dust, from which thev 
had sprung. The widow of Heinrich 
Frey is said to have lived as late as 1754 
in Germantown, and many of her de- 
scendants are still living in Philadelphia. 
The family of Plattenbach, however, 
seems to be extinct. 



Bernville: A Historical Sketch 

Note. — This paper is based on the Program 
and Souvenir Book published by the Program 
Committee of Bernville's Old Home Week, 
August 4-10, 1907, mention of which was made 
in our September issue. — Ed. 

r~i"^ HE . origin and early history of 
i Bernville is shrouded in the ob- 
scnrity common to many notable 
places. Authentic records of its early 
history are scant indeed. Of its numer- 
ous traditions by far the most interesting 
is that which tells how John Penn, Con- 
rad Weiser and Stephanus Umbenhauer 
were associated in a movement for a new 
county, to be called Tulpehocken, with 
Bernville' as county-seat. The story pur- 
ports to come from an Umbenhauer di- ' 
ary, but if such a diary ever existed all 
trace of it is now lost. This is all the 
more to be regretted because the early 
history of the town is indissolubly con- 
nected with the Umbenhauer family. 

i The Umbenhauer Family — Other Early Sst tiers 

/ The first members of this family hail- 
ed from Berne, Switzerland, the two 
brothers. Stephanus and P>lwin, having 
landed in America January 10, 1737. 

i They located in the section which now 

I contains Bernville, Stephanus having 
bought the land from Thomas Penn. 
This land has been handed down to Um- 
benhauer heirs until the present genera- 
tion. Balthaser, or Balzer, inherited the 
original estate of 220 acres upon the 
death of his father, Stephanus, in 1755, 
and left it to his son, Thomas. Next the 
land was successively inherited by Peter 
and William Umbenhauer: at present it 
is owned by Henry, Isaac and Daniel 

j Umbenhauer, the sons of William. The 

•' farm now contains 174 acres. 

Of the early inhabitants of our locality 
hardly more is known than that they 
spoke German and that a considerable 
number came from the canton of Berne, 
in Switzerland. Like other Americans, 
they combined patriotic loyalty to the 
country of their adoption with a loving 
memory of their old home. Our ceme- 
teries afford a graphic record of the lives 

offered in the War for Independence as 
well as in the Rebellion. 

The following are among the more 
familiar early family-names of Bern- 
ville and vicinity : 

Ache, Albright, Auman, Babb, Battcichcr. 
Bayer, Bentz, Bergcr, Bertram, Beyerle. Blatt, 
Bohn, Boyei;, Bright, Bordner, Braun, Brcciit, 
Bross, Brossman, Brownmiller, Burkey, Burk- 
hart, Burns, Christ, Class, Conrad, Cressman, 
Daniels, Degler, Deppen, Dietrich, Dcrr, Dun- 
dorc, Ernst, Fahrenbach, Faust. Feit, Ficgel. 
Filbert, Focht, I'\ichs, Gaukli. Geids, Gerhart, 
Gibson, Gottschall, Grahm, Greenawald, Greim. 
Greth, Griesemer, Groff. Guldin. Haag. Haas, 
Haines, Harbach, Harner, Harpel, Heck. 
Heffeliinger, Henne, Hctrich, Hettinger, -Hine. 
Hollenbach, Hoover, Kalbach, Kaufman, 
Kerchner, Klahr, Klein, Klopp, Koch, Koenig, 
Kreitzer, Loeb, Luckenbill, Ludwig, Machemer. 
]\Ianbeck, Meyer, Miller. Mogel. Moll, Mountz, 
Mover, Xoll, Pleis. Porr, Potteiger, Obold. 
Rebcr, Reich, Renno. Rentschler. Rhine, Rich- 
ard, Richardson, Riesser, Rishel, Roth.ermel. 
Runkle, Rupp, Ruth, Sando, SchaefFer, Schock. 
Shedt, Schroeder, Schwartz, Schweikert, Smith, 
Snavely, Snyder, Speichcr, Stamm, Stehly, 
Stoudt, Strauss, Stump, Tally, Trexler, Um- 
benhauer, Wagner, Weber, Wenrich. Weidner. 
Wengert, Wertman, Wiend, Wilhelm, Witman. 
Yonson, Zerbe, Ziebach. 

Forming Townships — Founding the Town 

For some time the region was known 
by its old Indian name Tulpehocken. 
*Uand of Turtles," a name still borne by 
the creek and a township. Only a year 
after the arrival of Stephanus Umben- 
hauer it was deemed expedient to divide 
Tulpehocken township, and the eastern 
part was named Bern. So rapid was 
the development of the community in tltc 
next fifty years that Bern township was 
divided, with Upper Bern as the name 
for the new section. By 1S41 a new 
township was formed from parts of Bern 
and Upper Bern and named Penn. iii 
honor of the original owner of the land. 
In Penn township Bernville is situated. 

As early as iSio Thomas Unibcn- 
hatier set aside forty-six acres to be di- 
vided into building-lots, sixty-two in all. 
With true economic and artistic fore- 
sight he chose as a site for the new town 
a slight elevation near the continence oi 
the Tulpehocken anil Xorthkill creck>. 









Tlie beauty of the location is still a mat- 
ter of constant remark. August twenty- 
fourth of the same year the tirst six lots 
were bought by Peter Bennethum. Part 
of this ground was then occupied by a 
tannery, the one thriving industry of 
those early days. The new owner built his 
home near by, • and this was the first 
house in the village. Not until January 
22, 1820, did the new towm receive its 
name Bernville, in honor of the birth- 
place of the grandfather of Thomas Um- 
benhauer. In Alarch, . 1820, twenty- 
three more lots were sold. It is said 
that Thomas Umbenhauer, to avoid all 
imputation of unfairness, determined to 
award them by lot. Numbered tickets 
were sold at $30 each and on a certain 
day drawings were held. Each lot was 
originally 60 by 260 feet. In addition to 
the original price of $30, each lot was 
subject to a ground-rent of $16.33 i"3- 
The purchaser could pay this in cash or 
pledge himself to pay one dollar annu- 
ally for an indefinite period. Even in 
our day many lots have still been subject 
to this ground-rent. The names of the 
original purchasers are still preserved. 
Oi the twenty-three lots sold in 1820 
nineteen were almost immediately im- 
proved with houses, and this group may 
he said to have formed the real nucleus 
of the new village. An interesting fea- 
ture of the town-plan was the provision 
^»r a market square in the center: along 

this square all houses were to be set 
back ten feet farther than in the other 
squares, making the street twenty feet 
wider than elsewhere. This additional 
square was never utilized for marketing, 
but it adds much to the beauty of the 

So far as known, the first house in 
what is now the borough of Bernville 
was built by Philip Filbert in 1S20. It 
was a two-story log structure, so sub- 
stantially built that it is still in suffi- 
ciently good repair to be regularly oc- 
cupied. The original logs have been 
weatherboarded, but otherwise it remains 
very much as when first erected. Two 
years later the first store was built, next 
to the Filbert house ; this building, since 
put to various uses, also remains sub- 
stantially the same as when built. The 
first hotel in this section was built by 
Philip Filbert : it is still standing, but no 
longer used as an inn. In the town itself 
the first hotel was built by Samuel Um- 
benhauer in 1825 : it has long since been 
remodeled and is now the residence of 
Dr. John A. Brobst. The second hotel 
was conducted by Datiiel Bentz. 

Bernville's Boom Days — Made a Borough 

While many thriving trades were car- 
ried on in and about tiie town, no great 
boom was experienced until the opening 
of the I'nion Canal in 1S28. When this 
scheme w-as consummated Bern- 




ville entered upon an era of unusual 
prosperity. Prior to the opening of the 
canal, tanning, under the direction of 
Peter Bennethum, was about the only im- 
portant industry. This has been success- 
fully continued ever since until quite re- 
cently, when the old tannery was per- 
manently abandoned. ' 

With increased prosperity there was a 
growing dissatisfaction, about the middle 
of the last century, especially with the 
conditions of the schools and roads. Af- 
ter much deliberation the conclusion was 
reached that the best remedy for all ills 
would be the incorporation of the town 
into a borough. The proposed erection 
of a schoolhouse some distance from the 
town determined the citizens to apply 
for a charter. 

In 1851 the town became a borough, 
the charter having been granted by the 
Legislature in that year. IMore trouble 
arose when it became necessary to de- 
termine the borough-limits, because many 
property-owners just outside of the town 
refused to be included within the new 
grant. The final issue was that only 
that part included in the original plan 
of Thomas Umbenhauer was to consti- 

tute the borough. E. B. Filbert was the 
first burgess and A. R. Koenig the first 

Bernville was now in the heyday of its 
prosperity. Owing to the transportation 
facilities afforded by the Union Canal, 
it soon became the business-center of this 
part of the country. Warehouses were 
erected and coal-and-lumber yards es- 
tablished. Farmers from far and near 
brought their grain and other produce 
to Bernville for shipment to the markets, 
and took home from its well equipped 
stores all the necessaries of life. A num- 
ber of industries sprang up. First-class 
brick-clay was found, and several brick- 
yards were soon in successful operation. 
To these Bernville owes its many brick 
houses. A brewery was established and 
is said to have done an excellent local 
business. Handle-works were estab- 
lished in 1868 and very successfully run 
by Klahr & Son until severe losses by 
fire caused the business to be relinquish- 
ed in 1882. Jnst north of the town, on 
the Northkill creek, a foundry was built 
and operated by Joel Haag. For a num- 
ber of years Benjamin Klahr carried on 
the pottery-business originally establish- 
ed by Levi Yonson. Owing to the fine 
water-power, both in the Xorthkill and 
the Tulpehocken, many gristmills were 
built, most of which have been in contin- 
uous operation ever since. 

The Churches of Bernville 

With all this material welfare the so- 
cial, intellectual and religious life oi t!ie 
community was in full accord. The 
churches and the schoolhouse at the 
north end of the town witness most faitli- 
fully the alliance between religion and 
education. This was one of the priceless 
heritages which the German immigrant 
brought with him across the waters. 

There is still extant a record that on 
Christmas day, 1745. a plot of ground 
was donated for a church by Gottfried 
Fidler. Early in the following year a 
log building, the first home of the North- 
kill Lutheran congregation, was erected. 
I'his humble building stood for forty- 
five years and saw some of the most in- 
teresting events in the history of our na- 
tional life. Tn her pulpit stood some of 





'!' - 3 





the early Church's most noted pastors. 
Dr. Henry iMelchior Muhlenberg preach- 
ed there, and the Hne of her early pastors 
forms a list of leaders of whom the con- 
grec^'ation may well be proud. 

The log church was displaced in 1791 
by the brick church, which stood the 
storms without and within until 1905, 
when it too was razed. This was the 
building which will live longest in the 
minds and hearts of the residents of 
Bernville and will always stand most 
distinctly for the religious life of its 

Who will ever forget that almost 
square colonial building with the steeple 
at the south end? The distinctive fea- 
tures of the interior were the high pulpit 
at the east wall and the gallery on the 
other three sides. Below were the sit- 
tings for the women and the older men, 
the deacons and elders having box-stalls 
— a separate section for each age and 
sex. Rarely, were these imaginary lines 
overstepped, and when some "city-man" 
had the boldness to sit with the lady 
whom he had escorted to the service, one 
would almost expect to see a deacon 
gently touch him on the shoulder and 
advise him to go to his own place. But 
those days with their joys and their sor- 

rows have gone, and everyone now sits 
where he chooses. 

However strange some of these cus- 
toms may appear to us now, they did not 
impair the worth of that church, for it 
had some relation to almost everyone in 
the town and the surrounding country. 
At the call of the bell almost every 
household prepared for going to the 
house of worship. One is reminded of 
the words of Harbaugh : 
"Darch Hitz und Kelt, darch Schtaab un 

Is Alles ganga, Gross un Klce, 
iJei reich un arnia Leit."' 

Those who did not heed the call of the 
bell in that church-steeple were a small 
minority. Especially impressive was it 
to see the farmers, who had worked ear- 
ly and late during the preceding week, 
come to church on a hot summer Sunday 
afternoon, attentively and devoutly tak- 
ing part in the entire service. 

Nor did the ministrations of that 
church cease with Sunday. 'Though her 
doors were closed through the week, her 
voice was heard. Who that was brought 
up within its hearing will ever forget the 
eleven o'clock bell, which to the toilers in 
the field announced the dinner-hour? 

W'hen the Reformed congregation was 
gathered, they too used this edifice, and 
thus for many years it served both de- 
nominations. Probably the proudest day 
of this church was when her sons and 
daughters gathered to celebrate its hun- 
dredth anniversary in May, 1S91. The 
two days of special services were none 
too many to honor the event. 

But the day came when this second 
building was to be superseded. After 
nuich planning and some unfortunate 
ditTerences two beautiful new buildings 
arose, one for the use of Frieden's Luth- 
eran church, the other for the St. Thom- 
as's Union (Reformed and Lutheran) 
congregation. Bernville can now boast 
of church-buildings that would grace 
any city. 

Frieden's Lutheran congregation is at 
present without a pastor, hut is being 
supplied by the Rev. D. G. Gerberich. 
Five former pastors of this conqregation 
are living, Revs. John Smith, Dr. Hugo 
Grahn, O. D. Trexler, J. J. Cressman 
(under whose ]iastorate the present 



church was built), and H. L. Straub. 
Two of her sons, Revs. A. W. W'ebcr 
and G. M. Sheidy, have entered the min- 
istry. St. Thomas's Reformed congre- 
gation has been served for more than 
forty years by the Rev. T. C. Lcinbach, 
now assisted in the work by his son, 
Rev. E. S. Lcinbach. From this congre- 
gation a number of young men have en- 
tered the ministry, among them Revs. 
Allen K. Faust, Thomas Fox and Ed- 
win Bright. Rev. M. S. Good is pastor 
of St. Thomas's Lutheran congregation, 
having succeeded Rev. William Gaby, 
the first pastor. 

An Evangelical congregation was or- 
ganized in Bernville and a building 
erected in 1850. The growth of the con- 
gregation necessitated the erection of 
the present building in 1872. The con- 
gregation, at one time numbered seventy- 
five members, but owing to industrial 
conditions most of them have now re- 
moved from Bernville and the church is 
rarely opened. Four members of this 
congregation entered the ministry, two 
of whom are now in actual service, Revs. 
Charles Daniels and C. C. Speicher. 

The Schools of Bernville 

The Bernville schools began with the 
founding of the town, which is midway 
•between the earliest settlements of Tul- 
pehocken and the present. Prior to the 
general adoption of the common-school 
system, a little more than half a century 
ago, which was nearly coincident with 
the establishment of the borough, the 
schools of Bernville were ''pay-schools," 
where each pupil was charged a "certain 
fee for instruction, the principal 
branches taught being "the three R's — 
reading, 'riting and 'rithmetic.'' 

It appears that the lot on which the 
school-building stands has been used for 
school-purposes since the town had boys 
and girls old enough to receive instruc- 
tion, and the first schoolhouse was a low, 
log structure on the rear of the lot. At 
that time there was also a schoolhouse 
outside of the town, near Samuel Mo- 
gel's residence : the well used by that 
school is still there, while the road 
passes over the site of the building. In 

this schoolhouse a man named Deininger 
taught in German, and he is the earliest 
teacher of that section whose memory 
tradition has preserved. The first Eng- 
lish teacher in that locality is said to 
have been Nicholas Krusey, who was 
among the earliest teachers in the old 
log building. 

Some time before the establi.->hment of 
the borough, a one-room brick school- 
house was erected on the site of the pres- 
ent building. This appears to have been 
the beginning of two grades in the Bern- 
ville schools. The present school-build- 
ing, a two-story, four-room brick struc- 
ture, was erected in 1877. Three grade^. 
grammar, secondary and primary, were 
established in 187S. 

The majority of the teachers also 
taught a subscription or select school of 
eight or eleven weeks after the expira- 
tion of the public-school term. The u^c 
of the schoolrooms on such occasions 
was granted free of charge. Occasion- 
ally, when tlie regular teacher removed 
from the place or was no longer avail- 
able, an outsider was granted the privi- 
lege of teaching a subscription-school. A 
few of the older teacliers have continued 
in the service, and the years of their 
schoolroom-work cover two generations 
of pupils. The majority of them have, 
however, entered other fields of useful- 
ness. The citizens of Bernville, as a 
rule, elected the most capable men as 
guardians of their schools, and it is a 
credit to the borough that politics very 
seldom turned down the best man. 

The subscription or select schools con- 
ducted for eight to eleven weeks after 
the public-school term were a prominent 
feature during part of Bernville's school- 
history, especially in case of the grammar 
grade, which was then a combined nor- 
mal and high school. In addition to pu- 
pils from the town, young men and 
women from neighboring ilisiricts at- 
tended. Instruction was given in the 
common-school branched, business- forms, 
the higher mathematics. Latin, German 
and Greek. A class for teachers was one 
of the specialties. The writer at one 
time had eighteen students in Latin, anil 
durinq; the term of i8ix^-gi fortv of his 




former pupils were teachini^ in the pub- 
lic schcK:)Is of Berks county. 

The schools of liernville have enjoy- 
ed for a long time the rej)utation of be- 
ini,'' amonc^ the most efficient in the 
cdunty. During- the prosperous times 
of the Union Canal the public-spirited 
citizens took a deep interest in the wel- 
fare of the schools. They saw the advan- 
tages of a liberal education and tried 
to bring about the best results with the 
means that a town of its size could fur- 
nish. When the business-interests of the 
town suffered because of the decadence 
of the canal, the interest in the schools 
kept increasing. A number of parents 
desired that their children should receive 
a higher development of mind than was 
obtainable from the ordinary routine of 
the schoolroom, and saw no reason why 
their town could not have well equipped 
teachers- and proper facilities to that end. 
Their efforts proved successful to a large 
degree. Today Bernville is proud of the 
fact that its public schools have helped 
to lay the foundation for intelligent ac- 
tivity in hundreds of young men and 

women, and challenges other towns of 
even greater size to show equal results 
for the same period. 

In many States of our great Nation, 
and even in other lands, the pupils of the 
Bernville schools have proved themselves 
worthy men and women. There are not 
many vocations or callings in which some 
of them are not found. Even Uncle 
Sam is annually paying them, as em- 
ployes of the government, between 
$15,000 and $20,000. Then, too, it must 
not be forgotten that Bernville has grad- 
uates from Muhlenberg. Princeton, 
Franklin and 3*Iarshall and Pennsylvania 
Colleges, as well as from the Normal 
Schools at Kutztown and West Chester, 
not to mention several medical schools 
and theological seminaries. 

Military Spirit — End of Prosperity 

By far the most important element in 
the older life of the town were the Bat- 
talion-Days, held at recurring intervals. 
The battalion was a species oi military 
encampment, and no place in all the 
county was more popular with the sol- 
diers than Bernville. The greatest occa- 



.jai;.}.-^c«s*iyi^M/ui«:;k *iU.^<^>^,;l'i<«^^i:*?5'£il ^.A^v^sfei^Lji^su^jtsLxiiALiafe 


vii:w OF iu:uNviM.i:. r.v.. lookin*; noktii 

Blue Mouutaiiis In the ilist:iuce 



sion of the kind was in 1841, when a 
three weeks' encampment was opened 
on Umbenhauer's farm. The camp was 
in charge of General WiUiam H. Keim 
and made up of companies from Berks 
and nearby counties. Regular military 
regulations were maintained, and on the 
day of dress-parade many notable per- 
sons were present, among them D. R. 
Porter, Governor of the State, fourteen 
members of the State Senate, also the 
State Secretary and the State Treasurer. 

These battalions were the forerunners 
of the local militia just prior to the Civil 
War. At the first call to arms practical- 
ly the whole male population enlisted. 
A military company of boys too young 
to enlist was organized by George W. 
Huber and known as the Bernville Home 
Guards. Although the boys ranged in 
age from only twelve to sixteen, a true 
military aspect was given by their reg- 
ular uniforms, flags and officers. Huber 
was captain, James Conrad was lieuten- 
ant, John Daniel and a certain Dundore 
were the drummers. Billy Boyer car- 
ried the flag. The swords and bayonets 
were made by Ephraim Whitman. On 
all public occasions these twenty-five 
or thirty Home Guards turned out and 
kept the military enthusiasm alive. 

Such was life in the old days. The 
general prosperity of the town, its beauti- 
ful location, its water-power, its means 
of transportation, all these called forth 
many optimistic comments as to the fu- 
ture welfare of the community. There 
seemed to be no reason why Bernville 
should not grow to be one of the largest 

and most active towns in the county. But 
the march of progress throughout the 
country at large gave the death-blow to 
the industries of Bernville. The Union 
Canal could not compete with the rail- 
roads that were stealing all its trade, and 
it was not long before its activities be- 
gan to decline, ceasing altogether some 
tw^enty-four years ago. After the clos- 
ing of the canal all business activities 
ceased in a comparatively short time. 

Bernville's Old Home Week 

■ August 4 to 10, 1907, Bernville cele- 
brated Old Home Week, a very success- 
ful homecoming of the citizens, former 
residents and friends of the town. The 
movement was first started at a banquet 
held during the Christmas holidays of 
1906 and which was attended by a num- 
ber of alumni and a former principal of 
the Bernville high school. The idea 
gained ground very rapidly and soon 
outgrew the best wishes of its origin- 

The outcome was a week of jubilee 
that will remain for many years to come 
a red-letter time in the history of the 
place. Space will not permit us to write 
of the parades of the various days, the 
speeches made, the friendships renewed, 
the festive gatherings, the celebrated 
sons and daughters that returned to the 
place of their birth. It must have been 
a relief to the good housewives when, 
after a week of noise, littered streets, 
crowded houses and larders in constant 
need of replenishing, the town settled 
down to its ordinary peaceful and quiet 
life. Lone live Bernville! 

An Oldtime Country Frolic 



CRAMER (my tutor) loved to 
dance, but city balls were un- 
known in the country. There 
was nothing but the coarse frolics, a de- 
teriorated form of the German Volks- 
tanz, not to be found elsewhere in the 
world. Cramer took a fancy to these 
vulgar amusements and often attended 
them. Father would not have tolerated 


this, had he known it, so Cramer pre- 
tended to go visiting friends. He re- 
peatedly urged me to accompany him to 
one of these frolics. I well knew that I 
would not be allowed to go, and there- 
fore never asked Father's permission to 
do so. At last I thought: "I am going 
to see this glorious thing." So one night 
we retired earlv, then redressed and stole 




out of the house with the assistance of 
old Freny, who promised to admit us on 
our return. Away we went thro' the 
dark forest to Helffrichsville, where a 
froHc was scheduled at the inn. It was a 
cold autumnal night, and therefore all 
had crowded into the rooms. The 
house was full of youths and maidens, 
acquaintances and strangers. I also 
crowded into the surging mass. ''And 
this is your first frolic!" thought I. 

But what a wild, coarse, brutish thing 
it was ! The house was full, every room 
being occupied. Some of the young peo- 
ple had come a distance of five to six 
miles. In one corner of the large bar- 
room, on a table, sits a miserable tiddler, 
rarely two, producing horrible cater- 
wauls on his instrument. In the center 
of the room a space is kept clear for the 
dancers. Each youth selects his own girl 
or another partner from the circle of 
spectators that crowd the remainder of 
the room and, smoking, laughing and 
talking noisily, seem to be all tangled 
into a knot. Ten or more pairs, accord- 
ing to the size of the space, leap and 
jump around the circle like mad. The 
music to which they dance is called a 
reel or jig; it is rude and unrefined in 
itself. Many years later, when I saw the 
negro dances of the South, I remem- 
bered this ragtime music and those 
dances. The two must be related, for 
dance-music and dancing are decidedly 
negro-like and characteristic of the low- 
est types of humanity. After a reel or 
jig has been repeated twenty or more 
times, the selfsame ding-dong having 
been scratched thro' again and again un- 
til the dancers have all but exhausted 
themselves by their boisterous antics, the 
fiddler stops, possibly in the middle of a 
piece, and the crowd scatters. "And this 
is dancing?" thought I. The Saturna- 
han orgies of the heathen gods loomed 
up before my mind's eye. 

When the set is danced, the bar be- 
comes the center of refreshment for the 
l)anting boors. Now the landlord reaps 
the harvest for which the frolics are 
held. Whiskey flows like water and 
muddles body, soul and spirit. With 
minds excited by liquor they visit the 
table in the corner, where the' fiddler has 

his'seat. Each of the men pays him five 
cents — the player's toll ; he pockets his 
fee and the scene begins anew, becoming 
wilder and more maddening, the longer 
it lasts. Frequently a fight ensues, when 
awful oaths and beastly behavior fol- 
lows. Are these human beings ? Even 
if it does not end in a fight, the liquor 
loosens all bonds of morality in the 
thoughtless crowd. The shameless lan- 
guage used by the young men among 
themselves or in addressing the girls 
mocks all human feeling. 

Past midnight the frolic continues, 
when at length the landlord calls a halt, 
after harvesting one more drinking bout, 
or the fiddler packs up his violin, and the 
frolic closes. Yet this is not the end ; in 
fact, it is only the beginning, the visible 
part of these bucolic frolics. Prepara- 
tions are made to go home. Each youth 
seeks out a girl and asks: 'Xouuischt 
mich mit den Ozvetf"^ or, Ddrf ich mit 
dir he em geh den O^'ett"-] Thus ac- 
quaintanceships are usually formed. The 
lad accompanies the girl to her home. 
The parents know that their daughter is 
at the frolic, and the door is left un- 
locked. Together they enter the house, 
for the young man does not accompany 
his girl to the door and then return to 
his own home. Xo, he enters the house 
with her, not to spend an hour or so in 
talking, but to go to bed with her, and 
this with the sanction and knowledge of 
her parents. Such was the universal 
custom of courtship in those days,- and 
seldom was a marriage solemnized into 
which the element of illegitimacy did not 
enter. Flow could it be otherwise, when 
young persons associated at occasions 
like these shameless and immoral frol- 
ics? There were families who forbade 
their children to attend these degenerate 
conditions of the social life of the com- 
munity — frolics, vulgar company and al- 
lied things — and who gave them Chris- 
tian nurture, but such families were few. 
Illegitimate children were common, the' 
their birth was usually legitimized by a 
subsequent marriage. 

I had been to a frolic for the first and 

•"Will you take me along with you tonight!" 
f'.May I go home with you tonlpht?" 



the last time. Assuredly it was not to 
my liking. To be pushed back and forth 
in the crowd and to have my hat thrust 
down intentionally over my face several 
times, was enou,f(h to give me a different 
idea of this glorious thing. A neighbor's 
son looked at me and said : "Are you here 
too? What will your father say, if he 
finds it out?" I had been wondering 
myself, so 1 promptly sought out Cra- 
mer and proposed to go home. He did 
not like the suggestion ; he had been 

dancing and would have preferred to go 
home with a girl. 1 threatened to ex- 
pose him, for it was dark and I was 
afraid to go alone. At last he yielded, 
and we went home, where old Freny 
opened the door for us, thus saving me 
from punishment. However, the experi- 
ence was good and even necessary. From 
personal observation I had learned to 
know and hate these orgies, which I af- 
terwards suppressed in my congrega- 

Pennsylvania Historical Societies: 

,Their Aims and Their Work 

The encouragement of historic research being logically a part of our designated field of labor, we hare 
opened a department devoted chiefly though not exclusively to the interests of the societies constituting the 
Pennsylvania Federation of Historical ScKiieties. This department will give data relating to the work of his- 
torical societies — notable meetings, contributions, papers read. etc. As space permits, short sketches of indi- 
vidual societies will be given, telling tiieir history, objects, methods of work and the results achieved. We 
cordially tender the use of these columns to the societies for the expression and exchange of ideas relating to 
their work. 


The secretary of a county historical society 
of whom we had requested a history thereof 
wrote us recently as follows : 

I regret very much that our Society 
' would not make a favorable showing at 
present. It made a good beginning, but, 
owing to lack of interest on the part of 
its officers and members, it is inactive at 
this time. No provision having ever been 
made for a salaried secretary or librarian, 
no one cares to assume the duties of that 
• position. 

In our reply to this we made the following 
suggestions : 

1. Your county-commissioners are author- 
ized by law to pay out of the county-funds 
a sum not exceeding $200 annually to your 
Society, to help pay its running expenses. Lay 
the matter before your commissioners, show 
them the value of your Society and convince 
them that the appropriation of the full sum 
of $200 a year would be a paying investment. 

J. Make your members acquainted with the 
work our magazine is doing along this line. 
A secretary of a historical society wrote us 
not long ago: **I know of nothing that will 
tend to stinuilate anxl aid local historical study 
and research more than such a department (of 
Historical Society Note") in your periodical." 
We shall try to report from time to time what 
sister societies are doing. Draw inspiration 
from the deeds of others. 

3. Arouse general interest in historic re- 
search by emphasizing the duty the present 
owes to the past and future. We are reaping 
the days of yore and sowing for the ages to 

come. We can not do our duty to posterity if 
we fail to honor our parents. 

4. Get those together who still take an in- 
terest in the work and toil on, remembering 
that love begets love, even in the study of 
local history. 

For the benefit of all our readers we give 
herewith the wording of a law passed by the 
legislature of Pennsylvania and approved by 
the Governor May 21, A. D. 1901. 

An Act to encourage couuty historica! socicticj. 
Section i. Be it enacted, etc., that from 
and after the passage of this act the com- 
missioners' board of the resj)ective coun- 
ties of this Commonwealth may, in its 
discretion, pay out of the county- funds not 
otherwise appropriated, and upon proper 
voucher being given, a sum not exceeding 
two hundred dollars annually lo the his- 
torical society of said county, to assist in 
paying the running expenses thereof. 

Section 2. In order to entitle the said 
historical society to the said appropriation, 
the following conditions shall have been 
first complied with : The money shall be 
paiil to tlie oldest society in each county, 
if there be more than one: it shall have 
been org.inizcd at least three years. inc«.»r- 
porated by the proper authority and have 
an active membership oi one hundred per- 
sons, each of whom shall have paid into 
the treasury of said society a membership 
fee of at least two dollars for the support 
of the satne. .\nd provided furtlier. That 
no appropriation imder this act shall be re- 
newed until vouchers shall be first tiled 




with the board of county-commissioners, 
showing that the appropriation for the 
prior year shall have been expended for 
the purpose designated by this act. 

Section 3. And be it further enacted, 
that to entitle said society to receive said 
appropriation it shall hold at least two 
public meetings yearly, whereat papers 

shall be read or discussions held on his- 
toric subjects; that it shall have estab- 
lished a museum, wherein shall be depos- 
ited curios and other objects of interest 
relating to the history of county or State, 
and shall have adopted a constitution and 
code of by-laws, and elected proper offi- 
cers to conduct its business. 


(iNOTE. — The following brief sketch Is based on the first annual Issued by the Society, September, 1906.) 

The Bradford County Historical Society was 
reorganized in July, 1902, and has held fifty 
regular and special meetings. Special sub- 
jects are considered at the regular meetings, 
which are accordingly designated as Wysox 
Day, Educational Day, Women's Day, etc. The 
June meeting of each year has been set apart 
to the old people of the county, who take part 
in a program specially arranged. On an aver- 
age almost a hundred persons attend the regu- 
lar meetings, which are held the fourth Sat- 
urday of each month. 

Papers have been read and addresses made 
on subjects relating to the county — history of 
townships, prominent families, educational his- 
tory, Indian paths, tribes and burying-grounds, 

A museum has been established in which all 
the people of the county are interested. In 
addition to the general collection of relics, 
curios and mineralogical specimens, a log 
house, an exact representation of the homes 
in which the forefathers lived, has been con- 
structed in the building. This house is com- 
posed of a piece of timber (all ditterent kinds 
of wood) from every township in Bradford 
county, the logs being laid up in the order in 
which the townships were formed. In the 
structure are embraced all the native woods 
of the county, over eighty in number. Within 
is the old-fashioned fire-place, supplied with 
andirons, crane and kettle. The usual fur- 
nishings of the old-time home have their place. 
Every person who visits the log house writes 
his name in a register, and since its com- 
pletion, in July, 1905, it has been visited by 

people from half of the States in the Union. 
Xor have the soldiers or nature-study been 


The library contained 260 volumes a year 
ago. These consist mostly of historical works 
and rare old books on various subjects. A 
number of volumes of the early newspapers of 
the county have been secured, and it is hoped 
to make the chain complete. A collection of 
original maps and manuscripts of much value 
has also been obtained. Of paintings, por- 
traits and other pictures the Society already 
has a fine collection. 

The last monthly June meeiing of the Brad- 
ford County Historical Society was devoted to 
the old people of the county, the fourth and 
greatest annual gathering of the kind, the 
spacious court-room at Towanda not being 
large enough to hold more than a third of the 
crowd. 1 he exercises consisted of automo- 
bile-rides, singing, recitations, violin-music and 
dancing, exhibitions of breaking, swinging 
and hatcheling fiax. the carding of wool, an 
oldtime military drill, and the presentation of 
gifts to the oldest gentleman and oldest lady 
present. The total number present whose 
ages ranged from 70 to 94 yevirs was fully 140. 
More than threescore veterans of the Re- 
bellion were present. 

The Pennsylvania-German was well rep- 
resented ; the Society will listen in the near 
future to a paper on the German and Dutch 
in the county. The first permanent settler of 
Bradford county was a German from the 
Schoharie Valley in New York. 


The American Baptist Historical Society, 
which has its present headquarters in Room 
30J, 1630 Chestnut street, Philadelphia, was 
founded for the purpose of establishing and 
maintaining, in the city of Philadelphia, a 
Library or depository of books., pamphlets, 
periodicals, manuscripts, portraits, views, etc., 
pertaining to the history and present condition 
of Christianity and the Baptist denomination 
in particular; also for preparing and publish- 
i'lg. from time to time, works that elucidate 
•'uch history. 

It desires to secure by purchase or gift: All 
books tliat have been written by Baptists ; all 
^>ooks about Baptists, whether for or against 

them : minutes of Baptist associations and re- 
ports of Baptist societies and gatherings: his- 
torical sketches of Baptist churches, ministers 
or members ; photographs or other pictures of 
churches, colleges, schools and other build- 
ings, and of prominent members of the denom- 
ination; manuscript sermons, addresses and 
lectures that have not been published, but will 
be of value for reference or publication: auto- 
graph letters and autographs ; Baptist periodi- 
cals, w herever published : anything historic or 
otherwise that relates to the denomination. Its 
Library is free to all who wish to use it, and 
students and writers should there find material 
which would not be accessible elsewhere. 



Rev. A. L. Vail, corresponding secretary of 
the American Baptist Society, says in a letter 
to the publisher of this magazine: ''Our So- 
ciety is not local, but national and cosmopoli- 
tan in purpose. We are now, however, in a 
transition and semi-storage situation, awaiting 
the erection of the Baptist Publication Soci- 
ety's building, now begun. Our future is some- 
what uncertain, owing to limited funds." 

In the absence of an endowment and other 
resources the Society earnestly appeals to all 
who are interested in Baptist principles to help 
it in any of the following ways : By contribut- 

ing to an endowment fund; by becoming life- 
members on payment of ten dollars; by becom- 
ing annual subscribers in some stipulated 
amount; by giving books, minutes of associa- 
tions, addresses, reports of meetings, files of 
religious papers and any other material valu- 
able for the writing of denominational history. 
The officers of the American Baptist His- 
torical Societv are : B. L. Whitman, D.D., 
LL.D., president; E. B. Hulbert, D.D., vice- 
president: B. MacMack'in, D.D., recording sec- 
retary; Rev. A. L. Vail, corresponding secre- 
tary; Arthur Malcolm, treasurer. 

The Home 

This department is in charge of Mrs. H. H. Funk, of Springtown, Pa., to whom all communications inlendid 
for it should be addressed. 

Contributions relating to domestic matters — recipes for cooking, baking, suggestions on household work, gard- 
ening and flower-culture, oldtime household customs and ways of living, etc., etc.— are respectfully solicited. 
Our lady readers are specially requested to aid in making this department generally inttresting. 

The Sampler 

Reprinted from The Ch 

The making of samplers in the good old times was by 
no means conliued to English-speaking girls. Many 
beautiful, quaint and artistic specimens of this kind 
of needlework are siill treasured iu Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man homes. We entreat our readtrs to send us de- 
scriptions of these, with illustrations if possible, to 
supply a proper contrast to the article here quoted. — 

A century ago, more or less, it seems to 
have been obligatory on the part of every girl 
at school to work a sampler. This task, ex- 
tending through a school-year possibly, ante- 
dated mental philosophy and the higher math- 
ematics on the curriculum, but served the pur- 
pose as a discipline in accuracy, inculcating 
patience and perseverance, virtues especially 
taught little girls. This painstaking work of 
art was a matter of deliberation. Canvas was 
the indispensable first purchase; there were 
colors and qualities to be considered. The best 
Italian sewing-silks were used; these came in 
small skeins, to be wound, an item of expense, 
trouble and delay. 

Teachers kept in stock patterns for the use 
of pupils ; but the arrangement of these could 
be varied, so that, while the whole school 
might copy the same "studies," the fancy of 
each little needlewoman made her sampler 

After working a faultless cross-stitch upon 
the hem of her sampler, little Jane Gradgrind 
repeated the alphabet five times across the 
top of her strong yellow canvas in fadeless 
black silk. Meanwhile poetic little Ann Sher- 
wood devoted much time and green and red 
sewing-silk in a splendor of strawberry-vine, 
running her sampler just within the inevit- 
able cross-stitchetl hem ; but she made only 
three alphabets, and these in part in pink silk, 
'which, alas, could not endure. 

These alphabets were models for a genera- 
tion for marking linen and blankets and hose. 
Threads of the finest linen were counted, and 
a lozenge of linen was basted over the wrong 

ristian Work and Evangelist. 

side of the marking and beautifully stitched, 
threads counted, upon the right side, to cover 
the wrong side of the silk markings. So the 
sampler was a necessity to the housewife. 

Each sampler had its verse of poetry. This 
was a serious thing to decide upon; also its 
place, which seems to tell whether the little 
lass gave ornament or verse the first rank. 

Little Catharine Hasbrouck has nine dis- 
tinct art studies, besides the alphabet, render- 
ed five times: in old English, in script, bo:a 
capital and small letters, also large and small 
in printhand. She has a bunch of strawber- 
ries, a fiower-pot, a basket of fruit, a branch 
oli a cherry-tree with a robin pecking fruit, a 
willow-tree, an urn with a tlowering plant, be- 
sides corner-pieces of different geometric de- 
signs in the lower corners, for use in future 
rugs or lamp-mats; also a centerpiece of 
growing crimson carnations. 

Below the carnations appears this stanza: 

Virtue and wit and science joln'd. 
Refines the manners, forms the mind; 
But when with industry they meet, 
The female character's complete. 

At the left of this verse a pair of love-birds, 
touching bills, stand upon two hearts, worked 
in red, topped with green, after the fashion of 
a strawberry emery. The love-birds upon the 
two hearts may svmbolize Completeness, as 
computed at that date — 1S30. 

The sampler of Sarah Owen is upon white 
canvas almost as daiinv as handkerchief-linen, 
which is as remarkable as its verse: 

Jesus permit thy gracious name to stand 
As the tirst elTort of an infant hand. 
And while her hands upon this canvas move. 
0, teach her heart to sin;; and prai.>*e thy lore. 
.\mong thy oluMren let her have a part. 
And write thy name, O Cod, opon her heart. 

Unfortunately the date of this is obliterated. 
The maker's name was invariably worked 
upon her birthday, with proper date. 

thp: home 


Phebc Taft, 
Feb. I, 1838, 
has handed down these verses : 

Lord of my life, 0, may thy praise 

Employ my noblest powers, 
Whose goodness lengthens out ray days 

And fills the circlirg hours. 

Smile on my minutes as they roll. 

And guide my future days, 
And let thy goodness fill my soul 

With gratitude and praise. 

The absence of punctuation is noticeable in 
all sampler verse. 

At the famous Nine Partners' Quaker School 
little Betsy Vail wrought this solemn verse: 

Religion is the chief concern 

Of mortals here below; 
May I Its great importance learn. 

And practice what I know. 

Betsy lived to celebrate the sixtieth anniver- 
sary of her marriage, at which time she had 
not forgotten her exceeding homesickness at 
school. In showing her sampler she told how 
on one occasion a young teacher tried to com- 
fort her, saying: 'Thee must come to me, 
when thee is sad; I will mother thee." 

"No," sobbed the child; ''I can't pretend 
thee is my mother; thee has red hair!" 

The Nantucket Historical Society displays 
a sampler with this inscription : 

To no particular lot of life 

• Is happiness confined. 
But In a self-approving heart 
And firm contented mind. 

Sally Baker is my name. 
At twelve years old I made the same. 

A yellow sampler, bearing date 1794, is one 
of my treasures. 

Recently a gushing young lady recognized 
upon it some of the most beautiful stitches 
which are again in vogue, and turning to me 
with rapture exclaimed : *'And did you really 

do this lovely thing?" Which proves how dif- 
ficult it is for girls today to realize that there 
is nothing new for the needle; old fads are 
constantly recurring. 

In a beautiful home in Catskill is framed a 
needle-worked poem, the handiwork of one of 
the family of Friends who gave name to 
Palenville : 

The Close of the Year 

As rapid rolls the year away 

Down the swift current of the times, 

A moment let tlie reader slay 

And mark the moral of my rhymes. 

As rivers glide toward the sea 

And sink and lose them in the main. 

So man declines — and what is be? 
Ills hope, his wish, alas, how vain! 

Fast goes the year, but still renewed 

The ball of time knuws no decay, 
Surje signal of the greatest good, 

We hope in God's eternal day. 

Know then the truth, enough for man to know. 
Virtue alone Is happiness below. 

—Jane Palen. 

During the years when the sampler led the 
city schoolgirls on to elaborate pictures 
wrought in cross-stitch of zephyrs, the farm- 
ers' daughters were spinning and weaving and 
growing the grass with which they were to 
make their own straw bonnets. An early agri- 
cultural "paper called the "Plough Boy," in a 
list of premiums offered for a county fair in 
New York State, prints the following: 

For girls, not over fourteen years, one dollar prize 
for each of these home-spun articles: Best pair linen 
stockings spun and knit; best runs of linnen yam. For 
best ladies' straw or grass bonnet, made in the county, 
of materials grown in the State, eight dollars prize. 

To the lady who shall attend the next annual fair 
In the best homespun dress of her own making, twenty 
. dollars prize. 

This was the ultimatum of the motto begin- 
ning : '"Industry taught in early days." 

A Lehigh County Singer in Berlin 

Madame Alberta Gehman-Carina, daughter 
of William Gehman, of Macungie, has been 
singing with marked success at the Comic 
Opera in Berlin. She made her debut in opera 
in France two years ago and was a great fa- 
vorite in Paris. She is a thorough musician 
also, playing violin and piano admirably. She 
was married recently to a young wine-merch- 
ant, Wilhelm von Augustin. 

Montgomery's Oldest Physician 

Dr. Joseph Warren Royer, burgess of 
Trappe, who recently celebrated his eighty- 
seventh birthday, is the oldest physician in 
Montgomery county and probably also the 
oldest chief executive of any municipality in 
Pennsylvania. He graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania and has resided at 
Trappe ever since. 

A Campaign Badge of 1828 

N. A. Gobrecht, of Altoona, has presented 
to the York County Historical Society a satin 
badge originally owned by his father, W. D. 
Gobrecht, one of the earliest lawyers of Han- 
over, and used in the campaign for Andrew 
Jackson in 1S28. It shows the American eagle 
with a fine portrait of Gen. Jackson in uni- 
form, and the date of the battle of New Or- 
leans, January 8, 1815. 

Oldest Married Couple in Northern Berks 

Isaac H. Wenrich. aged 88. and his wife 
Rebecca, -aged 85, of Btrnville, are the oldest 
married couple in northern Berks county. They 
have been married (^6 years and still enjoy 
good health. At Molinton. Berks county. Sir. 
and Mrs. Samuel K. Mohn, both 82 years old. 
celebrated thoir sixtieth wedvling anniversary 
during the last week of August. 




A Land of Prosperous Farmers 

Col. J. M, Van'derslice, Collegeville, Pa., in 
The Country Gentleman. 

In the census of 1890 Montgomery county 
stood third in the United States in the value 
of its agricultural products, seven of the first 
ten counties being, I believe, of southeastern 
Pennsylvania. In the latest census the county 
is seventh or eighth. It is the third county of 
this State in the value of its taxable property, 
being surpassed only by Philadelpiiia and Al- 
legheny. It bounds Philadelphia on the north 
and northwest, and in it are the pretty towns 
and magnificent estates near the city. The 
Schuylkill river is its boundary on the south- 
west to Valley Forge, below which the town- 
ships of Upper and Lower Merion are separ- 
ated from the rest of the county by the river. 
Along the Schuylkill, in the towns of Consho- 
hocken, Norristown, Royersford and Potts- 
town, are numbers of textile, hat and hosiery 
factories, iron, steel and bridge works, nail 
and paper mills, etc. Along the other side, on 
the North Penn Railroad, in the towns of 
Ambler, North Wales and Lansdale, are agri- 
cultural works and manufactories of special- 

■ Between these boundaries is located the 
thickly 'populated, rich agricultural section, 
with its rolling hills and beautiful valleys, a 
region of surpassing beauty. The lower part 
of the county is of limestone formation, and 
there are the quarries of marble and fine 
building-stone. In the upper part the soil is 
a rich shaly loam, underlaid with red shale 
or with sandstone. It responds quickly to the 
application of a fertilizer. 

I wish particularly to speak of the fertile 
Perkiomen valley, one place at least where 
farmers are prosperous. This region, lying 
off the main lines of railroad, is seldom seen 
by the stranger, and is little known. Numbers 
of automobiles, however, now travel over its 
fine roads. Many of the farms have been in 
the same families for generations, some of 
them since the settlement of the country more 
than two hundred years ago. the old people 
retiring after acquiring a competence and a 
son taking the farm. ]Many of the children, 
however, have gone to Ohio, Illinois, Iowa 
and Kansas. A few years ago there was quite 
an exodus from the neighborhood to Kansas. 

Into this region came English Episcopalians 
and Welsh Quakers, followed shortly after- 
wards by Holland Dutch and Scotch-Irish 
Presb>-terians. Later came a great influx of 
Germans from the upper Rhine districts. The 
descendants of the latter now predominate 
among the old resident farmers in the valley. 
They are for the most part a conservative 

people, adhering to the customs and faith of 
their ancestors. The people are honest, indus- 
trious and thrifty. They are kind, intelligent 
and hospitable, many of them believing it to 
be a sin to turn even a tramp away without a 
good meal. They excel as farmers, and their 
fine buildings, well tilled and neatly kept land 
attract immediate attention. The rotation that 
they have practiced for years is corn, oats, 
wheat, clover and timothy. Potatoes are also 
raised in considerable quantities. 

By the use of barnyard-manure, lime and a 
little other fertilizer, they raise immense crops, 
particularly of corn, the yield being from 80 
to 100 bushels of shelled corn per acre. The 
farms are heavily stocked, and milk is sold to 
the city or to the numerous creameries. The 
majority of them do not now raise their own 
cattle. There are almost weekly sales of 
heavy fresh milkers, brought from the West, 
which readily bring from $65 to $75 per head, 
large cows only being in demand. The calves 
are sold, and the cows, fed a very heavy 
ration, are milked from eight to nine months. 
when, being in a good, sleek condition, they 
are in a short time finished up and sold to the 
butcher. If a cow is not a good yielder, she 
is sold at once. After deducting the value of 
the calf, the farmers must lose from $15 to 
$25 for each cow. and I have been at a loss to 
understand how it pays even if the cows are 
great milkers. Still, it must pay. or these 
men, thrifty as they are, would not continue 
the practice. 

Good horses, mostly from West Virginia. 
are brought into the valley in numbers. 
Though there are some splendid stallions in 
the vicinity, comparatively few raise horses as 
they formerly did. In this I think they make 
a mistake, as the cost of a couple of good 
colts early is comparatively slight, and yet 
they add considerably to the income. Prob- 
ably my natural love for the horse, intensified 
by my service in the cavalry during the war. 
influences my judgment. 

Though these people are conservative, the 
institutes are well attended, and the farmers 
manifest an intelligent interest in anything 
that will improve their practice. The use 01 
the most improved implements is common. 
The farms average from 100 to 125 acres. 
While I have traveled through all the agri- 
cultural sections of the country, and have ob- 
served their conditions. I have never seen a 
section whore there are better farms and 
where farmers appear more prosperous than 
in the Perkiomen Valley. 




Am letsclita Sundag sin zwcc Kerls 
Noch Stall ffer's Busch nans ganga, 

Die vvara ganz gut ei'gericht 
For wiida Gans zu fanga. 

Sie_sin als hi' un her ini Busch 

Un hen enanner gewunka, 
Daiiii sin sie endlich an die Schpring 

Un hen sich satt getrunka. 

Noh hen sie nevva dra' sich g'hockt, 

For mit enanner plaudra. 
Glei sehn sie ebbes in der Schpring, 

Sel duht sie heftig schaudra. 

"Was mag sel sei ?" war dann die Frog. 

"Es scheint vvie Fleesch un Blut. 
Wann sel ken Kreatur is, dann 

Verreiss ich grad mei Hut." 

"Ich glaab gewiss, es is en Kind — 

Es hot jo Maul un Aaga ! 
Mer gehna grad noch Boyertown 

Un duhn's da Leit dart saga." 

Der'Anner sagt : "Mer wolla geh. 

Was solla mer lang wahia? 
Mer wolla grad zum Coroner geh, 

Es County mag's bezahla." 



Des hot en gross Gekrisch gemacht 
Bei all da Leit im Schtattel. 

Sic schtehna an da Ecka rum 
Un schwetza wie der Bettel. 

Am Alondag Marga sin die Leit 

In aller Frih geloffa, 
For sehna wel unschuldig Kind 

War in der Schpring versoffa. 

Em Coroner sei Deputy 

Der war ah glei dabei, 
Sie gehna dann in grosser Schar 

Dief in da Busch hinei'. 

Un wie sie an die Quell sin kumma, 
Den klcena Mensch zu ftscha, 

Do war en Junger in der Crowd, 
Der hat laut raus gekrischa. 

Wie sie sel Ding dann rauskrigt hen, 
Mit ma Schlup gemacht vun Droht, 

Do war's nix anners in der Welt 
As en Bullfrog, un der .war doot. 

Die vSchtory war noh ganz verdreht ; 

Sel braucht em net verdriessa. 
Es war en zimlich gute Bait, 

Un viel hen dra' gebissa. 

Clippings from Current News 

Fire Destroys Famous Old Hotel 

The Concordville Hotel, one of the oldest 
landmarks of Delaware county, was destroyed 
by fire September G. Only the barn and other 
outhuildinL's were saved. The hotel had existed 
since pre-KevoIutionary days ; parts of it were 
-rocted from buildings ransacked by Cornwallis 
ifter the battle of Krandywine. It had spa- 
-ioiis reception and dining-rooms and tifteen 

Marble Tablet Placed on Ancient Church. 

\ beautiful marble tablet, placed on the walls 
of the old church near Oldman's Creek, N. J., 
jvas unveiled August 31st by the Gloucester 
County Historical Society. The church stands 
oil the first "King's highway" opened in south- 
i--rn New Jersey, running from Salem through 
to Burlington. Near tliis spot tiie Moravians 
iTcctcd in 17:17 a log church, which was dedi- 
^Ucd Aug. 31, 1749, by Bishop Spangenberg. 
I'le present church, a brick structure with 
two rows of windows, was begun in June, 
j7''^6, and dedicated July 5. 1789, by Bishop J. 
Fttwein. October 15, 1836. the property was 
c(»nveyed to the Protestant Episcopal Churcii 

of New Jersey. Hon. John Boyd Avis, of 
Woodbury, a lineal descendant in the sixth 
generation of George Avis, who donated the 
ground for the original log church, formally 
presented the tablet, which was accepted by 
Dean C. M. Perkins, of Vineland. Rev. W. 
N. Schwarze, a Moravian, delivered the his- 
torical address. 

Centennial Celebration in Millersburg 

The citizens of Millersburg, Dauphin county, 
celebrated the iiuiulredth anniversary of the 
founding of their town in a becoming manner 
September 4 and 5. On the first of these days 
a great industrial parade was given in the 
morning, and the afternoon was devoted to 
various sports and contests. A magnificent 
civic parade on Tlnirsday was followed by his- 
torical addresses in the afternoon and a grand 
dispkiy of fireworks in the evening. An at- 
tractive feature of the celebration was the 
crowning of Miss Irene Freck as carnival 
queen and the presentation to her of a dia- 
mond ring. Two grandsons of Daniel Miller, 
the founder of the town, Wesley and John W. 
Miller, came from Ohio to attend the festivi- 



Myles Loring: 

A Tale of the Tulpehocken 


Chapter XIV. 
Reading Their Title Clear 

THE ''Shining Saints" had been no- 
tified that their tenure of the 
Presbyterian edifice was at an 
end, and they had prepared for a fare- 
well meeting- with fond anticipations of 
"a good time." Captain Timothy Bran- 
ders was expected to preside at a pre- 
liminary love-feast, and the Reverend 
Brother Hodges to preach the closing 
sermon, while a visiting brother, better 
acquainted with the rite, would admin- 
ister baptism by immersion to three can- 
didates for membership. 

The attendance of villagers at the 
church was not materially increased, for 
the "Saints" had not made eminent pro- 
gress on Womelsdorf soil ; but the peo- 
ple were on the alert for the novel spec- 
tacle of an immersion. Well would it 
have been if the sacred rite, administered 
with such solemnity and beauty by the 
churches to which it legitimately be- 
longs, had that day fallen into more ap- 
propriate hands ! 

The love-feast, under the unique treat- 
ment of Captain Branders, was a thing 
of life. It was the conviction of the 
leader, a little boastfully asserted, that 
"power" was there. Some favorite songs 
opened the way for prayer and testi- 
mony, some of which was certainly to be 
classed as nondescript. 

Brother Hiram Xobble delivered one 
of his typical exhortations. It was no- 
ticeable that he never had any experi- 
ence to relate, but invariably cut his 
brethren and outside "sinners" with sat- 
irical criticisms. Indeed he usually 
"threw a damper over the meeting." 
which required a vigorous rally of the 
"Saints" to dispel. On this occasion he 
brought a copy of the Bible, evidently in 
the hope that he might lead the meeting ; 
and unwilling that his luminous thoughts 

should remain hidden under a bushel, he 
proceeded painfully to stumble through 
the Epistles of St. Peter. xAs on a former 
occasion he had omitted the word "Epis- 
tle" in reading the title of St. John's first 
letter, so now he dropped it, obviously 
because it was incomprehensible to him 
and unpronounceable. He entitled the 
book "The Peter." His conceptions of 
that term posterity will probably never 
be able to tell ; it may have been that he 
classed it with that other enigmatical 
word, in the Old Testament, "Psaltery." 

But the good brother got ofT a piece of 
genuine wit, the masterpiece of his life. 
Speaking of his pastors in the old com- 
munion he declared they were all "scrubs 
and apprentices," meaning thereby that 
some were chosen from secular pursuits 
to supply the charge, while others were 
undergraduates of colleges. 

Brother Pickering was thrilled more 
than usual. His vision of his own spir- 
itual attainments was vivid beyond ex- 
pression. He had had such a deep ex- 
perience of "power" that his very frame 
trembled with joy. How he wished that 
his brethren about him might sweep the 
heavens with a faith like his own ! He 
seemed to have conquered every foe and 
set up his banner in the name of the 
Lord of hosts. 

Now, Brother "Billy" was a psycho- 
losrical study : perhaps from what shall 
follow the reader will be inclined to re- 
gard him as a curiosity in physiology 
also. He was a skilled watchiuakcr and 
in many respects an intelligent man. but 
he had a bibulous weakness which 
seemed to break out whenever he made 
a brief excursion from home. Perhaps 
he struggled with temptation more than 
people generally were willing to give 
him credit for, but his "high profession'* 



was ol)iioxious even to the ''Saints," and 
Brother Nobble determined to exercise 
his self-appointed prerogative and bring- 
down the pride and naughtiness of his 
weak fellow-professor. So he looked up 
severely and coarsely said: ''Did you 
climb so high the last time you were at 

Poor Pickering was keenly sensitive 
to the slightest hkit, and this attack red- 
dened his face ; but with many a hem 
he managed to say, as he rose again and 
apologetically referred to his weakness : 
"Pve got beyond sinning, brethren; but 
I am troubled with a tumor in my stom- 
ach which occasionally develops, and re- 
quires liquor to subdue it." This reply 
.so disconcerted Nobble with its subtleties 
that he said no more. 

Brother William Wilkins often re- 
ceived such blessings that he lay pros- 
trate upon the floor and his brethren 
were obliged to ''work with him," to re- 
store him, until wearied of the effort, 
they let him alone, when he revived 
safely. This garrulous saint, who had 
enjoyed fellowship (or else been miser- 
able) in almost ^all the denominations, 
who had been an elder in the Mormon 
fold as well, stoutly insisted that he no 
longer "felt the motions of sin." But 
alas ! in an evil hour, tormented by a 
relative of ungodly character, he threw 
a stone which caused the death of his 

The congregation sang: "O Lord, 
send us a blessing !" keeping time with 
their feet and putting" a rousing empha- 
sis upon the petition. A very tripping- 
prayer it was, but it enlivened the meet- 
ing considerably, and Brother Parlor 
rose to say that "it was good to be there, 
and he hoped to shake glad hands with 
all the folks on the sunny banks of de- 
liverance." The expression of his face 
was intended to be rapturous, but, in- 
cluding the effect of a lock of hair up- 
reared from his forehead, it was rather 
that of a grin. Tie was a very lazy, cav- 
ding sort of Christian, but sincere in his 
liniited measure. 

The sisters were fairly represented in 
the testimonies. In fact, as in all so- 
cieties, they w^erc more numerous than 

the brethren. Sister Minker told with 
nuich unction of her "great blessings" 
and appeared almost overcome with the 
weight of heavenly manifestation, while 
Sister Diener spoke of "new joys of the 

Nor was Hepsy Barker absent from 
the feast of fat things. Shortly after the 
testimonies commenced the wheels of a 
carriage were heard to stop in front of 
the church, and in came Hepsy, green 
bag, brown veil and omnipresent over- 
shoes. But no one had ever heard Hep- 
sy testify of her experience, which must 
be placed to her credit. 

Brother 01dlx)nes delighted the meet- 
ing with a fiery exhortation and spicy 
testimony. But the climax was reached 
when Captain Branders sang the stirring 
song : 

"We have brothers in the kingdom, fare you 

well, fare you well ; 
By and by we'll go and see them, fare you 

well, fare you well. 
There we'll sing and shout forever, fare you 

well, fare you well ; 
Over Jordan into glory, fare you well, fare 

you well." 

A wave of enthusiasm passed over the 
company. Sister blinker, carried away 
completely by the whirlwind of joy. at- 
tempted to leap heavenward, but was 
prevented, as usual, by Sister Diener, 
who bravely clung to her skirts and 
gradually brought her attention back to 
sublunary things. 

At this stage of the proceedings the 
looked-for visiting preacher arrived with 
Brother Hodges. Accepting the offer of 
a kindly neis^hbor to supply them with 
suitable clothing for the baptismal ser- 
vice, they had called at her house and in 
an upper room arrayed themselves in 
workaday garments which could not be 
injured by water. Brother Hodges's 
nether supplies were of sufficient lengfth. 
but those of the visitor were too short by 
four or five inches. The sleeves of the 
coat were likewise too much abbreviated 
for an esthetic presentation : and the im- 
mediate etYect upon both gentlemen was 
detrimental to the solenmity oi the occa- 
sion. Brother Hodges smiled a little at 
the ludicrous appearance of his col- 
leasrue : but the latter, q-azinq- down at 



his brief pantaloons and shoes two sizes 
too small for his slender feet, burst into 
laughter uncontrollable. Then ]>rother 
Hodges, recollecting that as the senior 
of the two he ought to set a good ex- 
ample, said, ''Let us pray I" and then and 
there fell upon his knees and prayed for 
grace to overcome the undue spirit of 
levity v/hich had broken out. But hu- 
man nature in his colleague rioted in 
the ludicrous, and it was long before the 
bubbling over quite ceased. 

As the pair ascended the pulpit-steps 
the love-feast was concluded, and the 
preliminaries of the sermon proceeded, 
Brother Hodges producing his master- 
piece, "Who is on the Lord's side?" Al- 
luding to the unfortunate habit of Chris- 
tians in general, of evading direct spir- 
itual discourse, he said : "We ask, 'What 
is the weather, and the weather and the 
weather,' but not, 'LIow are our souls 
prospering?' " And bringing into view 

the devoted labors of Dunstan Dole he 
told how that indefatigable worker once 
riding with a gentleman said: "Do you 
sec that old oak-tree, sir?" "Yes, sir." 
"To-morrow morning, sir, at nine 
o'clock, sir, I'll be under that tree, sir, 
praying for you, sir." 

But the congregation sat stolid under 
the familiar effort. The colleague was 
well acquainted with the good man's 
repetitions, and to him both the hack- 
neyed sayings and illustrations and the 
refusal of the brethren to recognize any 
humor in the feature, was amusing in a 
high degree. Afterward, when con- 
science troubled him a little, he spoke of 
the sermon as a good one, but quite lost 
his balance when Pickering replied, 
rather disdainfully, that the congrega- 
tion had already heard it five or six 

The eclectic feature of the practice of 
the "Saints" was exhibited in the chris- 


'^;4^r^-,.^,.1 3^-— *-.?;^ /^ii^' 


, \ 





toning of an infant by Brother Hodges, 
before the congregation left the church 
for the scene of the baptism of the three 
mature candidates. Only one of these, 
Sister IMinker, had conquered her shy- 
ness sufficiently to bear testimony in the 
love-feast. The other two, a man and a 
woman, although willing to receive the 
rite in public, were bashful of speaking 
in public. 

It was a motley procession which that 
day marched out to the Tulpehocken. 
The preachers naturally led the little 
company of ''Saints," but before them 
went a large number of boys who had 
become weary of waiting for the ex- 
pected appearance of the congregation. 
Behind them came others, the number 
constantly growing until the crowed was 
somewhat imposing for a place of so 
small a population. 

Down Bone street moved the ''Saints," 
all of them looking upon the circum- 
stance as almost august. Slowl}^ turning 
the corner at the Squire's, they passed 
out the Rehrersburg road to Shull's lane, 
just beyond the old mill. Here they 
turned to the right and in ten minutes 
more* stood upon the banks of the Tul- 
pehocken, at one of the "swimmin' 
holes" of the Womelsdorf boys. 

By this time a large crowd of youths 
and adults w^re assembled, some of 
them on the north bank of the stream, 
among the trees on the hillside ; others 
— mostly boys — on the island in the 
creek. After a little consultation by the 
preachers it was decided to leave the 

administration of the rite to Sister 
Minker until the last, as she was a very 
fragile, excitable lx)dy. Brother Bet- 
tlcr's proposition, to precede the preach- 
ers with a staff to determine the best 
spot, was accepted. 

Brother Hodges followed the mer- 
chant, and immediately after came his 
colleague, who, when the ritual had 
been concluded, received the candidates 
and with the assistance of Hodges im- 
mersed them in the creek. It was well 
that Sister Minker was the last to re- 
ceive the rite. As she sank beneath the 
waters, she became limp, whereupon the 
preachers carried her out to the bank 
and placed her in the hands of some of 
her fellow-members. 

The sensation among a people to 
whom such a scene was entirely new, 
was very great. The wonder of the 
young people reached a rather irreverent 
height, which maintained itself as the 
wet and bedraggled company returned 
over the dusty road to the place of final 

But the town had a new sensation 
shortly afterwards, when it was discov- 
ered that several pocket-books and a 
watch or two had been filched from their 
owners during the sacred ordinance. 
Not a few persons, who remembered 
that they had seen the poor Hex of the 
Kluft sitting beneath the buttonwood 
which shadowed the baptismal scene. 
spoke harshly of her powers and hinted 
at retaliation. 

THE following Tuesday was a great 
day in the Presbyterian Zion. It 
had been appointed for the or- 
dination and installation of !Myles Lor- 
ing as pastor of the Womelsdorf congre- 
gation. As he had passed in certain 
studies at the spring meeting of the 
presbytery, his examination before the 
adjourned meeting would be confined to 
those subjects in which it w^as obliiratorv 
for h- "' 

'>r turn to appear before the congrega 
tion, includinfr a sermon. 

Chapter XV. 
A Commencement and a Conclusion 

It was a day of rain and nuid. Down 
the slopes upon which the town lay, the 
water ran so copiously that many cel- 
lars in the lower parts of the borough 
were deluged. But all of the little tlock 
were gathered at the church and entered 
with zest into the program oi the occa- 
sion. The attendance of presbytery was 
rather greater than might have been ex- 
pected. Perhaps it was due to the fact 
that a weak charge in a territory where 
the denomination was sparse demanded 



a lifting^-iip of the hands that hung down 
and the palsied knees. At least a dozen 
ministers and four or five elders were 

Myles passed through all the ordeal 
calmly and successfully, until the full 
force of the surroundings came upon 
him ; then his voice shook with emotion 
and tears glistened in his eyes. To re- 
alizi& that he was to minister in the little 
white pulpit with black velvet cover, in 
which the old schoolmaster presided for 
so many decades as superintendent of 
the Sabbath-school, to descendants of the 
friends of those days, even to some of his 
old playmates, who once vied w^ith him 
in reciting verses rewarded with blue 
and red tickets, cards and ultimately 
with Testaments and Bibles — was all 
too nmch to endure without a moving of 
the foundations of the soul. 

He never forgot the words of the 
charge to himself by the venerable Wil- 
liam Moore, whose long experience had 
fitted him for so delicate a duty. This 
most beloved presbyter, who had been 
pastor of a single charge for forty years 
and whose name was like ointment pour- 
ed forth in a large parish, where he had 
consumingly labored for the best inter- 
ests of his flock, addressed him in ten- 
der w^ords, reminding him of both duty 
and privilege. In the brilliant, black 
eyes which threescore and ten years had 
not dimmed, Myles read a sympathy 
which only experience could create, and 
he felt that a father in the gospel stood 
before him. Often afterward, in times 
of doubt and trouble, he was helped by 
this felicitous address. 

The transition to the reception which 
followed made him think he had been 
dreaming; but the cordial words of the 
visiting friends and their substantial 
compliments, in the shape of useful ar- 
ticles for household purposes, brought 
him back into the real surroundings of 
the new life that was opening before 

In the kitchen lay bags of flour, gro- 
ceries of all descri[)tions, a great quan- 
tity of white, home-made soap, crocks of 
apple-butter, dried fruit, preserves, po- 
tatoes and all those necessaries which 

the thoughtful minds of Berks county 
matrons could conceive as essential to 
the comfort of. a home. 

A meal of great variety and propor- 
tions promoted expressions of social fel- 
lowship, and ministry and laity vied in 
sallies of wit and humor. A very great 
surprise awaited Myles in the shape of a 
fine horse and buggy with which to per- 
form distant pastoral work. The young 
minister could scarcely express his 
thanks for such hearty and thoughtful 

Still another surprise, though of quite 
a diflFerent nature, was in store for 
]Myles. Alx)ut four o'clock. Miss Eflie 
Fidler, who of course was one of the 
chief — we might playfully say elect — 
ladies of the occasion, slipped away from 
the company and returned with a com- 
panion upon whom iMyles no sooner 
glanced than he was affected with won- 
der and gratification. 

A cordial welcome indeed Myles gave 
the new comer, then he introduced her 
to Caroline a^id. others a Miss Eleanor 
Warren, "an old school-friend" of his — 
if he might use the adjective in the sen-e 
of long-time fellowship. His perplexed 
inquiries relative to her appearance in 
W^omelsdorf were speedily answered. He 
learned that IMiss Warren was the teach- 
er of. the private school mentioned in our 
opening chapter and had come to the 
town in response to an advertisement. 
As her Sundays were usually spent in 
Reading and she was absorbed through 
the week in her schoolroom-duties, she 
had missed all reft;rence to Myles during 
the period of his visits and had only ac- 
cidentally learned the day befpre. from 
Eflie, who the new minister was. 

It was an added pleasure to the happy 
experiences of the day to have the com- 
pany of Miss Warren. Caroline in par- 
ticular was attracted to the cultured girl 
whose ac(.|uaintance she had just made. 
Both she and Myles insisted that s'nc 
should pay them a long visit at her earli- 
est convenience. • 

When tlie cheerful company broke up. 
and Myles and Caroline were alone, it 
seemed to them both, as they mutually 
expressed it, "as though their life- work 



had actually commenced/' To profound 
thoug-lits of the sermon he would have 
to preach the coming- Sunday morning- 
were added grave meditations upon 
plans of work by which the congrega- 
tion might be interested and their true 
spirituality promoted. - - 

The very next afternoon, at the close 
of school-hours, the young parson and 
his bride called upon ]\Iis$ Warren at 
the Seltzer House, where that lady and 
Myles talked freely of olden days, to the 
delight of the admiring and quiet Caro- 
line. It leaked out that Miss Warren 
felt her life at the hotel rather dreary, 
which introduced a bee into Caroline's 
bonnet. That same night she proposed 
to Myles that they invite his- friend to 
their "manse," where her comfort would 
be increased and their own pleasure en- 
hanced by so desirable a member of the 

Myles was a little reluctant to agree 
to the proposition, for a selfish reason 
which may well be excused ; but of 
course he yielded to the generous sug- 
gestions of his. "dear little wife." The 
surprising invitation was accepted by 
Eleanor, not without some objections 
which thoroughly appreciated the kindli- 
ness of her friends. But as the present 
term was nearly ended, Miss Warren re- 
fused to invade the manse until the fall 
term, for she purposed spending her va- 
cation in New England. 

By Sunday the mud of the day of or- 
dination was almost crumbled to dust, 
and the sun shone propitiously upon the 
first Sabbath of Myles's new service. 

The notes of the bell in the cupola of 
the little church were very musical to 
him. Once he had imagined them bur- 
dened with words of invitation ; were 
they not so in a higher sense to-day? 
Trembling a little and faltering in voice, 
his manner in the pulpit mi'^^htily moved 
all hearts as he talked of divine things. 
A mysterious helpfulness waited upon 
him, and he knew it. His prayer for the 
consciousness of the Divine presence 
was simple and touching, and the bcne- 
<Iiction seemed to impart the very peace 
•^f God. 

At the Sunday-school session in the 

afternoon there were many reminders of 
the days of yore. With considerable 
eagerness he searched the premises for 
"The Sunday-School Bell," one of the 
earliest song-books for Bible-schools. 
Great was his delight at finding a copy, 
-worn and moldy, but precious with 

"There is a happy land 
Far, far away," 
"I'm bound for the land of Canaan," 
"Kind words can never die," 
"Out on an ocean all boundless we ride," 
"Around the throne of God in heaven," 

and many other familiar melodies. Per- 
haps even a greater prize was the dis- 
covery of a tattered copy of a child's 
newspaper entitled "The Little Pilgrim," 
of which Grace Greenwood was editor. 

As if to prove that years make but 
little difference, Yony Ur^veiler, the butt 
of the practical jokes of the town-boys, 
placid as ever and apparently not a day 
older, came up, pipe in hand, ready for 
lighting, and greeted the pastor much as 
though he had only parted from him a 
week before. The easy smile and cun- 
ning manner of onewho imagined him- 
self shrewd enough to cope with his per- 
petual tormentors were as plain and nat- 
ural as when they had played together 
in childhood. 

r^Iyles beq-an early in the week a sys- 
tematic visitation of the homes of his 
flock, to identify himself with them and 
their interests and devise plans of church 
improvement. One of his conceptions 
was a scheme of intellectual develop- 
ment for the vounsr men. for whom no 
public library was provided, nor any 
special means of church activity. But 
instead of finding those upon whom he 
called ripe for propositions of this sort, 
the young pastor learned that the town 
was speculating strongly upon the source 
of the robberies which had so long con- 
founded the most acute minds. 

A bold burglary near the Forge the 
night before had again stirred up the 
people : it was felt to be too bad that no 
clue could be obtained to the perpetra- 
tors. Xoticincr quite an assemblage 
about "Cheap John's" store. Myles step- 
ped up and soi'>n loarneil that means of 
investigation wore being vigorously dis- 



Captain Timothy Brandcrs appeared 
to be the leader of the agitators, while 
his partner, Brother Bettler, occasionally 
threw in a remark of confirmation 
or assent. The captain was evident- 
ly inclined to the opinion that die 
Hauswcrtin was implicated in the 
untoward events which had so great- 
ly annoyed and excited the com- 
munity. His partner contributed various 
items of his own personal knowledge. 
He averred having met more than once, 
under suspicious circumstances, a man 
who harbored at the Hex's, and while he 
did not wish to make any accusation 
which he could not substantiate, he felt 
that woman of doubtful character — who 
by the way had been seen at the baptism, 
when so many persons lost their valu- 
ables — was somehow connected with the 
disagreeable circumstances. 

Bettler's advantage in gaining infor- 
mation lay in his frequent trips through 
the country, for the purpose of effecting 
sales and exchanges of various articles 
of merchandise. Sometimes, when quite 
a distance from home, he would secure 
a night's lodging and fare at a trifling 
cost — perhaps the gift of some cheap 
article in his collection of goods. He 
carried combs, brushes, little mirrors. 
Barlow knives, perfumes, soaps and in- 
deed a multitude of trifles usually found 
in a peddler's pack, but of the drudgery 
of transporting which he was relieved by 
the use of a wagon and horse. 

His best sales were usually made in 
the homes of comparatively poor people, 
but he did not disdain to visit the rich 
also. Nor was his business confined to 
sales ; he either bought things for cash — 
at low rates, to be sure — or, what he 
much preferred, traded his wares for 
watches and other articles which he 
might sell again at a profit. His store 
contained much second-hand material, 
which he sold in the main very success- 

The captain, who was more glib in 
conversation, was always in the store 
when his partner was absent. Nor did 
his mining operations appear to suffer at 
any time by his absence from the field of 
excavation, for alas ! the results of min- 
ing were verv meairer. "The South 


^Mountain Gold Mining Company" occa- 
sionally sent out samples of the assay of 
its ore ; but persons who, though desti- 
tute of professional knowledge, pos- 
sessed good estimating powers, felt sat- 
isfied that the stony ridge forming the 
southern boundary of the Lebanon val- 
ley did not contain a bonanza of precious 

^lyles listened gravely to the drift of 
the discussion and was alarmed to per- 
ceive that it boded no good to the un- 
fortunate female who wore the reputa- 
tion of a Hex. The prevalence of the 
superstition he very well knew, for a 
certain fairly intelligent minister of his 
acquaintance was so imbued with faith 
in occult powers as to declare frankly 
that, in case of the recurrence of the se- 
rious sickness of his little child, he would 
procure the services of a "pow-wower." 
What to do, however, to divert attention 
from a poor human wreck, dissolute and 
ignorant, but doubtless innocent of pecu- 
lation, as it seemed to him, he did not 

With much deference he addressed the 
little company and with considerable 
skill threw obstacles in the way oi be- 
lief of the woman's complicity in the 
robberies. But he found that the cap- 
tain and his business-companion were 
determined to settle suspicion upon her. 
Despite his remonstrances it was agreed 
that a meeting of citizens should be ar- 
ranged and steps taken to bring about 
an investigation in the quarter indicated. 
Such a meetinir was called for tlie fol- 



lowing- evening, at the large room above 
the store of the genial Mr. Dundore. 

At this meeting, while a few took 
sides with the charitable view of the 
young minister, the majority, anxious to 
ferret out some avenue of explanation of 
the mysteries, gave the weight of their 
opinion upon the captain's side, and it 
was resolved that a speedy investigation 
of the premises of the Hex should be 

"I feel certain," said the captain, "that 
the stolen goods w^ill be found in her 
house or else secreted near it." Bettler, 
as usual, endorsed the saying. 

It was really a curious company which 
marched up to the Kluft the next morn- 
ing; their general appearance was like 
that of a household bent on catching a 
poor mouse hiding behind articles of 
furniture in a room. But there were 
some stragglers in the rear, ready to run 
at the slightest indication of danger. 
Yony Urweiler w^as probably the bravest 
of the party ; puffing his pipe, he stalked 
on ahead looking as important as if he 
were a major-general leading his forces 
into battle. Captain Branders was quite 
aware that any attempt to search the 
premises would be illegal, but he hoped 
to accomplish the matter by diplomacy. 

There was not one, save Yony per- 
haps, who did not keenly recall the sav- 
age leaps and ferocious cries of Wasser. 
And each man and boy devoutly pur- 
posed keeping clear of the brute's vin- 
dictive teeth. The investigators moved 
out Bone street to Smith's warehouse on 
the railroad, and then took a narrow- 
private road to the Kluft. The speed of 
the party diminished noticeably as they 
approached the steeper portion of the 
journey; the proximity of the wTctched 
dwelling produced trepidation in their 
ranks. Still nearer crept the brave band, 
until each man expected to hear Was- 
!^er's notes of battle. But Wasser either 
slept or held the enemy in contempt. 
Then the cool bravery of Captain Bran- 
ders manifested itself. The pious super- 
intendent of the gold-mines advanced 
fearlessly to the kennel where the dog 
held undisputed' possession and boldly 
rattled some loose boards. But never- 

more would Wasser terrify the rare 
passer-by, except possibly by his 
''spook," for the unattractive but faithful 
dog was dead ! 

A disheveled creature now appeared, 
but regarded her visitors with a sinister 
eye and manner. After considerable par- 
ley and badinage, die Hausivertin was 
lured to the north side of the house, 
whereupon Bettler (for no one else was 
walling to run the risk of her m^aledic- 
tions and baleful power) slipped around 
the house and entered it. It seemed a 
half hour, but it was really only a few 
minutes, when he reappeared, bringing 
with him some articles which were proof 
positive that die Hauszi'eriin was guilty 
of harboring stolen goods. 

The poor woman seemed dazed when 
she discovered the object of the investi- 
gators, and utterly dismayed at the exhi- 
bition of Bettler's trophies ; her feeble 
attempts at remonstrance and explana- 
tion w^ere of course jeered at. She pro- 
tested that she had never seen the articles 
produced as proof against her ; but an 
explanation so contradictory of appear- 
ances had no weight with her judges. 

The poor creature said that neither 
man nor woman found refuge in her 
lonely home, and that very few people 
consulted her powers over diseases. She 
had been terrified of late by mysterious 
sounds, as of a person walking through 
her house ; on previous occasions Wasser 
had barked furiously, although she could 
not imagine why. She had wondered at 
the quiet of the dog during the slight dis- 
turbance of last night, but understood it 
when she found his dead body at the 

The fatal fact of finding upon the 
premises goods which were obviously 
stolen was paramount in the minds of 
the regulators ; but the more cool-headed 
of them, aware of the lack of legal au- 
thority, laid no hands upon the culprit. 
In a hurried consultation they asfreed to 
take proj^er steps to sift the matter to the 
bottom and bring the woman to punish- 
ment. It was not long before the crowd 
returned to town to spread their tri- 
umphant achievement in locating the 
transgressor, or at least his accomplice. 






• Left to . herself die Haiiswcrtin fell 
into a fit of violent weeping and moan- 
ing". Both her demijohn and her bottle 
of "lecture opium" being empty, her un- 
strung nerves, tortured by the occur- 
rences of the day, completely gave way, 
and she threw herself upon a miserable 
settee in her one lower room and shook 
with morbid apprehension. 

After a while a curiosity seized her to 
examine the upper apartments of which 
there were two ; there, to her horror and 
dismay, she actually discovered several 
packages of goods which were not her 
own. The consciousness of duplicity in 
the assertion of healing power served to 
harrow her with the thought that divine 
retribution was about to be visited upon 
her, and she determined to fly from the 
scene. With this purpose she rummaged 
the house hastily to procure her most 
valuable effects, and having an inkling 
of what might be expected from the vil- 
lagers, she concluded to disappear 
through the Kluft or its neighboring ra- 
vines, to some secluded spot where she 
could hide herself in safety. 

Although there was an accumulation 
of rubbish both below and above stairs, 
there was really little that was worth 
carrying away. It only remained to ex- 
amine the cellar and secure some food 
for the toilsome journey. Into this 
gloomy apartment, unlighted by a single 
window, being for the most part above 
ground and walled in with a dark and 
dirty stone, she went with a lamp al- 
most as dingy. A few scraps of bread 
and meat were snatched from moldy 
shelves, and with a shiver the woman 
stepped out into the welcome light of day. 
But the sight of dead Wasser stretched 
at full length so close to the house over- 
came her, for, brute though he was, he 
was her best friend. Sinking to the floor, 

(To be 

the lamp fell out of her hand ; in a mo- 
ment the room was ablaze and the wo- 
man in imminent peril of her life. Hap- 
pily the catastrophe imparted a momen- 
tary strength to the friendless and trou- 
bled Haiiswcrtin, and she managed to 
get out of the burning cabin just in time 
to avoid an awful death. 

The flames quickly seized upon the in- 
flammable parts of the building and de- 
voured the woodwork and furniture, to- 
gether with all the contents, as rapidly 
as a heap of dried brush. In fact it was 
all over so quickly that, when the people 
of the nearest farm discovered the fire 
and ran to render help, all was consumed, 
save the still smoking beams and smoth- 
ered debris in the little walled enclosure. 
When still later. Constable Spotts, armed 
with a legal commission, visited the 
premises, the terrified late occupant was 
on her way to a distant mountain retreat, 
where she might feel absolutely safe. 
Womelsdorf never saw her again. 

It was a great sensation — greater than 
Van Buren's visit to the Seltzer House 
in 1838; greater than the Civil War, be- 
cause it was so exclusively the property 
of Womelsdorf. For the moment Bran- 
ders and Bettler were heroes, although 
there were some who doubted the wo- 
man's guilt. It was argued that the Hex- 
could not have committed the depreda- 
tions of which she was accused, that she 
must have had an accomplice : but it was 
responded that some had seen men hang- 
ing about her premises, and the eixsteiice 
of stolen property there was undeniable. 
The skeptics felt themselves strength- 
ened in their conviction at a later period, 
when yet another burglary was com- 
mitted ; but then their opponents con- 
tended that this was the work or the 
same parties, who had only transferred 
their headquarters elsewhere, 

An Octogenarian Minister 

• The oldest clergynian of the United Evan- 
gelical East Pennsylvania Conference is Rev. 
Edmund P.utz, of .-Mlcntown. who was born 
in South Whitehall. Lehigh county, November 
18, 1827. He united with the church at four- 

teen and has worked in the ministry over fifty 
years, serving: charges in Lohis^h. Rerks. Ntont- 
gomery, Northampton and Carbon. He has 
attended 131 campmcetings. Though he re- 
tired from active service several years ago, he 
still preaches frequently. 



Literary Gems 

Bv "Solly Hulsuuck/' 

Wann der Parra kumnit, 

Werd rum getschumpt. 
Die "euchre-deck" werd g'schwind verbrennt, 
Ks G'sangbuch un es Teschtament 
Abg'schtaabt un uf der Disch gerennt, 

Wann der Parra kummt, 

Per Paff is rund 

Un schtaut un g'sund ; 
F.r hot en dicker llawersack. 
So geht die Polly an's Geback 
Mit Schmier un Schmutz un Alehl bei'm Pack, 

Wann der Parra kummt. 

Die alt verlumpt 

Kopax is schtump. 
Dart is en alter' Guckriguh, 
Gcbora 1882, 
Der krigt bei'm Henker nau mol Ruh, 

Wann der Parra kummt ! 

Der Off a brmiimt 

For siwa Schtunn. 
Der Guckriguh leit uf em Rick 
Im Haffa dart un kickt un kickt; 
Mer muss en metzla mit ra Pick, 

Wann der Parra kummt. 

Tough? Liewer Grund ! 

Mit fufzig Pund 
Schusspulver kennt mer net viei duh 
An sellem alta Guckriguh. 
Es neekscht mol hen mer Zwiwla-Schtuh, 

Wann der Parra kummt. 

Frisch aus em Grund, 

Schtandhaft un g'sund, 
Sel gebt em Parra Kraft dabei. 
Ich meen bitschudes sel war fei, 
Mk Sauerkraut noch newabei, 

Wann der Parra kummt. 



Ich kenn en gewisser Mann 
'As dankbar is un froh 
Far dar Himmel hoch un bloc ; 
Far sei Aage, dass ar so 

Sei Kinner sehne kann ; 

Weil sei Kinner schpringe un lache 
Un ihre G'schpiele mache ; 
Iwvver die un degleiche Sache 

Frohsinnig lacht ar dann. 

Ar lacht un is voll Freed 

Far dar Regge un dar Schnee ; 
Far's Grass un dar lieblich Klee 
Un die Blumme frisch un schee' 

LTn em Wald sei schattiche Piid. 

Ar wunnert net warum 
Dass annere sin so dumm 
Un lewe so schlecht un krumm 
Un die Welt sich dar letz Weg dreht. 

Ar guckt net farnc 'naus 

Mit 'me sargfeltig Gsicht — 
Bang wegge 'm grosse Gericht : 
Ar geht in 's Rett unne Licht 

Un die dunkel Nacht schlooft au>. 
En Philosoph odder 'n Schnepp? 
Die Leit dhune 'n aa'gucke schepp 
Un schmunzle un schittle die Kepp 

Un meene ar waer "aus em Haus." 



I he man who knows not that he knows not 
aught — 
lie is a fool; no light shall ever reach him. 
Who knows he knows not and would fain hd 
taught — 
He is but simple; take thou him and teach 

Hut whoso knowing knows not that he knows — 

He is asleep; go thou to him and wake him. 

T he truly wise both knows and knows he 


Cleave thou to him and nevermore forsake 


— ^London Spectator. 



Der Mann, der nicht weiss, dass er ja nichts 
Der ist ein Thor; er tappt im Finstcrn hin. 
Wer nichts weiss, doch zu lernen sucht mit 
Ist einfiiltig. Geh'. untcrweise ihn. 

Wer aber weiss und nicht sein Wissen kennt. 

Der schliift. Ihn aufzuwccken sei dir Prficht. 

Wer weiss und, dass er weiss, auch weiss, der 


Mit Recht sich weise. Folg' ihm, lass ihn 


— H. A. S. 



By E. K. 

Der Keschtabaam vun alia Beem halt ich mer for der schenscht. 
Wann du net ah so dcnka kannscht, glaaw ich net, dass du'n kennscht. 

Der Schtamm is dick, die Rin is brau, die Nascht sin lang un viel; 

Die Blatter gric un schec gezackt, der Schatta immer kihl. 

Mit seina Blatter, Bliet un Frucht is er net in der Eil — 
Was ebbes Rechtes werra will, nemmt immer'n gute Weil. 

Wann Weidabeem un Meepla schun mit Blatter schtehn bedeckt, 
Hot ihn die Sun un Frihlingsluft mit knapper Not geweckt. 

Wann dann die Luft mol warmer werd, dass Eis un Froscht vergeht, 
Schtellt er sich glei so luschtig raus, wie mer's net meena deet. 
For'n lange Zeit scheint nix gericht, ken Blieta un ken Frucht-r- 
Die Kerscha un die Meeplabliet finnt jeder ohne g'sucht. 

Doch endlich weisa Schwanzcher sich, recht in da Blatter drin. 
Sel sin die Blieta; bass juscht uf, bis sic mol fertig sin. 

Un dicht dabei, am frischa Holz, wachst en klee Klettcha raus ; 

Dart wachsa mol die Keschta drin, sel gebt ihr schtachlig Haus. 

Die ganz schee Sach is so verschteckt, 's schwetzt Niemand leicht davun; 
Doch endlich, wann's mol zeitig is, kummt alles an die Sun. 

's gchn ganza langa Wocha hi', doch gebt's am End en Luscht ; 

Die Schwanzcher wachsa iang un dick, da Klettcher schwellt die 
Bruscht ! 

Die Schwanzcher gucka goldig weiss un sin juscht gar zu siess. 
Die Bolla sin noch grie un zart un schtecha em ken Fiess. 

Guck juscht mol hi'! Des is en Luscht, so Blieta wie des sin; 

's sin dicka Klumpa, breet un lang, un gar ken Blatter drin. 

Die Siessigkeet bringt Kaffer bei un !Micka, allerlci. 
W^err ich nau bees for so Gezeig? Ich bin jo ah dabei. 

's is en Genuss, gewiss ich leb, for Aaga, Nas un Ohr; 

Nix kennt mer schenner, besser sei im ganza liewa Johr. 

Die Blieta werra welk un brau un falla endlich ab — 

So geht's mit allem Blietaschmuck zum diefa, schtilla Grab. 

Dann wachsa erscht die Bolla recht, die Schtachla schpitza sich. 

Lang net zu neekscht mit deinra Hand — gewiss, sie schtecha dich. 

In jedra Boll sin Keschta drin. die wachsa nau erscht aus; 
Un wann sie schutzlos wara drin, war bal en jede haus. 

Die Vegel, Meis un Kinnerschtofft warn Dag un Nacht druf los; 

Drum sin die Schtachla ganz am Platz, grad so wie bei der Ros. 

Wann dann die Keschta gresser sin un brau wie Haselniss, 
Schpringt jede Boll in Kreizform uf. in weita, diefa Riss. 

Doch net zu g'schwind, hab noch Geduld ! 's is immer noch net Zeit : 
Sie fall'n der endlich vor die Fiess, noh hoscht du sie net weit. 

Du brauchscht ken Gcrt un Prigel do — ken "Angscht, un "Gott erbarm !" 
Erwart die Zeit un hab Geduld bis noch ma "Keschtaschtarm."' 

Geduld is doch en grosse Sach. sic schpart uns Not un Mih; 

Wer ohne sie sei Glick versuclit, der hunt's doch werklich nie. 

Guck mol so'n Boll genauer a' — wie wunnerbarlich schce : 
Inwennig zart wie Kisseschtofft. auswennig Schtachla. Zah ! 

Was is doch des en Unnerschied. bcinanner ah so dicht ! 

's gebt viel zu lerna iwerall, vum bcschta Unncrricht. 

Vun alia Beem im Vatterland. eb wild noch odder zahm. 

Setz ich mich's liebi^chr im Schatta hi' vum liewa Keschtabaam. 
Ich schteck mer Blattcher an die Bruscht. en Blinicha uf da Hut, 
Un denk dabei in siesser Luscht : Was haw ich's doch so gut ! 






Dcr Garret war der evvcrscht Sclitock 

Uf unserni alta Hans. 
Es Dach war nidder nn ken Clock 

Hangt im a Schtiepcl draus. 

Un Latwerg ah, der allerbescht, 

Zwee Dutzend HefFavoll, 
Hen mir nuf Schpotjohrs, eb incr drescht 

Do war's em imnier wohl. 

En Hans wu net en Garret hot, 
Vum beschta Schtofft gemacht, 

Is net en Wohning wie's sei sot 
Un werd net viel geacht. 

Es Dach des deckt der Garret zu, 
f lalt Sclinee un Rega draus ; 

Doch werd's bal alt, wie ich un du, 
Noh gebt's viel Lecher naus. 

Ich sehn die Better noch dart schteh ; 

Die Garretschtub war voll. 
Die P'edderdecka w\ir'n oft klee, 

J)ie Deppich war'n vun Woll. 

Mer hen oft Latwergmatsch gemacht. 

Was war des als en I'Vecd I 
Do hen mer g'feiert, g'rihrt, gelacht 

Un Schpass g'hat mit da Meed. 

Die ]Meis mit ihra scharfa Xas, 

Die wara ah dabei. 
Die Mam die war gar oftmols bees, 

Hot g'saat, des breicht net sei. 

Doch war'n sie dart, ja viel zu viel. 

Zu schnufHa alles aus. 
Die ^lehlsack wara als ihr Ziel ; 

Mehl war ihr liebschter Schmaus. 

Die Zeha wara uns oft kalt, 
Ja, oftmols bloo un schwarz; 

Un Summers, wann der Dunner knallt, 
Dann zittert uns es Herz. 

En roter Eechhas sehnt mer oft 

Dart uf der Garret-Pet. 
Er hot en Xescht, wu er drin schloft, 

Sei Weiwle ah, ich wett. 

Der Garret war en Schtorhaus ah 

For alles was mer hot. 
Ich weess noch gut, ich denk oft dra' 

An selle gross, gross Lot. 

Gederrta Bohna, Kerscha, Schnitz, 

Un Thee vun aller Art, 
Jlen g'hanga dart in Kalt un Hitz, 

Un Brotwarscht bei der Yard. 

Sie schnieka an die Walniss oft 

Un nemma viel mit fart. 
Mer losst sie geh, des hungrig Schtofft ; 

Die Winter wara hart. 

Wie lieblich rauscht's un rappelt's doch. 

Wann's regert, uf em Dach ! 
Noh kummt der Eechhas rei zum Loch ; 

Sei war en schecne Sach. 

Un Keschta, Walniss, Hickerniss, 

Uf Heifa un in Sack, 
Hen uns bewillkummt — ja gewiss!- 
* Do odder dart im Eck. 

Un Beeraschnitz, so siess un gut, 

Die wara unser Freed. 
Un Juddakerscha bringa Mut, 

Wann's als ans Backa geht. 

Es alt Haus is nau fart; ich sehn 
-Juscht wu's mol g'schtanna hot. 
Die Leit wu drin gewohnt als hen. 
Sin viel schun bei ihr'm Gott. 

Die paar, wu uf der Erd noch sin. 

Die missa ah bal naus. 
Es Dach brecht nei. 's bleibt nix meh drin. 

Guckt rum for'n anner Haus! 



's is en bissel g'schwind ganga mit mer, sei 
nniss ich saga. Geschter war ich noch g'sund 
un munter, heit lei ich do un bin doot ! Ich 
hab immer gemeent, wann mer mol doot wiir, 
dann deet mer nix meh vun sich wissa ; awer 
do lei ich, bin doot un weess's. un kann's doch 
net helfa. Alsemol meen ich, ich war juscht 
schci'doot un deet bal widder zu mer kumtna : 
noh is mer's als widder as wann mei Geischt 
iwer mer schwewa deet un deet mich recht 
draurig a'gucka," wcil mer so g'schwind vun 
tianncr geh hen missa. 

Wie's kumma is, dass ich g'schtarwa bin, 
l<ann ich mer net recht ei'bilda. Ich meen awer, 

ich wiir noch'm Supper ins Beit ; mer hen ge 
brotene Lewer g'hat un mei Frah liot sich noch 
g'freet. dass mer's so gut g'schmackt hot. Im 
Bett is ebbes wie'n kalter Froscht iwer micii 
kununa, dann hot's mer in da Bee gckrawelt un 
dann is mei Geischt wie so'n kleene dunkle 
Wolk aus mer in die Heh g'schiiega. Xoh 
war ich cwa doot. 

Was ich awer gar net begroifa kann is. dass 
ich nau alles viel besser sehn un verschtch as 
wie ich noch gelebt hab. Ich kann jo grad in 
die Menscha nei sehna un ihra Gedanka lesa. 
Do is mei Frah. Wie die in dcr Schtub rum 
laaft un heilt I Un doch hot sic moi Life-In- 



surance for rinf dauscnt Dalcr beig'liolt so 
g'schwind as sie g'sehna hot as ich doot bin, 
un schmunzclt un wnnnert, was sie mit deni 
Geld duh will, un eb ihr nceksclilcr Mann ihr 
ah fnif dausent gcbl, wann er schterbt, un was 
for Kleeder sie 's bcscht suhta. Un dabei brillt 
un dobt sie, wann die Leit rcikumma for mich 
a'gucka, as wann sie narrisch werra wot. O, 
so Weiwer ! For selle hnf dauscnt Daler deet 
sie mich tinf dauscnt mol schterwa sehna. 

Un dann der Coroner un die Tschury — wie 
die Leit sich verschtella kenna I Do schtehn 
sie un macha all G'sichter as wann sie Zahweh 
hetta. Der Coroner tingert an mer rum un 
sagt, ich het's an der Lewer g'hat ; darnoh 
rolla sic die Aaga un gucka as wann sie's 
Heemweh hetta for mich, un doch denkt jeder : 
"Ja, der hot's an der Lewer g'hat, for about 
hunnert Daler wert in unser Sack!" Un 'sis 
net wohr, dass ich's an der Lewer g'hat hab ; 
ich hab's vun der Lewer g'hat, un nau weess 
ich ah forwas mci Frah sich so g'freet hot, 
dass ich so herzhaftig gessa hab. 

Nau kummt der Undertaker. Des is grad 
der Recht, den kenn ich schun lang. Der hot 
so'n schwarz Schild an seinra Dihr, mit sil- 
vverna Buschtawa ; des hot er sich nau iwer 
die Aaga g'hangt wie'n Kappaschip. An eem 
Buschtawa is en bissel Silwer ab un do 
kann ich'm grad ins Hern neigucka un sei Ge- 
danka lesa. Er hot mich uf'n Bord gerollt un 
dabei en G'sicht gemacht as wann sei Herz 
verschpringa deet, un doch freet er sich, dass 
er ah ebbes an mir zu verdiena krigt. ''Eem 
sei Dood is em Annera sei Brot" denkt er un 
er meent, Gott het's doch schee uf der Welt 
ei'gericht, well er die Leit schterwa macht, so 
as en Undertaker lewa kann. Sei G'sicht hcilt 
auswennig un lacht inwennig. Sei is sei Bis- 
■ness-G'sicht, un er hot's ah immer uf. O, 
wann ich juscht mei Hand verrega kennt ! Ich 
wot'rn. emol 'n paar in's G'tress gewa, dass er 
mol drei Wocha uf Vacation geh misst. Die 
grossa kupperna Cent, wu er mer uf die Aaga 
gelegt hot, die deet ich'm, bei Golly, in da 
Hals nei schtoppa, dass er dra verwarga deet! 

Er hot mei Nochbera g'frogt, for mich uf 
der Kerchhof traga, un sie hen's ah zug'saat. 
Awer ich sehn, 's is ihna doch net recht ; en 
halwer Dag zu verliera, koscht zu sindhaftig 
viel ! Wann sie seilebdag mich g'frogt hetta, 

for sie lielfa naustraga, ei, do war ich gcrn 
in der dunkelschta Nacht un bei der greeschia 
Kiilt ganga un hct ihna den Favor gcduh. 
Awer wart, sie kumma villeicht ah mol for 
ebbes : 

Es deet mich ah net so verziirna, wann die 
Leit net so betricbta G'sichter macha deeta, 
wann sie mich a'gucka. Sic wunncra all, wu 
ich nau hi' ganga bin un eb ich ah mei Sinda 
bereit hab. Ich glaab vcrhaftig, dass viel Leit 
an en Hell glaawa, weil sie hoffa, ihr Xoch- 
bera kumma mol nei ! 

Mei Frah kummt ah so nohgedabbelt a^ 
wann mei Dood sie schteif im Kreiz gemacht 
het. Verschtclling, nix as Verschtelling I Ich 
schn's doch, wie selle finfdauscnt Daler ihr 
Herz lacha macha. Un for selle Drauerklec- 
der hot sie ah net juscht so viel bezahlt. For- 
was sot sie viel for'n dooier Mann ausgewa, 
wann en Icwendiger juscht halwer so viel 
koscht un zehamol so viel wert is? So denkt 
mei Frau vun mir, wu ich dra' ganga bin un 
g'schtarwa, dass sie des Geld ziega hot kenna. 
Of course, mei Schterwa war net juscht^ en 
barter Tschab, awer er halt so lang a'. 

Nau sehn awer juscht emol Ebbcr mei Grab 
a' ! Contract-Erwet, lauter Contract-Erwet I 
Net emol ausgemauert, un's hot juscht en hal- 
wer Boddem ! Wann ich mei Frah zu begrawa 
g'hat l\et, dann het ich ihr en recht dief prab 
macha un's gut ausmauera lossa, schun weil 
sie mer da G'falla geduh het zu schterwa, dass 
ich die iinfdausent Daler ziega het kenna. 

Die Hal ft vun mcim Gral) is der A'fang vum 
a diefa Loch. Sie setza mei Lad ah grad 
ncwig sei Loch, un ich wett druf, 's deet net 
viel nemma. dann deet ich zamma nunner 
barzela. Nau harch juscht, wie sie da Grund 
uf mi-ch nunner scheppa — un die Scholia falla 
all newig' die Lad un schiewa sie als weiter 
iwer der Rand. Guck, guck, was ich g'saat 
hab — do — do geht's — grad was ich gewisst hab, 
as happena deet — • 

Bums! ! ! 

■'Was g'happent is? Ei, du alt Mondkalb. 
bischt aus'm Bett g'falla !" 

Jerum, des is meinra Frah ihra Stimm. Ich 
bin net doot, ich hab juscht so en ferchterlich 
wieschter Draam g'hat. Noch dem soil sie 
mer awer ken Lewer meh brota for Supper I 


Note. — The following pretty "fondliiig-pit'oc" has 
beeu sent us by Dr. S. P. Heilman, of Ilolhnandale. 
Pa., with those remarks: ".Vt the twenty-Iifth anni- 
versary of the Baden Aid Socioty, of Philadelphia. 
(Stlftiingsfest des Badischen UnterstUtzuntcs-Vereins) . 
held In Washington Park. July 24. 1907. a beautiful 
book was given out as a s..uvenir. This book contaln-f 

Zaige, lenn mi 's Kindli sehne ! 

Gell, 'r gunne m'r des GUick? 
's Miilili sperrt's uf ! 's duet giihne ! 

O, wia nudlig isch's, wia dick ! 

Giigili het's, o, dia glanze 
Wia d'r Morgestern so hell. 

the i)ieture of a small party, father, mother aud .•< 
nurse carry iui; an infant ehlld that has Just bi^en 
christened, ooniing out of church and meetlnp S4xue 
lady friends. .\ttached to this seeno is the follow iuS 
ptHMu in the Baden vernacular. Who can tr.Hnslate it 
into i:n;;llsli equally prett\ . affectionate, tender and 

He, de g*lu»rsch halt's Hucwcrlenze! 
Gell. mi herzig's Pfoschtli. gell?' 

Jetz macht's d'Aigli zue. 's liab G'schoptli. 

Schlof guet in ilim Pfulfe ilrin ! 
R'hiiet di Gott. du liab's, guet's Trc^pfli 1 

Wurr wia tlini Flltra sin I 




German Immigration and Influence 

THE month for which this issue of 
The Pennsylvania-German is 
dated will bring- the two hundred 
twcnty-fourtli anniversary of the land- 
ing- of the first German colony in this 
country. October 6, 1683, was the start- 
ing-point of the current of immigration 
that, with gradually growing strength 
and occasional ebbings, has since been 
setting toward these shores from the fa- 
therland. Of all foreign countries Ger- 
many has made the largest contribution 
to the population of the United States. 

We have no figures at hand to esti- 
mate the strength of the German element 
in this country to-day. But we will quote, 
as from competent authority, from an 
article recently published by l^rofessor 
John Hoskins in the Princeton Review, 
some statements concerning the influ- 
ence of the Germans upon our national 

According to the last census there had come 
to the United States between the years 1820 
and 1900 over five million emigrants from 
(jermany. During the same period 3,024,222 
luiglish and 3,^71.^55 Irish emigrants came to 
our shores. ^ Whatever molding influence our 
English political system and the English lan- 
guage may exercise, these figures at once dis- 
pel the illusion that the American people is 
Anglo-Saxon in blood and temperament. A 
conservative estimate shows that certainly one- 
tiiird and more probably, owing to the great 
fecundity of the German marriage, one-half 
of our population is of German descent. . . . 

As a result of German inunigration the Lu- 
theran Churcli has 1)een making gigantic strides 
forward in tlie 3^Iid(lle West. . . . Lutheran- 
i>ni is likely to leave a deep impression on the 
religious character of our people. In the edu- 
cational sphere it is German influence which. 
iiKire than any other factor, has transformed 
the ok! American college into the new Ameri- 
can university, a type whose form and spirit 
Iiave been largely determined by the State in- 
stitutions of the Middle West. Not only are 
niost of our professors in higher institutions 
of learning today German-trained, but the 
methods employed, as well as the results com- 
numicated in theology, philosophy, history and 
die sciences, are largely the products of Ger- 
man thought and research. In literature itself 
the influence of the contemporary Germati 
'Irania is already making itself felt, and finally. 

that all the progress we have made in musical 
art is due to German inspiration and German 
methods, is a fact too obvious to need further 

A Contrast in Farming 

Travelers who have been in all sec- 
tions of this cotmtry frequently remark 
that nowhere else they have found such 
fine farms and farm-buildings as among 
the Germans, whether in their original 
homes in southeastern Pennsylvania or 
in their later settlements. Usually their 
farms may readily be distinguished from 
those of their neighbors of other nation- 
ality by the evidences of industry, neat- 
ness and thrift abounding on every side. 
In short, the Pennsylvania-Germans arc- 
known far and wide as model farmer^. 
By way of contrast let us quote from 
The Lutheran a few observation < on 
farming in New England, made by a 
resident of the Lebanon valley. 

Perhaps we are mistaken, but New England 
is a land of farms without farmers. In all 
our wanderings we did not see one great 
"Pennsylvania barn," lifting itself in glory to 
the skies. . . .In western Xew England I 
saw not one field of wheat, and but one field 
of grain of any kind, and the people were 
staring at this field from the car-windows, 
wondering what kind of grass could be grow- 
ing out there! The only cultivated lands were 
tracts prepared for raising truck, and none oi 
them seemed eminently successful. There were 
no signs c^f the ownership of horses or farm- 
ing-machinery. All the men we saw in the 
fields were stooping painfully, cultivating the 
earth by hand. 

One thing must be said in favor of this 
country — it is a region of grass. Hundreds of 
acres of apparently unbroken ground stretched 
far off to the horizon, resplendent in its beau- 
teous garment of living green. Nevertheless. 
this grass did not intimate a bountiful hay- 
crop. . . . W'e saw some wagon-loads of hay 
being taken to the barn or the town. But 
neither horse, wagon, load or driver were ac- 
cording to the Pennsylvania style. The hay- 
wagon had a sort oi lean spare-rib look and 
the loads were correspondingly small. On top 
of one sat, or rather lay. the driver, broad 
upon his back and fast asleep, while the horses 
were meandering between trolley-cars and 
bustling teams and shooting automobiles. . . . 
It seems sad to find hayseed one oi the most 
remarkable products of advanced Xew 




The German as a Town-Dweller 

Not only as an agriculturist has the 
German-American proverl a conspicuous 
success. He is a home-builder in the 
towns also, a very potent factor in their 
growth. Here is a well deserved tribute 
to the German element in a well known 
Pennsylvania town, offered by a news- 
paper-correspondent : 

York today holds a high position as a 
manufacturing city, ranking third as such in 
the State. It owes this position not to. unusual 
railroad or water faci'Hties, nor to superior 
geographical situation, but solely to the cir- 
cumstance that labor here is abundant and in- 
expensive. And why is there an abundance 
of inexpensive labor? It is because of the 
quiet, simple, plain-living, home-loving habits 
of our German population. 

Shamefaced Germans — A Hoax or a Slur? 
It .would not be difficult to gather 
many more tributes, direct and indirect, 
to the civic and domestic virtues of the 
German-Americans. When the foremost 
writers of the day, such as Professor 
Hoskins, bear witness to their induence 
on religion, education, art, literature, 
agriculture and mechanics, how despic- 
able appear those Germans, young or 
old, who are ashamed of their origin. 
name and language! Yet unfortunately 
we find a good many of these, even here 
in eastern Pennsylvania, who take spe- 
cial pains, to hide the first, to anglicize 
the second and to forget the last — tho 
their tongue may stumble painfully in 
the attempt and their speech, like that of 
Peter, when he denied his Lord, betrays 

Here is another clipping that is not 
just complimentary to the "Petnisylva- 
nia-Dutch," but may serve a purpose. It 
is well to see ourselves as others see us. 
even wdien they look at us thro' glasses 
all dark with prejudice and envy. 

Some years ago, there were to be seen, in 
a shop in Philadelphia, several large books of 
Lutheran devotion, in tiie type and orth(\gra- 
phy of 1640, bound in deeply stamped white 

vellum, with heavy brass clasps. They did not 
appear to be imitations of old books: they 
seemed to be ancient, but the date was recent. 
"They are for the Pennsylvania-Dutch." said 
the bookseller. "They would not believe that 
the Lord would hear them, if they prayed to 
liim out of a modern-looking book. And 
those books, as you see them, have been print- 
ed and bound in that style for nearly two hun- 
dred years for the Pennsylvania-Dutch market, 
just as they were printed for their ancestors, 
during the Reformation." 

The editor who tells this story gives it 
as an instance of the conservatism of 
"these worthy people," a conservatism 
probabl}- not to be found anywhere in 
Europe. Certainly it would be the 
height of conservatism to use prayer- 
books reprinted time and again "in the 
type and orthography of 1640." if such 
a thing were done. We have been in 
scores of Pennsylvania-German homci 
and handled himdreds of their books : we 
have seen there many a cherished old 
tome bound in white vellum, with heavy 
brass clasps, some even dating further 
back than 1640. bttt not one of those re- 
prints of recent date. Either that book- 
seller wanted to hoax his interviewer or 
the whole story is an ill devised slur. 
A Word for the Publisher 

^lany magazines begin a new year's 
volume with this month. Publishers are 
sending out their fall announcements, 
and many readers are about to make up. 
from the abundance of material offered, 
their lists for the coming year. To all 
our readers whose subscriptions are 
about to expire we extend a cordial and 
pressing invitation to renew promptly, 
also requesting them to urge upon their 
friends the claims of The 
xia-Germax. in order to swell our cir- 
culation and enable lis to improve our 
magazine.. With respect to combinations 
please remember that we are ready to 
meet the prices quoted by any reputable 
publisher or agency. Do not fail then 
to include The Pexxsvia'axia-Germax 
in your list of choice magazines for iQoS. 

A Newspaper 103 Years Old 

July 7, 1907, was the hundred-third aimiver- 
sary of the Bucks County Intelligencer, a week- 
ly newspaper published at Doylestown. It i>< 
the oldest and largest newspaper in Bucks 

German Day in Luzerne County 
The Germans of Luzerne county. Pa., cele- 
brated German Day September 5 at Sans Souci 
Park. President Julius Schumann, oi the Ger- 
man-American .Mliance. and others nunle aif- 





Clippings from Current News 


Lutheran Books in the State Library 
A large number of representative Lutheran 
books have been placed in the Pennsylvania 
State-Library, and a special list of the Luth- 
t-ran books and authors has been prepared for 
the Library's catalog. The Lutheran ministe- 
rial association of Harrisburg has led in this 
1,'ood work. 

New Cottage at Bethany Orphans' Home 

['"ully fifteen thousand people attended the 
forty- fourth anniversary of Bethany Orphans' 
Home at Womelsdorf, August 23. The chjef 
feature of the day's exercises was the dedi- 
cation of the Leinbach cottage, a handsome 
throe-story building of Colonial design, erected 
to relieve the crowded condition of the Frick 
cottage. The new structure cost $12,000. 
.^mong the legacies thereto was one of $1000 
by John E. Lentz, of Allentown, and one of 
$1147.22 by Catharine Ott. of Coopersburg. 
Rev. and Mrs. George P. Stem, of Siegfried. 
<lonated the infirmary. 

Deplorable Indifference to Church-History 

Several years ago Rev. J. \V. Early, a re- 
tired Lutheran clergyman of Reading, under- 
took to compile the history of all Lutheran 
congregations in Berks county, eigiity in num- 
ber. The work, upon which he spent a vast 
deal of time and labor, was to be published in 
book-form, but, though less than two thousand 
subscriptions at less than a dollar each were 
required, sufficient interest could not be arous- 
ed among almost thirty thousand church-mem- 
bers in the county to subscribe for the required 
number of copies. Rev. Mr. Early has there- 
fore concluded to publish the histories in the 
Reading -Times. 

Portraits in Susquehanna University 

Susquehanna LTniversity at Selinsgrove, Pa., 
now contains portraits of four prominent Lu- 
theran divines and teachers : Rev. Henry Zieg 
lor, D.L')., professor of theology from 1S58 to 
i<S8i and president of the University from i860 
to 1881 ; Rev. Peter Born, D.D.' Professor 
of theology from 1881 to 1899, and president 
from i88t to 1S94: Rev. Samuel Domer, D.D.. 
pastor of Trinity Lutheran church from 1855 
to 1866, and president of Susquehanna Female 
College from 1865 to 1869; Rev. J. R. Dimm, 
n.D., professor in Susquehanna University 
from 1894 to 1906, and its president from 
1895 to 1899. 

Historic St. John's Rededicated 
^ St. John's Lutheran church at Center 
Square, Montgomery county, was rededicated 
AuKUst 25tii. The pastor. Rev. J. H. Ritter. 
was assisted by Rev. Dr. Jacob Fry, of Mount 
Airy,^ and Rev. C. C. Snyder, of Dublin. St. 
John's was organized in 1769, its first pastor 

being Dr. John Frederic Schmidt, .\fter th. 
battle of Germantown, when Washington ha'i 
to retreat to within three miles of Church 
Hill, on which the church stands, Dr. Schmidt 
threw open its doors to receive the sick and 
wounded Continentals and a<lministcred Chris- 
tian comfort to the dying. The present church 
is nearly a century old and built of the. same 
material as the former. Its most precious relic 
is a pewter communion service, which wa« 
used for more than a century and whose 
wafer-plates are inscribed "Queen Church. 

A Sunday-School's Golden Jubilee 
The Sunday-school of the West Swamp 
Mennonite church, the first of its denomina- 
tion in eastern Pennsylvania, celebrated its tif- 
tieth anniversary August 31. The exercise- 
were held in Weinberger's grove, close to the 
church. Addresses were made by William M. 
Gehman, of ^Lacungie. one of the organizer- 
of the school ; Rev. A. S. Shelly, of Bally, and 
Prof. S. M. Rosenberger, of Philadelphia. 

The Oldest Lutheran Church in Canada 

The Lutheran Church in Canada stands fifth, 
in size and first in rate of growth. St. John"* 
church, originally called Salem's, at Riverside, 
on the banks of the majestic St. Lawrence, 
two and a half miles northeast of Morrisburg. 
is the oldest existing Lutheran church in all 
Canada. It was founded in 1784 by forty fam- 
ilies of German loyalists from the Huilson anil 
INIohawk valleys in Xew York. Their first pas- 
tor was Rev. Samuel Schwerdfeger. who buili 
a church and parsonage in 1789 and served the 
congregation fourteen years. His successor? 
were: Rev. Frederic A. Mvers, 1804-1807: 
Rev. J. G. Weigandt, 1808-181T: Rev. Myers 
again. 1814-1817: Rev. J. P. Goertncr, mis- 
sionary: Rev. Hermann Hayunga, iSjo-t,';': 
Rev. Simon Dederich, 1837-39: Rev. William 
Sharts. 1840-1858: Rev. J. H. Hunton. 1861- 
1873 : Rev. Lewis Hippe, 1873-74 : Rev. Augusr 
Schultes, 1874-7:;: Rev. M. H. Fishburn. 1870- 
S2: Rev. A. H. Kimiard, 1882-90: Rev. W. L 
Genzmer, 1890-93: Rev. O. D. Bartholomew. 
1893-95; Rev. S. C. Keller. 1805-1000: Rev. J. 
C. F. Rupp. 1900-1907. 

A Wife's Self-Sacrifice 
Mrs. Washington A. Roebling. who died in 
Trenton. X. J., some months ago. was a woman 
who achieved success along unusual lines. Her 
chief claim to distinction lies in the work she 
did in superintending the building of the 
Brooklyn Bridge. When her husband, the fa- 
mous architect, who had personally superin- 
tended every detail of the construction, fell 
sick of caisson- fever, she took his place, mak- 
ing daily reports to him and receiving from 
him daily instructions. But the work she per- 
formed was too much for any woman, and 



her physician traced the mental and physical 
breakdown which hrrnight on her death from 
that time. In 1889 Airs. Roehling graduated 
from the women's legal class of New York 
University, thus attaining in her later life an 
honor to vvhich she had long aspired. 

Yohe-Stecher-Weygandt Reunion 
The Yohe-Stecher-Weygandt Historical So- 
ciety has been organized in southwestern Penn- 
sylvania for the purpose of bringing together 
the descendants of three of the oldest families 
that settled in that locality. Their ancestors 
were among the early settlers of the Bushkill 
valley, in Northampton county. Between 178-} 
and 1795 Cornelius Weygandt (son of the im- 
migrant Cornelius) and his wife, Lewis 
Stechcr, his brother-in-law. and Michael Yohe 
proceeded to the Monongahela valley, locating 
near the present ^Monongahela City, where 
their descendants have been among the most 
prominent inhabitants until now. The house 
erected by Cornelius Weygandt about 1784 has 
since been occupied continuously by his de- 
scendants. The families have continued in 
the faith of their forefathers and are mostly 
Lutherans. September 19, IQ07, thev held a 
reunion at jMount Zion Lutheran church, at 
Ginger Hill, a church which tiiey founded a'nd 
in whose cemetery many of their members 

The Stecher Historic Society of Ohio held 
its second annual reunion at the home of Mr. 
and Mrs. Samuel Stecher. near Jeromesville, 
Wayne county, O., Sept. 11. ]\Iost of these 
Stechers are also descendants of the above- 
named Captain Lewis Stecher. though other 
families of that name, descendants of Melchior 
Stecher, have located in Ohio more recently. 

Additional Family-Reunions 

Aug. TO. Ninth reunion of Heinly family, 
ai Kutztown. 

Aug. 14. Second reunion of Arners. on 
Bull's Run creek. Carbon county; fiftli of Lud- 
wigs on Mount Penn, Reading. 

Aug. 15. Third reunion of Kostenbaders, at 
Kiipert, Columbia county. 

Aug. 17. Fiftii reunion of the Finks in 
Waldheini Park, near Allentown. 

Aug. 20. Eleventh reunion of Guth family 
near Iron Bridge. Lehigh county. 

Aug. 21. Reunion of Swartzes at Hancock. 
Berks county: eighth reunion of Klotz family 
at Neflsville, Lehigh county. 

Aug. 22. Eighth reunion of Shiffers at 
Wind Gap: fifth of Wetherholds at Neffsville: 
sixth of Dunkelbergers at Island Park, near 
Sunbury : reunion of LIili)ert family at New 
Jerusalem. Berks county. 

Aug. 24. Third reunion of descendants of 
John and Andrew Lc^hrman at Dorney Park, 
near Allentown: reunicMi of Longacre family 
at Ringing Rocks Park, near Pottstown. 

Aug. 27. Ninth reunion of Lichtenwallner 
family on the .\llontown h'air-Grounds. 

Aug. 28. First reunion of Trexler family 

at Kutztown; second reunion of Penna. dr 
scendants of John and Margaret Grecnwalt ,1! 
Franklinville, ^Montgomery county; reunion ot 
descendants of Conrad Hurff at Alcyon Park 
N. J. 

Aug. 29. Reunion of Hummel family rs: 
Island Park, near Sunbury; third of Shimer^ 
at Oakland Park. 

Aug. 3T. First reunion of Hess family at 
Dorney Park; reunion of Thomas family, at 
Chalfom, Bucks county, and of descendant- 
of Carl Rentzheimer at Plellertown; first re- 
union of descendants of Hans Wetzel at Si-^- 
mund, Lehigh county. 

Sept. 7. Third reunion of descendants f.f 
William and Julia Grander, at Royersford. 

Sept. 9. Fourth reunion of descendants (.f 
Hans Schneider, near Oley Line. Berks county. 


Kakj. Weiss^ once a famous tenorist. who 
sang opera in many cities of Europe, died in 
the Lehigh county almshouse July 27, after 
having lived many years as a recluse on the 
Lehigh mountain. He was 79 years old. a 
member of an honored German family, and 
had l)een the personal friend of Memlelssohn 
and other great nnisicians. 

Herman R. Raixh. widely known as nmsi- 
cian, plumber, wheelwright, confectioner, 
mason, sculptor, wood-carver, music-teacher 
and jack of all trades, died at Lebanon. Pa.. 
August 5, aged 84. His chief work was a 
garden he had built with fifty years of labor 
and which contained miniature castles, fortifi- 
cations, soldiers and other statuary. He had 
been a cripple since infancy. 

Rev. J. M. Bach max. a well-known Reform- 
ed clergyman, died August 14 at Lynnpon. 
Lehigh count}'. He was a graduate of Frank- 
lin" and Marshall and had congregations ai 
New Bethel, St. Jacob's, Jacksonville. Lynn- 
ville and Lowhill. 

Rev. Cyrus J. Becker died at Catasauqua. 
.\ugust 22. He was born near Kreidersvillc. 
.-Vpril 4. 1827, a son of Rev. Jacob Becker nni 
grandson of Rev. Christian Becker, who cam 
to this country in 1703. He was educated 
at Lafayette College and Mercersburg Semi 
nary and ordained to preach in 1851. He re- 
tired from ministerial work five years ago. Hi- 
deatli closed pastoral services of grandfather, 
faiher and son that extended over 125 years. 

MiLTox A. Richarps. M.D., died in Maxn- 
tawny, Berks county. August 24. He was born 
in Lehigii county. September 26. 1843, attend- 
ed the high school of Geneva. N. Y.. and be- 
came a public-school teacher in i860. He grad- 
uated from Jefferson Medical College in iN»r 
and practiced medicine in Maxatawny tort> 

Rkv. Georc.e .\. Peltz. D D., a prominent 
clergyman of Philadelphia, died August 17- 
.-.ged 74. He was an organizer of tlie James - 
'ov.n (N. Y.") Chautauijua. associate editor 01 
'lie Simday Schot^l Tiii'e^^ and secretary of ihi 
Pennsylvania Sun^lav-School .\ssociation. 


Chat with Correspondents 

A Family of Patriots 

A Synder county subscriber writes : 

I have just Iccirned of a Pcnnsylvania- 
Gernian family of seventt;en children, nine 
of whose sons served their country faith- 
fully during the severe trials of the Civil 
Who can report families that have done 
niore for their country? 

Was a Pennsylvania-German's Poem 

In asking for extra copies of the May num- 
ber a reader in Germantown says : 

It contains a poem written by the late 
Dr. Porter, to which one of your corres- 
pondents has taken exception. 1 am sorry 
1 cannot agree with him that such con- 
tributions should be omitted. The poem 
was by a Pennsylvania-German on a 
Pennsylvania-German subject, written 
when a youth and in the very heart of 

"Another Jav/breaker" » 

1 noticed that in the August number you 
gave an English name for what we Penn- 
sylvania-Dutch call f)L-n^clstoch. I had 
never heard an English name for this, 
though I had tried for a long time to 
find one. 

Here is another jawbreaker. Give me an 
English name for what the Pennsylvania- 
Germans call Darloijal. (1 wouldn't vouch 
for the spelling.) You know what it is. 
I never heard of it nor saw any till this 
morning, when J. H. G. showed me one, 
, and asked for the English name. Can you 

help us out ? J. F. F. 

Telford, Pa. 

Really, sir, we can not, at this juncture, help 
you out. We have no remembrance of the 
word and no idea of what is meant by it. 
Perhaps, if 3^ou will describe the thing, we 
may be able to put you on a clue. Meanwhile 
we refer the question to our readers. 

Genealogical Notes and Queries 

This department is open to all our subscribers. Co 
tion as clearly and briefly as possible, being particularly 
of readers generally it is desired that answers to the 
this magazine. 


Descendants of Dr. Christian F. Martin 

The editor of this magazine desires infor- 
mation concerning the descendants of Dr. 
Christian Frederic 2^Iartin, a native of Teltow. 
Germany, who came over with Rev. H. M. 
Muhlenberg and others, landing at Charleston, 
S. C, Se;pternber 22, 1742. He settled at the 
Trappe, in Montgomery county, Pa., and mar- 
ried a Miss Schwartz or Sclnvartly. with whom 
be had six children : Fredrick, John, Samuel, 
Elizabeth, Ellen and Mary. After the death of 
his first wife he married Mary ^Miller and 
moved to a farm in Macungie, where he spent 
the rest of his life practicing medicine. He 
died June 13, 1812, and is buried at the Lehigh 
church. By his second wife he also had six 
children : . Andrew, Jacob, George, Charles H., 
I'cter and Anna. 

I'Vcderic Martin, his tirst-named son, moved 
to Otsego county, N. Y., and died there. John 
;uid .Samuel passed their lives in Montgomery 
county, Pa. FTizabeth married a Mr. Egner, 
i-llen a Mr. Hartzell. Of Andrew we have 
no information whatever. Peter became a phy- 
"^ioian, settled along the Little Lehigh in Ma- 
«'nngie and died about 1846; he had a daughter, 
who married a Mr. Trexler. Anna, the last- 
named daughter, married a Mr. Brecht, or 
f'right, and had four children : Reuben, Ste- 
l>hrn. lulward. ^Larian. 

Who can tell us more of the descendants of 

ntributors will please state their questions and informa- 

careful in writing names and dates. For the benefit 

questions under this head be addressed to the editor ot 

these sons and daughters of the inmiigrant Dr. 
Christian Frederic Martin? 

Answer to Query No. XXVII. 

My answer to Query Xo. VI in the issue of 
October, 1906. states intelligently that Daniel 
Boone was the son of Squire (or more prop- 
erly Esquire) George Boone, who was known 
all his life as Squire Boone. He named one 
of his sons Squire, probably in honor of his 
own title. This son Squire was just as well 
known as his brother Daniel : in fact he was 
better known in North Carolina than Daniel. 
The list of family-names in Query Xo. XX VH 
omits that of Squire. The biography of Daniel 
Boone recites tlie deeds of his brother Squire 
in Kentucky. Furthermore. George Boone, 
who married Sarah Morgan at Gwynedd Meet- 
ing, July 2T,, 1720. was Esquire George Boone. 

Easton, Pa. W. J. Heller. 


It may be oi interest to some of your read- 
ers to« know that Frederic Bingman. son of 
Johan Vost Bingman and his wife Juliana, was 
born Jan. 15. 1755, was marrieil to Christina 
Hufnagel. died in 184(1 and is buried at Trox- 
elville. Snyder county. Pa. Frederic Bingman 
was a captain in the Revolution and fought 
in the battle of Brandywine. He was formerly 
irom Berks county, Pa. 


J58 Wooster Ave., Akron, O. 



Our Book-Table 

Any .book or pamphlet rcTiewed in these columns will be sent to any address by the Publisher of Th<? Ff-nn 
sylranla-German on receipt of the published price. Postage must he added when it is n;e:itioned separately. 
Any other book wanted by our readers may be -ordered throiiph us at the publisher's price. Inquiries will b* 
promptly and cheerfully answered. 

Die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika. Von 
Prof. Karl Knortz. Mit 17 lUustrationen. 
Berlin, Leipzig: Hermann Hillger Verlag. 
96 pages small duodecimo. Price, 25 cents. 
This book constitutes Vol. 81 of Hillgers 
Jllustrirtc Volksbiicher, a series of popular 
treatises on all subjects of human knowledge. 
Part I is a brief history of the United States. 
Part H contains an abstract of our national 
Constitution, with short explanatory notes. 
Part HI gives a geographic description of our 
country in sections : Northeastern, Northern, 
Southern, Plateau (Rocky Mountain) and Pa- 
cific States, and Extraterritorial Possessions, 
with statistics of area and population in 1905. 
Part IV describes the inhabitants of the Unit- 
ed States : Indians, Negroes, Chinese and white 
men. Part V gives the pronunciation of the 
more difficult names. The book is a valuable 
manual for the German immigrant. 

The Travel Magazine. A continuation of the 
Four Track News. Published at 333 Fourth 
Avenue, New York, at $1 a year. 

The September issue of The Travel ^laga- 
zine closes its hrst volume under the new name 
and in enlarged (quarto) form. Like all it> 
predecessors, it is replete with interesting read- 
ing and beautiful illustrations. If, like the 
fditor who writes this, you have not the time 
nor the means to go traveling yourself, do the 
next best thing — read The Travel Magazine 
and enjoy traveling in imagination while sil- 
ting in your easy chair under a favorite tree 
or by the fireside. 

The Fire Companies of Lebanon. Paper read 
before the Lebanon County Historical Society 
June 15, 1906, compiled bv S. P. Heilman, 
.\[.D.. and Daniel Mu>ser. Vol. HI, No. 13. 
pp. 405-446. 

This paper gives a documentary history of 
the various tire-organizations of Lebanon, the 
first of which was organized July 17, 1773. As 
far as possible, it follows the chronological 

Calendar of Pennsylvania History 

AUGUST, 1907 

1. The Capitol Commission resumes work 
at Beach Plaven, N. J. 

2. Ben Franklin, the biggest balloon in the 
United States, is cliristened at Philadelphia. 

3. The Red Men's carnival and pow-wow 
begins in Philadelphia. 

4-10. Old Home Week celebrated in Bern- 
ville and 'Bedford. 

6. . Fatal wreck on the Penna. railroad at 
Kelly, near Pittsburg. 

7. Schillerfest in Washington Park, Phila. 
— George W. Delamater, former gubernatorial 
candidate, shoots himself at Pittsburg. 

9. Severe electric storms in eastern and 
central Pennsylvania. — Fire destroys outbuild- 
ings of State Hospital for the Insane at Phila. 

16. Capitol Commission subinits report, re- 
commending the prosecution of all guilty of 
conspiracy, collusion and fraud* in furnishing 
the capitol. — President Samuel J. Small of the 
Commercial Telegraphers' Union issues a gen- 
eral strike order. 

17. Five miners drop to their death at Son- 
man, near Pittsburg, 

19. Swiss residents of Philadelphia cele- 
brate si.K hundredth anniversary of Helvetian 

20. Society of American Florists and Hor- 
ticulturists and State Grand Lodge. Knights of 
P>-thias, meet in Philadelphia, State Reiail 
Merchants' Association in York. — Postmasters 
of the first class meeting in Erie unveil a mon- 
ument to Eben Brown, first U. S. postmaster 
on foreign soil. 

21. Fifth annual State encampment of th.c 
G. A. R. in Philadelphia. 

22. Destructive fire in the East End ot 

2;^. Forty-fourth anniversary of- Bethany 
Orphans' Home at Womelsdorf. — Two men 
murdered by the Black Hand in Coaldale. 

24. Balloon Ben Franklin sails from Phila- 
delphia to New Egypt. N. J. 

25. Rededication of St. John's Lutheran 
church at Center Square. 

27. Forty-second annual State convention 
of Patriotic Order, Sons of America, in Phila. 

28. Fight between firemen and State troop- 
ers over a hook-and-Iadder truck in Weatlierly. 

31. Fiftieth anniversary of West Swamp 
Mennonite Sunday-scliool. — Fifteenth annuai 
meeting ot Penna. branch of Master Florsc- 
shoers* National Association at -\llentown.— 
Samuel P'aust, ex- Assembly man, dies in Fred- 

^^^.^ ,., 

VOL. VIII, No. 11 


PRICE 15 CcniB 







The Filth Instnlment of Our Hlustraied Symposium 


With Articles on The Old Octagonal Sciioolhousf. 
ox THE Bath Road, The Eight-Cornered School- 
Building AT Sinking Spring. A Lehigh County 
English School Seventy Years Ago and A Sub- 
scription School in Hereford, 1814-1S54. Also: 

Doctor Constantin Hering, a Pioneer of Homeopathy 
(Biographical Sketch with Portrait) 

Pennsylvania's Old Apprenticeship-Law (with Fac- 
simile of Old Indenture of Apprenticeship) 

The Wyoming Historical and Geological Society 

Myles Lorixg: A Tale of the Tulpehocken (Illustrated 
Serial Story). Chapters X\T and XVII 

Literary Gems. Editorial Comment, News-Clippings. 
Correspondents' Chat. Genealogical Notes and 
Queries, etc.. etc. 

Full Table of Contenta back of Froat;«pl«''« Business lla««n oo aoxt pa*a. 



oihit P]ennHgIuanta-(g^rmcin 




Frontispiece — Portrait of Doctor Constantin Hering 514 

The Pennsylvania-German in his Relation to Edlxation — A 

Symposium (continued) 
The Old Octagonal Schoolhouse on the Bath Road — By John 

R. Laubach 515 

The Eight-Cornered School-Building at Sinking Spring — By 

Superintendent E. M. Rapp 517 

A Lehigh County English School Seventy Years Ago — By L. B. 

Balliet, M.D 523 

A Subscription-School in Hereford, 1814-1854 — By II. W. Kriebel 527 

Doctor Constantin Hering, a Pioneer of Homeopathy . . . . . 530 

Pennsylvania's Old Apprenticeship-Law — By Robert G. Bushong, Esq. 536 

The Pennsylvania-Dl'tch — Prof. Albert Bushnell Hart in Boston 

Evening Transcript 539 

Pennsylvania Historical Societies: Their Aims and Their Work 
The Wyoming Historical and Geological Society — By Rev. Hor- 
ace E. Hayden 543 

The Home— Grandfather's-Clocks — By the Editor 545 

Myles Loring : A Tale of the Tulpehocken — By Rev. Alden W. 

Quimby. Chapters XVI and XVII . , 547 

Literary Gems : 

Rocks and Rocks— By J. O. K. Robarts . 559 

Der Jockel— By K. . . . . . •. . . . . . . . . . 560 

Das Leben — Life 561 

Der Tschellyschlecker — By Charles C. More 561 

Mei Expirienz im Circus — By" Joe Klotzkopp. Esq.' .... 561 

Editorial Department . 563 

Clippings' from Current Xews 565 

Chat with Correspondents 567 

Genealogical Xotes and Queries 567 

Our Book-Table 568 

Calendar of Pennsylvania History, September. 1907 56S 



V-,' -.. . 

' ' .- ^ 

Doctor Constantm Hering 

®l|]^ P^nnsgltiamu-^^ermmt 

Vol. VIII 


No. 11 

The Pennsylvania-German in His 
Relation to Education 

A Symposium of Historical and Descriptive Articles 
Edited by Prof. L. S. Shimmell, Ph.D., Harrisburg, Pa. 

The Old Octagonal Schoolhouse on the Bath Road 


ES alt achicckig Schiilhaus an dcr 
Bather Schtross was a unique and 
interesting building of Pennsylva- 
nia-Germandom. It was so called on ac- 
count of its peculiar construction, being 
octagonal in form, the only one of its 
kind, according to my knowledge, in this 
section of the country. It stood along- 
side of the highway from Easton to 
Mauch Chunk, in Upper Nazareth town- 
ship, Northampton county, Pa., about a 
mile west of the village of Smoketown 
and two miles southeast of Bath, near 
the east branch of the ]\Ionocacy creek. 
It was built in 1828 by means of con- 
tributions from the surrounding com- 
nuuiity,'and for more than fifty years it 
stood as a landmark known far and 
wide. Its walls were built of limestone 
quarried in the vicinity ; the mason-work 
was done by Daniel ^lichael, who for 
many years lived on the same road op- 
posite the schoolhouse. Its walls were 
eighteen inches thick, solidly built, neat- 
ly plastered and whitewashed on the in- 
side and rough-cast on the outside. They 
could easily have defied the storms of 
centuries yet to come, had not a building 
of more modern construction been de- 

^This old structure was known as tlie 
I nion Schoolhouse and controlled by 
^ix trustees, three from Upper and three 

from Lower Nazareth township, select- 
ed from its patrons in the district. 
Among the best known of these trustees 
were Adam Daniel, better known as 
Squire Daniel, from the fact that he wa- 
a justice of the peace for a number of 
years : George Wellick, Peter Rohn and 
others, who departed from the scenes oi 
this life many years ago. 

The door of the schoolhouse was on 
the south side. Opposite the door on 
the north side was the teacher's desk, 
raised on a small platform. Extending 
along six sides of the room were two 
rows of desks, one for the larger pupils, 
facing the wall, and one for the smaller 
ones, facing the stove. These desks were 
of the simplest construction and bore 
many a penknife-carving made by the 
pupils in days gone by. The benches 
around the larger desks were about two 
feet high and ten inches wide, standing 
loose on the fioor : every now and then 
one toppled over and made a disturbance. 
This was generally followed by a sharp 
reprimand from the teacher, and tlic one 
at fault was only too glad if the master 
did not use the rod, of which there was 
generally a good supply on hand on the 
window behind the teacher's desk. 

I remember, one Suntlay afternoon 
when we had singing-schtx^l. that a wor- 
thy old gentleman of the neighborhood, 





sitting all alone on one of these benches, 
became so interested in the singing from 
old \\'eber's Notahuch with its charac- 
ter notes that, in some way or other, the 
bench dropped out from under him. He 
was left suspended without any support 
but the desk behind and the smaller 
bench before him, on which he had rest- 
ed his feet. All present were greatly 
amused, and amid the tittering he could 
not refrain from exclaiming : ''So z'crd — 

In the middle of the room stood an old 
wood-stove, similar to the one pictured 
on page 2)Z of the first number of The 
Pexnsylvani.\-German (Jan., 1900). 
This was .later replaced by a coal-stove. 
In the yard in front of the schoolhouse 
was a big pile of wood, and many a 
scholar was only too glad to be allowed 
to go out and saw and split the same, 
rather than study his tiresome lessons. 

In the frame of the window behind 
the teacher's desk was the blackboard, 
about four feet wide and five feet high, 
which could be raised or lowered as de- 
sired, but little use could be made of it. 
On one side of the door was a place for 

'Such d- 


the water-bucket, also a board which 
could be turned around, having the 
words OUT and IX cut in large letters 
on the same, to be used by the pupils as 
occasion required. 

Daniel Fox was the first teacher in thi^ 
building, during the winter of 182S to 
1829. Among others whose names I have 
heard mentioned and under whose in- 
structions I have been, were a Mr. Kraut, 
a ^Ir. Herbst, Joshua Michael. Karnct 
Laubach, William Deshler, John Oden- 
welder, Abraham Woodring, Daniel Mo- 
ser, John J. Kreidler. Abraham Gruver, 
Albert B. Fehr and George W. Moser. 
There were others, but I have not been 
able to learn their names. 

At first all instruction was in German, 
but after a while English was introduced. 
This was desired by some of the patrons, 
owing to the nearness of the "Irish Set- 
tlement" — the locality where the Scotch- 
Irish had settled, on the west branch of 
the Monooacy creek, in East Allen town- 
ship — which was only three miles away 
and where tlnglish was spoken. It is re- 
lated that, when the teaching of Engli>h 
was first proposed, it was considered by 
some of the trustees that Mr, Herbst. 
who had taught for some time, was tot"> 


*'J)utch," and that they oiig-ht to look 
around for some one 'more able to teach 
English. But when ^h. lierbst handed 
in his report at the close of the term, he 
suggested that English orthography 
should be taught in future, and this word 
— ortJiography — quite confounded the 
trustees, who had no idea of what he 
meant by such a big word. Happily there 
was a Walker's dictionary lying on 
Squire Daniel's desk, in w^hose office they 
had met, and by referring to the same 
they found out what .Mr. Herbst had 
meant. They came to the conclusion 
that he knew enough English and re-en- 
gaged him for another term. 

Of those who taught within the walls 

of the Octagonal vSchoolhouse but few 
are left among the living. The oldest 
still surviving is Joshua Michael, an oc- 
togenarian, now living in East Allen- 
town, but who lived nearly all his life in 
close proximity to the schoolhouse. My 
uncle, Barnet Laubach, of near Naza- 
reth, is the next to him in regard to age. 
Of the whereabouts of the other surviv- 
ors I know but little. As far as I know, 
only three remain : Mr. Deshler, Mr. 
Eehr and George \V. Moser. 

The pupils who once received instruc- 
tion within those walls have been scat- 
tered far and wide, and looking over the 
district at present only a few, a very few, 
can be found. 

The Eight-Cornered School-Building at Sinking Spring 

A Unique Type of School-Architecture 

AT the eastern end of the village of 
Sinking Spring, in Berks county, 
near the Harrisburg pike and 
near a recently abandoned toll-gate, 
stands an eight-cornered building that al- 
most invariably attracts the eyes of 
passers-by, especially of strangers on 
trains and trolleys. This octagonal 
building was formerly used as a school- 
house and was a type of school-buildings 
of which many were scattered through- 
out the Aliddle (Atlantic) States over a 
century ago. The constructors no doubt 
concluded that, if it was built octagonal- 
ly, space would be economized. 

It is the only building of its kind re- 
maining in the county, although aban- 
doned for school-purposes over fifty 
years ago. Still a few of these build- 
ings are used for school-purposes in the 
near-by counties of Bucks and Montgom- 
ery. For the last half century the struc- 
ture has been used as a dwelling, and the 
accompanying cut is an excellent picture 
of the edifice as it stands to-day. It is 
of stone, very substantial, the walls be- 
ing three feet in thickness, plastered and 
whitewashed on the interior and exte- 
rior. The outside is the same as when 
it was constructed, except for a porch in 
tront, an addition on the east end and a 
dormer-window. The inside still retains 
the umbrella-like rafters. For a time it 


became the rendezvous of tramps, Mr. 
and ]\Irs. Johann Bogenshitz were among 
the first tenants and Mrs. Katrina Bo- 
genshitz, who survived her husband, was 
the lone tenant for some time. After her 
demise the building was occupied by Da- 
vid Reifsnyder and family.. The present 
tenants are Lewis Kershncr and family, 
who have lived here for over thirty years. 
Owned by Welsh Baptists — Old Graveyard 
The Baptist denomination of Reading 
claims ownership of the building, as well 
as of a tract of land comprising about 
three acres, including a one-fourth-acre 
burial-ground immediately west of the 
building. Probably no demand was ever 
made for the payment of rent and none 
ever paid. Mr. Kershner every year 
gives some attention to the burial-ground 
by keeping down the weeds. The struc- 
ture is on or near the site of a former 
Welsh Baptist church. The Welsh Bap- 
tists had two comparatively strong con- 
gregations in this section in the early 
part of the eighteenth century. Cumru, 
B>rccknock and Caernarvon were origin- 
ally Welsh settlements and still retain 
their original Welsh names. Thi> sec- 
tion of Spring township was at one time 
a part of Cumru. One of these congre* 
gations was located at or near the pres- 
ent site of this edifice, the other opposite 
the barracks of the State constabulary, 
in Cumru. near the Wvomissing road. A 



small one-story building, formerly used 
as a meeting-house as well as a school- 
house, still remains standing, although 
at present somewhat dilapidated. On the 
site of this structure is an old neglected 
Welsh burial-ground. Rev. Thomas 
Jones, a Welsh Baptist clergyman resid- 
ing in Heidelberg, along the Cacoosing, 
preached here and at Sinking Spring. 

The burial-plot immediately adjoining 
the west end of the eight-cornered build- 
ing at Sinking Spring is in a fair state of 
preservation, although some of the tomb- 
stones were purloined some years ago 
for building material. This act of dese- 
cration was a despicable piece of vandal- 
ism and smacked of barbarism. On one 
of the tombstones lying flat on the 
ground is found this inscription : "James 
Davis, died on the 4th of December, 
1786, aged about 60 years." On another 
was found the name of John Davis, who 
died in 1770 ; on still another the name 
of Sarah Evans, who died the 8th of No- 
vember, 1762, aged 76 years. The names 
on many of the stones are entirely oblit- 
erated. Many of the mounds have no 

The immediate predecessor of the oc- 
tagonal schoolhouse in country-districts 
during Colonial times was the log school- 
house with a rough puncheon floor or a 
dirt floor. During and immediately af- 
ter the Revolutionary War the rough log 
cabin was replaced, in the Middle States, 
by a better schoolhouse of the octagonal 
shape, so much in favor for meeting- 
houses as well as for school-purposes. 
In eastern Pennsylvania these octagonal 
houses were nearly always built of stone, 
like the one we have just described. 

Some Pupils of the Oldtime School 

A dozen or more of the older and 
prominent citizens of Sinking Spring 
and vicinity received their educational 
training in this building and still vividly 
remember the oldtime school of sixty and 
seventy years ago. Prominent among 
those who attended this school are Rich- 
ard B. Krick, Levi S. Witman. Cyrus A. 
Ruth, Jacob Krick, Daniel Miller, Kate 
Miller. Jonathan Ruth. Mrs. Eve Ann 
Oberlin, all of Sinking Spring: George 
N. Peiffer, justice of the peace, of Mohn- 

ton, and 13enjamin Luft, of Werner^- 
ville. The writer is specially indebted 
for most of the data for this article to 
Richard B. Krick, who has an excep- 
tionally good memory. 

Meager Furnishings — Primitive Heating 

The interior furnishings of this school- 
house were very meager. Against the 
walls all around the room was built a 
continuous sloping shelf, about three feet 
from the floor, serving the purpose of a 
desk. Long backless benches accompa- 
nied it, on which the older pupils sat fac- 
ing the wall. While they were studying 
they leaned against the edge of the shelf, 
and when they wrote or ciphered they 
rested their exercise-books and slates on 
it. Under it, on a horizontal shelf that 
was somewhat narrower than the upper 
one, the pupils kept their books and other 
school-belongings when not in use. A 
table was placed in the middle or near 
the middle of the room, with lower 
benches on each side of it for the smaller 
children. The number of children the 
schoolhouse would hold depended on how 
closely they could be packed on the 
benches. The enrollment in midwinter 
numbered between seventy and eighty. 
The children in the oldtime families were 
more numerous than now ; ''race-suicide" 
was unknown and the farm-regions had 
not yet begun to be depopulated by the 
cityward migration destined to drain 
them later. But no matter how many 
pupils, there was never any thought oi 
providing more than a single teacher. 

The master's desk was placed at the 
north end of the building, opposite the 
entrance, but inside the circle of shelving 
which served as a continuous desk. Be- 
sides serving the ordinary purposes of a 
desk, it was a repository for confiscated 
tops, balls, pen-knives, marbles, jew's- 
harps and the like, and was frequently a 
perfect curiosity-shop. All seats and 
desks were of pine or oak. rudely fash- 
ioned by some local carpenter. Their 
aspect was not improved by the passing 
years ; the unpainted wood became more 
and more browned with the number ot 
human contacts atul every possessor of 
a jack-knife labored over them with 
much idle hacking and carving. This 






" ' <!^ 




^^; ^J.iL L-..Jj'-*:i>^ 'ii 


oldtime school must have been some- 
what up-to-date, as a wooden blackboard 
four feet square was hung against the 
wall opposite the entrance; but in order 
to use it the children were obliged to 
crawl with their knees on the sloping 
shelving used as desks. 

A cast-iron wood-stove occupied the 
middle of the room and nearly roasted 
the little ones, who ocupied the seats 
around the table near-by. The wood 
was usually furnished free of charge by 
the patrons. It was cut into stove-lengths 
by the older boys ; in a school of seventy 
or eighty pupils there were a score of 
young men and women practically 
grown-up. The young men took turns 
in "chopping'' and in pleasant weather 
preferred the change to the school-rou- 
tine. The wood was ofttimes burned 
green ; no one thought of getting school- 
wood ready long enough beforehand to 
allow it to season. When it was deliv- 
ered in the schoolyard, it lay there ex- 
posed, and it was often wtt with rain and 
buried in the snow. In summer the place 
of the woodpile was marked by scattered 
chips and refuse. Woodsheds and even 
other very necessary outbuildings were 
conspicuous for their absence. At times 
several of the bovs earned their tuition 

by cutting wood a certain period and at- 
tending to the fire. 

The tuition amounted to three cents a 
day and where parents were too poor the 
most well-to-do often volunteered to pay 
the tuition of the children of their less 
fortunate neighbors. The schoolroom- 
walls were dismally vacant except for 
weather-stains and the grime from the 
fire. This schoolroom was lighted by 
six small windows of twelve panes each. 
The glass in the windows was often 
broken and in cool weather the place oi 
the missing panes was supplied with hats 
during school-hours. 

Order of Exercises — Making Quill Pens 

The usual routine of a school-day — 
and this school was tyjncal of nearly all 
schools in this neighborhood — began 
with reading from the Testament by the 
first class. Next came writing and its 
accompanying preparation of pens and 
copies, and possibly thawing and water- 
ing of ink. For each writer the master 
set a copy at the top of the pupil's copy- 
book. The writing-book was usually 
made of sheets of foolscap paper, with a 
brown paper cover sewed on. The writ- 
ing was done with a quill pen. and the 
experienced teacher alwa}s took groat 



pride in his ability to make and mend 
pens. Richard B. Krick is still quite a 
' genius in making- a pen and showed the 
I writer minutely how to make one. A 
t sharp pen-knife is needed. The new quill 
1 must be scraped on the outside to remove 
I the thin film,, a sort of cuticle which en- 
j . veloped the quill proper. One dexterous 
I stroke cut off what was to become the 
under side of the pen. A single motion 
of the knife made the slit. Two quick 
strokes removed the two upper corners, 
leaving the point. Then came the most 
delicate part of the mechanical process. 
The point of the pen was placed upon 
the thumbnail of the left hand.. The 
knife was deftly guided so as to cut off 
the extreme end of the pen directly 
across the slit, leaving a smooth end, not 
too blunt so as to make too large a mark, 
and not too fine so as to scratch, "blas- 
ter, please mend my pen," was among 
•the first English sentences taught the 
children in school. For advanced pupils 
the master wrote, "Procrastination is the 
thief of time," "Contentment is a virtue," 
or some other wise saw. Legal forms, 
especially receipts and notes, sometimes 
took the place of saws. 

After writing, the second and third 
■ classes read from the Testament or 
Psalter and later on from their readers. 
Cobb's Juvenile Readers, Xos. i, 2 and 
3, were among the first to be introduced 
jn this particular school. This was the 
age of the a-b ab, e-b eb, i-b ib, o-b ob, 

The smallest children were next call- 
ed out to repeat the alphabet or a few 
sentences from their primers or spelling- 
books. The teacher often placed the 
speller before the pupil and with a pencil 
or pen-knife pointed, one by one, to the 
letters of the alphabet, saying, "What's 
that?" and not infrequently asking the 
question in German. In the middle of 
the forenoon as well as in the afternoon 
there was a recess. This was of course 
before the wicked craze that there 
should be no recess, lest the children be 
corrupted. The master, as a signal for 
the pupils to come in. cried out *T>ooks." 
re-echoed by the chiUlren, or tapped a 
small 1x^11, or rapped sharply at the win- 
dow. The last period of the forenoon- 

session as well as the afternoon-session 
was devoted to singing, and some of the 
teachers were excellent singing-masters. 
"Blow ye the trumpet, blow," was the 
customary closing-hymn for the fore- 
noon-session, and the following is a 
stanza of the afternoon closing-hymn : 

< 'The day is past and gone, 
The evening shades appear ; 
Oh ! may we all remember well 
The night of death draws near." 

Spelling-Matches — Comly's Spelling-Book 

The afternoon-sessions were practi- 
cally a repetition of those of the morn- 
ing. The multiplication-table, as well 
as tables of weights and measures, was 
repeated on Friday afternoon. Once a 
week the school would choose sides for 
a spelling-match. This match at times 
took. up half the afternoon and was fre- 
quently attended with eft'orts to defraud 
and exhibitions of envy. In this section 
the spelling-match was also a common 
recreation of a winter evening ; in fact, 
the spelling-school was a great institu- 
tion. To these evening contests came 
not only the day-pupils, but their older 
brothers and sisters and the rest of the 
community. For the whole neighbor- 
hood it was equal to a theatrical play, 
and furnished great fun for the young 
people. "Pieces" were spoken, and there 
was oratory and dialogs. The dialogs 
were inclined to buffoonery, but the or- 
atory was entirely serious, though not 
infrequently high-flown to the point of 
grandiloquence. Patrick Henry's "Give 
me liberty or give me death" was a great 
favorite. Games would come after the 
exercises and, if sleighing was good, an 
extended sleighride, on the principle that 
the longest way around was the nearest 
way home. It is well perhaps at this 
time to call to mind the great attention 
that was given in spelling to the pro- 
nunciation of the syllables. The word 
aboniinatioii, for example, would be 
spelled after this fashion: "A. there's 
your a ; b-o-m, there's your bom, there's 
your abom : i-n in. there's your in. there's 
your bomin. there's your abomin : a, 
there's your a. there's your ina. there's 
your bomina. there's your abomina: 
t-i-o-n, there's your tion. there's your 
ation. there's vour ination, there's vour 


boniination, there's your abomination." 
The only speller that the above-named 
former pupil remembers using was 
Comly's New Spelling-Book. This 
speller has on nearly every page a few 
short paragraphs of reading in addition 
to colunms of words. The first of this 
reading starts lugubriously with "All of 
us, my son, are to die," and the tone of 
the reading-lessons right through the 
book is. very serious. Therb are crude 
pictures and short texts on the Camel, 
the Whale, the Oak Tree and Young 
Lambs. But the text promptly reverts 
to its pedantic and melancholy moraliz- 
ing, often with a touch of theology 

The Mysteries of "Old Pike" 

The only arithmetics used in this 
school, as recalled by these men, were 
Pike's and Rose's. Many of the older 
people now living in the ?^Iiddle and 
New England States studied Pike. 
Nothing was more likely to assist a man 
in getting a school than the ability to do 
■any sum in arithmetic. 

To be "great in figgers'' was to be 
learned. Pike contained many rules — 
over 300 — and not a single explanation 
of one of them. Some of the problems 
required for their mastery a great deal 
of genuine mathematical capacity. ^ A 
majority of the pupils of this school, in- 
cluding practically all the girls, ciphered 
only through the four fundamentals of 
addition, subtraction, multiplication and 
division, with a short excursion into 
vulgar fractions. They won distinction 
among their mates if they penetrated 
into the mysteries of the rule of three ; 
to have ciphered through *'01d Pike" 
was to be accounted a prodigy. Plere 
are a few items from the table of con- 
tents that will give some idea of the 
ground Pike attempted to cover: 

Extraction of the Biqiiadrate Root. 
Pensions in Arrears at Simple Interest. 

Alligation Medial. 
Of Pendulums. 
A Perpetual .\lmanac. 
To i'md the Time of the Moon's Southinp:. 
Table of the Dominical Letters, according 
to the Cycle of the Sun. 
Tahle to tind Easter from the year 175^ to 

To measure a Rhombus. 

1 he Proportion and 1 onnage of Xoah's Ark. 

The tables of weights and measures 
were longer than ours to-day. In 
measuring liquids were used the terms 
anchors, tuns, butts, tierces, kilderkins, 
firkins, puncheons, etc. In dry measure 
were pottles, strikes, cooms, quarters, 
weys, lasts. Examples in currency were 
in pounds, shilling and pence, and doubt- 
less helped to retain the use of these 
terms in trade long after dollars had 
been coined. The rule of three was rec'- 
ognized as an arithmetical landmark and 
I give Pike's definition : 

The Rule of Three teacheth, by having three 
numbers given to tind a fourth, that shall have 
the same proportion to the third as the second 

to the first. 

This is sufficiently clear; but some of 
the book's explanations are quite unin- 
telligible to the present generation, as 
for instance : 

When tare, and tret and cloft are allowed. 
Deduct the tare and tret, and divide the suitle 
by 168, and the quotient will be the clofr, 
which subtract from the suttle, and the re- 
mainder will be the neat. 

The following paragraph shows the 
interesting maimer in which the author 
expressed himself when he had a prob- 
lem to propound : 

An ignorant fob wanted to purchase an ele- 
gant house, a facetious gentleman told him he 
iiad one which he would sell him on moderate 
terms, viz., that he should give him a penny 
for the first door, 2 d. for the second, 4 d. for 
the third, and so on doubling at every door. 
which were 36 in all : It is a bargain, cried the 
simpleton, and here is a guinea to bind it; 
Pray, what would the house cost liim? Ans. 
.{^286331153, I s., 3d. 

Rose's Arithmetic is more modern. A 
little grammar and history was also 
studied by the younger of these former 

Some Oldtime Schoolmasters 

The oidy teachers of those good old 
days that are now remembered in this 
section of the country and wiio taught in 
this building were these: John Bush, 
who hailed from Lancaster and was 
noted as an excellent scholar and teach- 
er, also a good singing-master. Daniel 
r)itler, of Robesonia. who was also reck- 



oned a good master. Thomas Iliielett, 
a typical tramp teacher, either of Scotch 
or Irish descent and given to much drink. 
Henry Stetler, of Boyertown, an efficient 
and accompHshed scholar, who was 
afterwards honored by being sent to the 

These men were typical schoolmasters 
of those days. Thomas Huelett, instead 
of ''boarding round," lived and boarded 
himself in the schoolhouse during the 
winter and in summer assisted the far- 
mers in the lighter labors of the farm. 
He took special pride in his rabbit-hutch 
under the school-building. 

All these men could manufacture from 
a goose-quill a pen equal to the finest 
steel pen of to-day, and although they 
knew nothing of Spencerian slant or the 
perpendicular style, they could set a fair 
round-hand copy w^hich our high-school 
boys and girls would do well to imitate. 
They knew little of what we call didac- 
tics and less of psychology, but they 
were master-hands at manual training, a 
fact to which many a mischievous urchin 
bore unwilling witness. The terms cor- 
relation, co-ordination and apperception 
were Greek to them, yet they knew that 
the acme of school-government was obe- 
dience and that the road to learning was 
self-reliance and hard study. They pos- 
sessed no diploma, held no State certifi- 
cate, . and no county-superintendent 
marked their papers 65 per cent., judg- 
ing them unfit to teach. 

Their scholarship for the most part 
was of brains rather than of books. In 
those times there was no course of study 
and little red tape ; no printed rules and 
regulations. Promotions were unknown 
as a rule of order, and teachers and pu- 
pils alike unvexed by the specter of 
term-examinations. This was simplicity 
simplified. We have now cxclianged 
the old field-schoolmaster, half vaga- 
bond, half scholarly gentleman, for a 
young woman. In point of purity and 
unspoiledness this is a great gain. The 
old master almost always used tobacco, 
often whiskey and profanity, and some- 
times had an acquaintance with the 
seamy side of life that makes cold chills 
run over one when he thinks that this 

man might be the companion and trusted 
friend of budding girlhood. But this 
nomad, who roamed from district to dis- 
trict, was a mature man who had sound- 
ed the heights and depths of adult ex- 
perience, and if pure and good was fit 
to be a leader of the young. 

The Oldtime School-Discipline 

The discipline of this school, as recall- 
ed, was similar to the discipline of other 
schools in those times. Severity in a 
teacher was held to be a virtue rather 
than the contrary. A muscular clash 
between teacher and older pupils was not 
infrequent, and the master who lacked 
courage or athletic vigor met with igno- 
minious disaster. Several instances are 
still recalled in which some of the afore- 
said masters were barred out near 
Christmastime. Parents were uneasy if 
the master was backward in applying 
the rod, and inferred that the children 
could not be learning much. Obedience 
was the rule In almost every household, 
and disobedience was a disgrace. Be- 
tween teacher and parent there was per- 
fect concord. If an unruly urchin was 
severely "thrashed," there was no com- 
plaint and no protest by any one. A 
bunch of apple- or birch-twigs was, as a 
matter of course, an indispensable requi- 
site of this school. Special punishments 
were invented by special teachers. A very 
few of these will suffice for this article. 
Whispering was considered a crime and 
most of the time a pupil was on the 
watch for a culprit.' ready to hurl a 
leather strap at the ofteiuler's head. The 
dunce-stool is still recalled — a bench 
four feet high and about three feet long. 
It was called ''riding the jackass" and 
considered a niost disgraceful and dread- 
ed punishment. The victim was an ob- 
ject of ridicule to the whole school. A 
severe flogging was always preferred to 
this mode of punishment. O corporal 
punishment! How many pitiable, mis- 
erable subterfuges have been contrived 
to avoid thy name, when the real thing 
would have been much more ettective 
and. I think, more respectable. 

Each style of country-school-building 
marks an epoch in our educational his- 



tory and represents a distinct type of 
school. The old log schoolhouse of Co- 
lonial times represents one epoch ; the 
octagonal or primitive square frame 
building, of Revolutionary days until 
about 1840, another epoch; the "little 

red schoolhouse," from 1840 to the Ije- 
ginning of this century, still another 
epoch. And now the ''little red school- 
house" is rapidly giving way to the 
twentieth-century centralized and con- 
solidated school-buildincr and school. 

A Lehigh County English School Seventy Years x\go 


The following quotation from Mathews and 
Hungerford's History of Lehigh County, Pa., 
printed in 1884, giving a brief account of the 
early schools of the county, will serve as a 
fitting introduction to Dr. Balliet's interesting 
article : 

Almost without exception the earliest 
schools in Lehigh county were established 
at or in connection with the Lutheran and 
Reformed churches, and the pastor was 
often the secular teacher. "Frequently," 
says Professor Knauss, "the schoolhouse 
preceded the church, and served the double 
purpose of church and school. These 
schools were church-schools so far as in- 
struction was concerned, but were not 
directly supported by the church. Each 
parent who sent children had to pay in 
proportion to the total number of days 
sent. In most cases the teacher "boarded 
'round,' which in those days was no easy 
task." In but few instances was the pupil 
afforded opportunity for studying anything 
beyond reading, writing and a little arith- 
metic. The Germans excelled in music, 
and at a very early day introduced it into 
their churches and schools. To the Mora- 
vians particularly were the people, as a 
whole, indebted for the introduction of 
what at the time probably was called ad- 
vanced education. In their schools, and in 
all others of the early times, the German 
language was exclusively employed. . . . 
* About 1760 harm was caused to the 
schools, says a good authority, from the 
fact "that many of the principal teachers, 
such as Miller, of Lynn, Roth, of x\llen- 
town, Michael and others, left their ser- 
vices as school-teachers and commenced to 
preach, because the congregations could get 
no other ministers. Less qualified men 
were taken as teachers, and the schools 
lost greatly thereby. . . . 

The German language was the sole ve- 
hicle or medium of instruction until 1800. 
Between 1800 and 1820. English was in- 
troduced in some of the more progressive 
schools and taught in connection with Ger- 
man ; in the same period a very few dis- 
tinctively English schools were organized. 
The first of these was at Egypt, in White- 
hall. The house in which it was held was 
built in 1808, and the school was opene.l 

Jan. 3, 1809. Jacob Kern, the first teacher, 
received $14 per month. This school was 
kept up regularly until 1857. The Eng- 
lish School Society of Xew Tripoli, in 
Lynn township, was organized in 1812. 
erected a building and established a school, 
which was continued until 1850. , . . An- 
other English school was established in 
Upper Saucon in 1833. 

That slow progress was made in the in- 
troduction and practical use of English is 
shown by the report of County Superinten- 
dent C. W. Cooper (the first elected) for 
1855. He says : '*Thc approximate propor- 
tion studying in English books is seven- 
eighths, of whom but three-eighths under- 
stand the language." — Ed. 

How sweet, while the evil shuns the gaze, 
To view th' unclouded skies of former days ! 

It is a part of our nature, wisely so 
ordained by our benevolent Creator, 
that, as we advance in years, we delight 
to look back upon the days of our child- 
hood, especially the period of our school- 
life. The writer's schoolboy-days, to 
which the following reminiscences refer, 
were passed in North Whitehall town- 
ship, Lehigh county, Pa. 

The First English Schools 

In eastern Pennsylvania, where Luth- 
eran and Reformed congregations were 
established by the early settlers, the 
schoolhouscs were owned by the congre- 
gations and stood near the churches. 
The schoolmaster was also the organist 
of the congregation, which elected and 
supported him. This officer was well 
cared for by the congregation. He had 
to be a man of good character, to whom 
the religious instruction of the young 
could be entrusted. We doubt whether 
any English was taught in connection 
with German in the schools of the two 
denominations al>ove named earlier than 





The first English school in Whitehall 
township probably wah that located at 
the tannery near the Egypt church. It 
was built about 1810 and was a low one- 
and-a-half-story building. Teachers there 
were Michael Kramer, Henry Scholl, 
Mr. Baringer, Thomas Fitz Jerrold, Mr. 
Welsh, William Osman, Basil Wood, 
Mr. Kreider and others. 

The next English school was built 
near a creek, about a hundred yards be- 
low the present Balliettsville, so that it 
may properly be called the Schoolhouse 
at the Creek. This spot is very homelike 
to me. 

agers of said schoolhouse for the ensu- 
ing year. This was attested by Peter 
Romich and Peter Butz, judges of the 

The house was to be built in a size of 
twenty by twenty-four feet. Each of the 
twenty subscribers to the schoolhouse, 
whose names appear below, was to de- 
liver one short and one long log by the 
first day of ^lay following. 

George Deichman, 
Jacob Schneider, 
Nicholas Wotring, 
Peter Biitz, 
Peter Romich. 

Wilhelm Rinzer, 
Nicholas Scheirer, 
Michael Frack, 
Peter Grofr, 
Joseph Balliet, 




FroQi Henry L- Fisher's OUlen Times 

There are objects that have been fa- 
miliar to us in childhood and that we 
never forget. They are photographed 
on the mind, as it were ; they become a 
part of ourselves and remain with us for- 
ever. That old schoolhouse and our 
schoolmasters have never been forgotten. 

Origin of the Balliettsville School 

Let us describe the schoolhouse first. 
The records tell that at an election held 
at the house of jNIoses Lewis on the 
twenty-ninth of March, 1816. S. Balliet 
was duly elected president of the Eng- 
lish Schoolhouse Society and that 
George Deichman, Jacob Schneider and 
Christian Troxel were dulv elected man- 

Christian Troxel, 
Peter Wotring, 
Samuel Snyder, 
Christ Jacob, 
S. Balliet, 

Frederic Hausman, 
Solomon Grott, 
George Frantz, 
Peter Rumble, 
John Lawry. 

The Schoolroom and Its Furnishings 
The inside of the schoolhouse was 
plastered. The windows were small, the 
ceiling was low and unplastered. \'enti- 
lation there was none. Along three sides 
of the wall stood long desks sloping up 
toward the wall, with high benches be- 
hind them. One of these benches was 
occupied by the large boys, the other by 
the big girls, who read, wrote and ciph- 
ered — the senior class. The third was 
for the smaller pupils, who were begin- 


ning to write — the junior class. In the 
center of the room, around the elephant- 
like stove, on two rows of benches sat 
the A B C's and the a-b ab's — the fresh- 
men. A four-sided space in the corner 
was used as a place for hats, shawls, 
woolen scarfs and lunch-baskets — the 
commissary department. 

Near the stove stood the master's 
desk. This also had a sloping^ top and 
was painted red. It was about five feet 
hi£:!:h and the bench behind it was of cor- 
responding height. 

Other log schoolhouses were built 
thro'out North \M]itehall township at 
later periods. There was one at the 
Union slate quarry, one in Deibert's val- 

the last? What course will the new mas- 
ter take in reference to little lotteries, 
snow-balling, tagging, trading in quills, 
calamus, apples, popguns, slate-pencils, 
etc.? We were all in favor of "free 
trade," but if the master should not be in 
accord with this enlightened principle, 
it might produce a panic, a stagnation in 
the commerce of the neighborhood. 

The school-hours were from eight to 
twelve, and from one to half past" four, 
without any intermission or recess what- 
ever. At eleven o'clock came the order, 
''Get your spellings." That ever wel- 
come word "Dismissed," marked the 
next important event after the spellings, 
at noon and at evening. Dinner over. 


.r^^^^^c?- ^ ^ 


ley, one at Sehnecksville and one near 
Siegersville. All of these were very low 
and had small windows : consequently 
they had poor light and little ventilation. 
Our modern pig-stable is a cottage com- 
pared with the schoolhouse of that pe- 

Watching the Master— The Schoolday 

At the opening of the school-term the 
new master would be closely eyed by 
every boy. A close study was made of 
his physiognomy, and there were manv 
conjectures as to whether he would be 
"good" or "cross." Will the present ad- 
ministration follow in the footsteps of 

From Henry L. 

Fisher'3 Olden Times 

the room had to be cleared, so as to give 
the big girls a chance to sweep. 

The schoolmaster of that period was 
looked upon by us as one of the great 
men of the world, tho he could not have 
passed an examination as required at the 
present day. I remember one who was 
so ignorant that he could not work a 
sum in long division. Another was un- 
able to speak plain English : still another 
was too stupid to keep awake. One 
whom I remember well had the habit of 
taking naps during school-hours. The 
closing oi his eyes was the signal for a 
general row among us boys. But wo 
soon learnt that the master could think 


with his eyes closed. Sometimes his 
heavy breathing- would assure us that we 
might safely start off across the room to 
kiss the big girls. But lo, now and then 
the- master's wakeful spirit would peep 
thro' half open eyes from under his bushy 
brows. The writer was once caught in 
this act (of kissing) and compelled to 
sit beside a clergyman's daughter as a 
punishment. The schoolmaster of that 
time boarded around among the farmers 
and was looked upon as the head of the 
family during his stay, which varied 
from a week to a month. The neighbors 
living around a schoolhouse would elect 
their schoolmaster. Sometimes he would 
elect himself with the consent of the 
neighbors. If he did not suit the par- 
ents, these would not send their children 
to his school, thus stopping his salary. 

Severe School Punishments 

The masters of those times were 
neither educators, instructors, teachers 
nor trainers. They were very severe in 
the government of their schools. They 
used various instruments and modes of 
punishing. Among these the rod and 
the cowskin, the rule and the leather 
spectacles held the front rank. A boy, 
who has been the editor of the best Ger- 
man weekly in this county, was once 
fearfully cowhided by the master, as I 
was told by an eye-witness. After hav- 
ing laid on the cowhide thick and fast 
for a while, the master stopped a mo- 
ment to take off his coat, then resumed 
his work on the boy and kept it up until 
he w^as tired out. The marks of the cow- 
hide could be plainly traced where it 
had struck the table. 

This master also had a baton or stick, 
two and a half feet long and two inches 
wide. This was used in spelling thus : 
When one or more pupils could not 
spell the word, the one who could spell 
it would take the baton and lay it on the 
palms of all who had missed it. 

The flat rule was also applied by the 
master to the palm for many oft"ences in 
school. This was called BatschJidndcl- 
cher gczca. 

Leather straps were used frequently. 
One master used to lock the two ends of 
the strap and throw it to the offender. 

If it remained closed, he was not pun- 
ished; if it opened, he was. 

Another punishment was making a 
boy stand out with a stick tied in his 
mouth like a gag. Another was used 
when there were two offenders. A chair 
was laid on the floor backwards : then tlic 
two culprits were made to sit on it back 
to back and tied together with a cord. 
This was once the fate of the writer and 
another chap, who has since become a 
justice of the peace. Sitting among the 
big girls was still another mode of pun- 
ishment, liked by some and very annoy- 
ing to others. This too was often the 
fate of the writer. 

Wearing sheepskin-spectacles with the 
wool on was another mode. The spec- 
tacles were thrown to the off'ender, who 
had to bring them to the master, put 
them on, and stand in the middle of the 
room for a specified time. This was con- 
sidered a severe punishment ; it made the 
boy look like a monkey. 

Kneeling in a corner facing the school 
was another punishment. Standing on a 
table with an armful of wood was still 
another. Girls generally were exempted 
from these punishments. 

Sometimes the whip was thrown at an 
offender, who would rise with the whip 
in hand and watch for another criminal, 
to whom the whip was then thrown. If 
no other culprit was found in a specified 
time, the one with the rod in hand had 
to take his punishment. 

Long Sessions — The School at Dinner 

We have said that school would open 
at eight o'clock in the morning and con- 
tinue without recess or intermission until 
twelve. Young America in those days 
had backbone and iroi>-clad stern ends. 
What modern boy or girl could sit for 
four hours in a continuous stretch? In- 
stead of ringing a bell to call us to school 
the master would come to the door and 
bellow out, *T>ooks ! books I" 

If I were a painter. I could still make 
a graphic picture oi the children of our 
old country-school at dinner-time. Just 
think of fifty to eighty hungry children 
in a small schoolroom ! The master 
gives the signal. "School is out", and 
leaves the room. What a charge on the 


stacks of baskets heaped on one side of were yet unknown. The making and 

the room ! The contents are spread on mending of pens consumed much of the 

the narrow bench and each party groups master's time and patience. The whole 

around it. Cold meat, sausage, bread, noon intermission was often spent in 

cakes, pies and vials of molasses were this work'. "Please, sir, my pen splut- 

relishcd as we never have relished them ters," 'Tve split my pen," "My pen won't 

later in life. The greatest kindness a write,'*' "My pen is too hard" — such and 

scholar could show to a companion was many others were the cries of the bovs 

to permit him to drink molasses-water and girls, as they surrounded the master, 

out of an empty vial. I can still see meanwhile making faces at each other 

them standing with their heads flung behind his back. Those who were too 

back, sucking the delicious liquid from poor to purchase paper would write on 

the narrow-necked bottle. their slates. In the earlv German schools 

Here and there we see one leaning girls did not write or cipher, 

across the table or over the bench, to Singing and praying were practiced 

share a little delicacy with a poor play- i^ ^he parochial schools, but in few or 

mate. If it is not molasses-water, it is ^one of the English subscription-schools, 

probably a piece ot pie or gmger-cake. jhe books used in the German schools 

The time of eating was spent in mirthful ^^.^,.^ ^j^^ ABC-Buch, the Psalter and the 

chatting and laughter. It was a noisy >^^g^,, Testament. The English books 

scene, but there was no smful noise. At ^ged were: Comlv's Primer and Spel- 

oneo clock the school would resume Hng-Book; Maurv''s Introduction to the 

work and continue until half past four. English Reader, Maury's English Reader 

The morning hours were emploved m ^^.i g^^^^^i^ ^I^st's United States Hist- 

readmg twice, in writing and ciphering ^^^^ p^^.^.^ Arithmetic. This last 

at will. The same routine was fo lowed ,,.^5 generallv known as "Old Pike" and 

in the afternoon. A\ hen we could not ^f^^j^ facetiouslv called dcr Hcclit—the 

work out our sums the master would German name of the kind of fish known 

do them, if he could, then send us back ^^ ^ ^-^^ ^ ^^^^^-^ storekeeper was 

to our seats without any explanation. ^^^^^|^ puzzled one dav, when a schoolboy 

Writing With Quills— Our Textbooks called to ask for dcr Sclilisscl zum Hcch't. 

All the writing in school was done The boy wanted the Key to Pike's Arith- 

witli goose-quills, for steel or gold pens metic. 

A Subscription-School in Hereford, 1814-1854] 


TO illustrate one method of con- Christopher Schultz $-'1.25 

ducting schools prior to the adop- f ^^o'","^^ Wiegner 20.26 

tion of the present excellent pub- ^^ ^Tusf^ :;; i! i ! i!! i.': i! :;.•;: ::: l^:S 

iic-scnool system, we will consider a few John Schlicher 10.93 

data relating to the erection of a school- Daniel Heil 12.26 

house and the management of a school George Marsteller, Sr 11.26 

at what is now Chapel, in Hereford Matthias Schultz 11.26 

fr^,..,^^u- T-) 1 i. • x i.1 banuiel 1 reicliler ll.oo 

tou nship, T.erks county, prior to the j^,,, Griesenier 13.60 

adoption of the present system. Peter Steinman 6.26 

•Subscribers, Contributions and Building CotVradTle^l'''"'"''' 96^ 

A company was organized about 1S14 George Steinman. Jr 16.26 

for the erection and maintenance of a George Meschter 526 

schoolhouse on the lot where the Chapel -^f '"\?';'?"'^^ V,^ 

schoolhouse now stands by the follo^ving {j^lll^^^Sllo^.e ;.•.•;.•.•.•.•.•:.•.•.•.•.'.•.•.•.■.•.•.•.•. ^0^6 

residents ot the vicinity, each contribut- joim 'Weidner 12.66 

iiig: the sum set opposite his name : George Steinman, Sr W 6.26 



Jacob Deysher 16.26 

Solomon Ycakel 4.26 

Jeremiali Yeakcl 15.60 

Isaac Ycakel 9.26 

John Gery, Jr 7.33 

Jacob Gery, Jr 6.26 

Elias Rjtz. / 10.00 

George Clemmer 10.00 

Jacob Wiliauer 5.00 

Samuel Gery (?) 

Joseph Yeager, admitted into company 

April 5, 1821 8.00 

Jacob Hillegass (?) 

Of the subscribers Abraham Griese- 
mer withdrew in 1817 and Joseph Yea- 
ger in 1 82 1. George Clemmer, Elias 
Ritz and Jacob Wiliauer joined the com- 
pany after the organization had been ef- 

A schoolhouse was erected by this 
company, on or before 1814, Christopher 
Schultz. who then owned the two 
farms now owned by H. K. Schultz and 
Jonas Kriebel, donating the land, ac- 
cording to tradition. 

Constitution of the Company 

In order that there might be system in 
their work and a clear understanding 
respecting objects, plans and necessary 
regulations, a kind of constitution was 
adopted, of which the following is a free 
translation. Space will not permit us to 
call attention to what may be termed the 
main features of the project, which the 
kind reader will note for himself. 


of the Company of the newly erected School- 
house in Hereford Township. 

Whereas, no society, church or association of 
persons for any special object of whatever 
nature can exist without rules and regulations 
or constitution, by which each member may be 
directed for the preservation of peace and 
unity, it is likewise necessary in the present 
case that we, as a company and subscribers to 
this schoolhouse, should endeavor to perfect 
an organization among ourselves, so that our 
business may be conducted in proper order and 
each may have rules for his conduct. In con- 
sequence whereof they must select persons 
among themselves to attend to various duties, 
without throwing all the cares and burdens 
upon a few persons, as circumstances may de- 

Wherefore the subscribers to this 'school- 
house, or at least a part of them, shall meet each 
year on the first Saturday in May at this place 
to elect a president, treasurer and two trustees 
in such manner as they may tind most suitable. 

1. It shall be tlie duty of the president to 
open the meeting anrl at each gathering to 
state why the company has met and what busi- 
ness is to be transacted. He shall also provide 
ink, pens and paper, since at each meeting 
these will be needed, lest each man depend on 
the others and things be wanting. 

2. The treasurer shall keep a memorandum, 
in order that a record may be made from year 
to year of all transactions and that, in case a 
capital should gradi:ally be collected, the annual 
balances in the treasury may likewise be re- 
corded. He shall also keep a record of all 
expenditures for improvement of the school of 
whatever nature, if necessary. He shall also 
make a record of the gifts for the use of the 
school, in order that a complete record may 
be made each year and transcribed into the 

3. The trustees shall have the right to se- 
lect the teacher under the following conditions. 
In case he is a stranger to them, they shall in 
the best possible manner fmd out whether he 
possesses the qualifications a. teacher ought to 
have, and is a man of good character as well as 
of adequate knowledge of reading, writing. arith- 
metic and the like — not in the German alone, 
but also in the English, and so forth. If they 
have satisfied themselves on these points, they 
may close a contract with him, as they may 
find it desirable and as they can agree with 
him, whether by the month or by the child in 
such way as not to prove disadvantageous to 
the School-Association. 

4. It shall also be the duty of the trustees 
to see that proper discipline and decorum be 
observed in the school, and that the teacher 
discharge his duty according to ability. In 
case they hnd that he has done his work prop- 
erly and that complaint is made against him. 
they shall sustain him and in some way or 
other seek to remove the trouble. 

5. They shall also provide at all times a 
sufficient supply of firewood. 

6. If any one sends a child or children by 
the month, and the same or any of them be- 
come sick in the mean time, so that it may not 
attend the full time, the teacher shall not have 
the right to charge for full time, since no owe 
is accountable for the absence: but if the pupil 
is absent without just cause, no allowance sliall 
be made, since it is the fault of the parents. 

7. The teacher shall keep an accurate ac- 
count of each and every pupil during the time 
of school, and on the day when the school is 
to close. Trustees at least shall meet here 
and the patrons may do the same in order that 
the report may be made and the account ad- 
justed in the presence of the school-teacher, 
when the lists must be handed over to the 
trustees in order that the money may be col- 
lected and the school-teacher paid. ShouKl 
any balance be left, they shall hand the same 
over to the treasurer, who shall put it at in- 
terest as soon as it is worth while, unless need- 
ed for school -repairs. 



8. Whoever has just excuse or objections to 
make of any kind shall present the same on the 
last day of school or at the trustees' election, 
in order that the same may be mutually dis- 
cussed, since such matters do not rest on one 
or two. 

9. And since those who are not subscribers 
to the schoolhouse and who wish to send chil- 
dren to school are not entitled to send at the 
same rate as we the subscribers, since they 
have had neither trouble nor expense on ac- 
count of it, it shall be the duty of the trustees 
to inform such applicants for school-privileges 
of the condition of things ; namely, that such 
nuist pay a dollar per month for each child. 
But this shall not be a law^ applicable to all 
persons, since the children of the poor must 
also be educated, on which account the trustees 
shall show consideration, as they deem proper 
and are able to arrange matters according to 

10. Each year two trustees shall be elected. 
the retiring trustees being re-eligible : unless 
objections are made by them or others, they 
may be elected for a longer time, which will 
show itself at the counting of the ballots. The 
president and the treasurer shall be elected for 
not less than two nor without their consent for 
more than three years, except in cases where 
changes become necessary through sickness or 

Some Trustees — Furnishing Firewood 

From scattered references the follow- 
ing" trustees of the Hereford commLuiity- 
school may be named : 

181 5, Jacob Gery. 

1 816, Jacob Gery. 
1818, Samuel Deisher. 
1S22, Samuel Gery. 

Daniel Heyl. 

1846, S. D. Pleil and George Wiegner. 

1847, H. Marsteller and George Huber. 

1848, G. Deisher and E. Baer. 

1849, Johannes Stcinman and Jonas Xuss. 

1850, Joseph Gery and Gabriel Griesemer. 

1851, David Treichler and Benjamin Yeakel. 

1852, Enoch Schultz and Willoughby W'il- 

1853, Samuel Schultz and Joel Deisher. 

1854, Daniel Nuss and Johannes Yeakel. 

A partial record shows that loads of 
firewood were delivered for the use of 
llie Hereford subscription-school as fol- 
lows : 

J 81 4, George Wiegner, Jacob Gery. Adam 

181 5, Jacob Deisher, Heinrich George, George 
Stcmtnan, junr. 

1817, Mathews Schultz, Sanuiel Dreichler. 
(icorge Wiegner. 

1^18. Sanuiel Dreichler, Elias Ritz. George 

1819, Johannes Weidner, George Wiegner, 
Christopher Schultz, Adam Schultz. 

1820, Isaac Griesemer, Samuel Gery, Jacob 

1827, Adam Schultz. 

Miscellaneous Items 

Whether the list of teachers or the en- 
rollment of pupils has been preserved, 
the writer is unable to say. Kind read- 
er, if you know of any definite facts con- 
cerning teachers or pupils, you can con- 
fer a great favor by placing them at the 
disposal of the writer of this article. 

Christopher Schultz served as treas- 
urer of the company from 1814 to May 
20, 1843, when he was succeeded by bis 
son, Joseph K. Schultz, who served until 
the final dissolution of the company and 
the winding up of its affairs in 1855. 
The treasurer's accounts were recorded in 
pounds, shillings and pence until 1832, 
when the change to dollars and cents 
was made. From these we glean items 
like the following: 

Daniel Schlicher received in 181 5, 75 
cents for a note-board {Noten-Tafel). 
The teachers could teach the pupils how 
to sing, and no doubt they aud their pu- 
pils often made the little schoolhouse re- 
echo. They had a well with a bucket at 
the schoolhouse, as shown by items of 
expense. Henry ^loyer in 18 16 received 
a dollar for locating the water. 

Jonas Fetzer was paid sixty cents for 
some mason-work and George Christ- 
man fifty cents for a bucket. The ac- 
count does not show whether Mover 
used a divining fork or was led by his 
aching bones in finding the water. 

Three pounds of shingle nails were 
bought in 1 8 19 for ^^6 cents — a rather 
high price, but would you be willing to 
forge by hand a pound of such nails for 
twelve cents? Up to 1827 a yearly 
charge was entered for makinsr fire in 
the schoolhouse, ranging from fifty cents 
to two dollars for the term of four 

For the first ten years the trustees 
annually paid over to the treasurer a 
balance from the teacher's salary. The 
inference would seem to be that during 
this period the trustees guaranteed a 
fixed salary to the teachers and that what 





was left from dues, tuition, charges, etc., 
after paying the teacher was turned into 
the treasury. In 182 1 twenty-five cents 
were received as balance from the de- 
bating club (Sprechschnlc). Who will 
sing the glories of this Hereford Liter- 
ary Society of 1820? 

Salt of the Schoolhouse 

Hereford township accepted the pub- 
lic-school system in 1845, but, judging 
by the treasurer's accounts, the school 
directors did not assume charge of the 
school until 1849, as during this and the 
four following years they annually paid 
four months' rent. During the year 
1854 the trustees sold to the school-di- 

rectors schoolhouse and lot for $140. 
The price shows that forty years' wear 
of the house and furniture and the na- 
tural advancement of the educational 
idea had left the equii)ment in the rear. 
It is probable that the school-directors 
soon after built a mor^^ commodious 

Without house or school there was no 
reason for the continuance oi the organ- 
ization and dissolution took place. The 
balance on hand. $184.61, was distribut- 
ed among the contributors or their heirs 
January 27. 1855, So. 597 on each dollar 
of original investment being thus re- 
turned after the school had been in suc- 
cessful operation four decades. 

Doctor Constantin Bering, 

A Pioneer of Homeopathy 

(See Frontispiece Portrait) 

The following article is an abridgment of a 
biographical sketch compiled by Dr. Hering's 
daughter and published recently in the Mittcil- 
tingen des Deiitschen Pionicrvercins von Phila- 
delphia. — Ed. 

His Father and Childhood Experiences 

ancestors came from Moravia and 
wrote their name Hrinka. His 
father, Carl Gottlieb Hering, an affec- 
tionate, gentle-natured man, was edu- 
cated at the Fiirstoischule in Meissen, 
where Hahnemann received his early ed- 
ucation, and later went to the university 
of Leipsic. He was educated for the 
ministry, but when preaching his trial 
sermon refused to cover his own luxuri- 
and blonde hair with a peruke, for which 
he was censured as lacking in proper re- 
spect, and summoned before the Svnod. 
In answering the charge, he took up a 
lock of his hair, and said : ''Why should 
I hide and cover God's handiwork by 
that of man?" In consequence he was 
accused of blasphemy and of having 
"called God a pcrniquicr." :\fter this he 
refused to be installed as a nnnister, 
though he preached occasionally, and 
devoted his life to teaching and music. 
He published many books on musical in- 
struction, and a collection of children's 
songs that is used to this dav. 

Before his marriage he lived in Leip- 
sic ; later he accepted a position in 
Oschatz, where Dr. Constantin Hering 
was born January i, 1800. 

It was customary to welcome the new 
year by a service in the church. The 
father, who was a noted organist, was in 
church, seated at the organ, when a 
friend brought hini the news of the birth 
of a son. Immediately the organ pealed 
forth the grand old choral, ''Xun dankct 
allc Gott," with such volume and inspi- 
ration that people afterwards said: *Tt 
sounded as though the heavens had 
opened and angels with trumpets were 
blowing the choral." In defiance of a 
prevalent superstition, Constantin. the 
name of Magister Hering's first son. 
who had died in infancy, was also given 
to this child. 

As Oschatz lay on the highway from 
Dresden to Leipsic. travelers of note of- 
ten stopped there to see Magister Her- 
ing. Dr. Hering remembered many of 
these guests. He sometimes told of sit- 
ting on Chladni's knee and listenini:;" to 
his wonderful account of the KUiHi:tii:i(- 
rrn. Seume's talk about America and 
ckMuocracy doubtless inspired the listen- 
ing child with love of freedom and aver- 
sion to privileged classes. 



His early teachers were persons of 
like character as his father; in particular, 
he always spoke with the greatest affec- 
tion and veneration of his Lchrer Ru- 
dolph. He had no liking for history, 
but a great love for nature, and once in- 
curred a reproof from his beloved teach- 
er, Ileii Rudolph, by refusing, in a corn- 
position that he had to write, to call 
I'eter of Russia Peter the Great, writing 
with youthful audacity, '"Peter, whom 
fools "call great." He well remembered 
the battle of Jena and the march of a 
portion of Napoleon's army through 
Saxony, on their way to Russia. 

On this march a company of soldiers 
halted before Magister Hering's house 
and demanded 'food. Constantin, then a 
lad of twelve, ran out and gave them a 
loaf of newly baked rye-bread, which the 
officer flung on the ground and the sol- 
diers kicked about. The boy cried 
out indignantly : ''It's good bread, my 
mother baked it ; don't you know that 
God will punish vou for desecrating 

After the fatal retreat it chanced that 
the same squad came and begged for 
food. The lad again came to succor the 
poor wretches, this time offering them 
wheaten bread ; the same officer, in rags, 
his arm in a sling, recognized the boy. 
''Ah, my lad !" he said, ''the curse you 
told us of has fallen upon us." 

Love of Nature-Study — At the University 

The boy developed a great and enthu- 
siastic love for the study of natural sci- 
ences. His collection of insects, miner- 
als and plants occupied all the hours 
that could be spared from school. 
Among his books was a small work on 
botany, numbering eighty-eight pages, 
entitled SystcniatiscJics Vcrzcicluiiss in 
(Icr Obcrlaiisitz zvild li'achscndcr Pflaii- 
^cn. von Karl Christian Octtcl, 1799. On 
the fly-leaf in the boy's handwriting are 
the words, "Aly first book on botany" : 
the interlinear marks, underscorings and 
marginal notes on the well-worn pages 
<^f this little book show how diligently 
he used it. 

He often said jokingly that the Parcae 
(Fates) came to him in reverse order. 
as the first stimulus to a love for natural 

sciences was the accidental finding upon 
his father's grapevine of the caterpillar 
Sphynx Atropos. When, as a young 
man in Surinam, he discovered the heal- 
ing properties of the poison of the suru- 
kuku snake, he named the new remedy 
Lachesis, and finally, during the latter 
years of his life, he likened his labor of 
compiling his great work on Materia 
Medica, "Guiding Symptoms," to Clo- 
tho's holding the distaff and spinning 
threads. When the work was well be- 
gun he said : 'AVhen I shall be called 
hence the work will be left ready on the 
loom for other hands to weave." 

In 1817 Constantin was sent to an 
academy in Dresden, where he studied 
surgery. A year later a copy of Euclid 
literally fell into his hands at an old 
bookstall : the volume so deeply interest- 
ed him that he resolved to go home and 
devote hiniself to the study of Greek and 
mathematics, which he did under the 
guidance of Director Rudolph. 

In 1820 he entered the university at 
Leipsic. Later he went to the university 
at \\'urzburg, attracted by the fame of 
Professor Schonlein, under whom he 
graduated with highest honors in 1826. 
At one time there were four sons of 
Magister Hering at the university of 
Leipsic, who were laughingly dubbed by 
their mates die Z'icr Hcringc* Ewafd 
Hering, next in age to Constantin, be- 
came a minister. Karl Eduard Hering 
devoted his life to music, and Julius Her- 
ing. whose special study ^ was philology 
and who bid fair to outshine all the rest, 
lost his life while yet a student in rescu- 
ing his dearest friend. For nine years, 
from 1817 to 1826. Dr. Hering's life was 
devoted to study. His fellow-students 
nicknamed hinj dcr altc JJ'iscnt.'f on ac- 
count of his energetic application to 

His Conversion to Homeopathy 

He was poor aniL so was quite ready 
to add to his exchequer by engaging to 
write a treatise which was to prove a 
deathblow to homeopathy, and to be pub- 
lished by P>aumgartner. When this work 
was almost finished, he came across 
Hahnemann's challenge: ''Disprove ere 

•Thf four Herrings 
tOl.I lUson. 





you condemn !" When telling- of this he 
would say : "In the arrogance of my 
youth, I thought this a sort of 'bluff,' 
and determined to take him at his word, 
with the result that Baumgartner never 
^ot the wished-for refutation of homeo- 

An old friend, an apothecary, was 
greatly delighted to hear that he was 
writing against the new school, but when 
Dr. Hering went to this friend one day 
for tincture of Peruvian bark, wanting it, 
as he told him, for the purpose of mak- 
ing a homeopathic proving, the man ex- 
claimed : *'AIy dear young friend, don't 
you do it ; don't you know there is dan- 
ger in that?" The young doctor replied 
that he was a student of mathematics 
and believed himself capable of distin- 
guishing truth from falsehood. From 
that time this old friend, and many oth- 
ers, turned from him. Some said com- 
passionately that he was going crazy. 
Himself admitted that he became almost 
a fanatic in the cause of homeopathy, 
preaching it everywhere and at all times 
and seasons, like a very apostle. 

A personal experience at this time also 
had a most decisive effect on his conver- 
sion. In making an autopsy on the body 
of a suicide, exhumed by the authorities, 
he accidentally became poisoned through 
an abrasion on one of his fingers. The 
wound became gangrenous. Leeches, 
calomel and caustics, the usual remedies 
at that time, proved of no avail, and his 
, physicians said amputation of his hand 
was the last and only hope of saving his 
life. This he rejected, as the loss of his 
hand would be fatal to his chosen pro- 
fession (surgery), and he would rather 
die than suffer it. Although he was al- 
ready deeply interested in the new teach- 
ing, he still believed it absurd to suppose 
that external diseases could be reached 
by internal remedies, and ridiculed the 
proposition of an old disciple of Hahne- 
mann to ■ treat him with . pellets. 
However, to please his friend, he finally 
consented to take miiuite doses of ar- 
senic. He was cured and, when telling 
the story, would say: "Hahnemann sav- 
ed my finger, and I gave him my wIk^Ic 
hand, and to the promulgation of his 

teaching not only my hand, but the en- 
tire man, soul and body." 

Work in Surinam — Coming to Philadelphia 

He received his doctor's degree from 
the university of Wiirzburg March 23. 
1826, and wrote as his graduation-thesis, 
''De Mcdicina Fiitura," in which he res- 
olutely and ably maintained the doctrine 
of Hahnemann. In ^lay of the same 
year he was appointed instructor in 
mathematics and natural sciences in 
Blochmann's Institute, in Dresden. Some 
months later he was sent to Surinam, by 
the King of Saxony, in charge of the 
zoological department of the expedition. 
He remained in Surinam six year?, still 
pursuing the study of homeopathy and 
practicing to some extent among the 
^loravian missionaries and settlers. He 
also wrote several articles for the Home- 
opathic Archives. This proceeding was 
brought to the notice of the king in such 
a way as to cause him to direct Dr. Her- 
ing to attend solely to the duties of his 
appointment and let outside matters 
alone. By return mail the doctor sent in 
a report, his accounts in full, and re- 
signed his official position, remainin::^' a 
few years longer in Paramaribo, where 
he practiced, made researches and some 
valuable discoveries. 

He made many converts to homeo- 
pathy and educated a student. Dr. 
George H. Bute, whom he sent north at 
the outbreak of ■ cholera in 1832, to try 
his skill in fighting the epidemic. While 
his student was successfully battling 
with the cholera in Philadelphia, he went 
among the lepers colonized in the vicin- 
ity of Paramaribo, outcasts from so- 
ciety, and although unable to cure more 
than a few, he did much to relieve the 
sufferings of many. He sent numerous 
medical articles to his friend Stapf in 
Germany, who published them in his 
Archives. He studied the habits and cus- 
toms of the Creoles, mulattoes, negroes 
and Arrowackian Indians, riskin-:!: hi"^ 
life in becoming acquainted with this 
wild tribe. 

In 1829 he marrietl C^harUnte Kemper, 
but lost his youn^^- wife soon after the 
birth of a son and shortly thereafter dc- 
termined to leave Surinam. Having al- 



ways .felt drawn towards the United 
States, the country in which the freedom 
he so loved w^as most ample, he deter- 
mined to visit it on his way home. The 
vessel in which he sailed was bound for 
Salem, Mass._, and after a very stormy 
and protracted passage put into Mar- 
tha's Vineyard for a fresh supply of wa- 
ter and some necessary repairs. 

This was in January, 1833. The 
[(round was covered with snow, the first 
the doctor had seen for nearly seven 
years. ' He requested to be put ashore 
and in his delight took up handfuls of 
it, pressing it to his face in almost child- 
ish glee. He was so weary of being 
storm-tossed that he did not return to the 
vessel, but came by land to Philadelphia, 
where his former pupil. Dr. Bute, had 
introduced homeopathy, and at the soli- 
citation of William Geisse, a German im- 
porter of tliis city, he remained there in- 
stead of returning to Germany, and soon 
had a large and lucrative practice. 

In 1834 he married Marianne Hus- 
mann, daughter of Johann Heinrich 
]\lartin Husmann, of Tlanover, Ger- 
many, later one of the pioneers of ^Hs- 
souri. The ceremony was performed by 
Dr. Theodore Demme, of Zion's church, 
on Fourth street, another staunch friend 
of Dr. Hering's until his death. At the 
house of William Geisse he met Fried- 
rich Knorr, who had come from Prussia 
a short time before. Pie and Dr. Her- 
ing became most intimate friends, also 
their wives and children. Together they 
crossed the Delaware and brought fir- 
trees from Jersey, carrying them on 
their shoulders, followed by shouting- 
boys, as the first German Christmas- 
trees in Philadelphia. The fame of 
these wonders spread abroad, so that 
evenings were appointed when the doc- 
tor's patients came to see the lighted 
trees ; thus this beautiful German cus- 
tom was introduced here. 

The Homeopathic Academy at Allentown 
Dr. William Wesselhoeft, a relative of 
the Ilusmanns, who by this time had es- 
tablished homeopathy on a firm footing 
ui Xorthampton and Lehigh counties. 
1^1., hearing Dr. Hering had arrived in 
Philadelphia, came immediately to see 

him and proposed a plan for establish- 
ing a homeopathic school at Allentown, 
to be supported by a stock-company. Jan- 
uary I, 1834, Dr. Hering's birtliday, a 
committee from the Homeopathic So- 
ciety of Xorthampton and Counties 
Adjacent, consisting of Drs. William 
\\ esselhoeft, Henry Detweiler and John 
Romig, waited upon him with the result 
that on April 10, 1835, Hahnemann's 
birthday, the North American Academy 
of the Plomeopathic Healing Art w^as 
founded. It was located at Allentown, 
Pa., with Dr. Hering as president and 
principal instructor, and in May of that 
year Dr. Hering's connection with it be- 
gan. A large proportion of the funds 
w^as raised in Philadelphia under the 
h/party co-operation of William Geisse 
and Dr. Bute. 

The cornerstone for one of the two- 
wings of the main building was laid 
May 27, 1835, when Dr. Hering delivered 
the inaugural address in the courthouse,, 
in the German language, taking for his 
text W^ashington's words : ''There is but 
one right way — to seek the truth and 
steadily pursue it." Funds believed quite 
sufficient for the maintenance of the 
academy imtil it should beco'"*^ ^elf-sup- 
porting had been raised, but the scheme 
unfortunately miscarried, owing to some 
petty political intrigues and the financial 
crash of 1837, wlien the banker with 
whom the endowment- fund was deposit- 
ed made a bad failure, and the money 
upon which the academy depended for 
imniediate support was lost. 

During his connection with the insti- 
tution Dr. Hering's efforts to dissemin- 
ate homeopathy were indefatigable. He 
taught, he practiced, wrote books and 
pamphlets, and had German textbooks 
translated, so as to bring their contents 
within the reach of all. At the instiga- 
tion of his friend Wesselhoeft and witlr 
the latter's help, he labored extensively 
with tile country-clergy, who sought in- 
struction and practiced the new healing" 
art ui)on their parishioners, who lived far 
away from the new doctors. Witli one 
of these, the Rev. John HeliTrich. Dr. 
Hering formed a lasting friendship auil 
had the satisfaction of scvine seven of 



this man's descendants — sons, grand- 
sons and nephews — join the ranks of 

Two Disagreements with Wesselhoeft 

Dr. Hering was not cast down by the 
failure of the Academy at AUentown. 
He returned to his praciice in Thiladel- 
phia after the first and only disagree- 
ment he and Wesselhoeft ever had. As 
a matter of course they intended to settle 
and remain together, either in Philadel- 
phia pr Boston. When discussing de- 
tails Dr. W^esselhoeft declared that he 
would take the outdoor practice, visiting 
the patients, while Dr. Hering was to be 
consulting physician and so have more 
time for literary work. Dr. Hering 
would not agree to this, as Dr. Wessel- 
hoeft was his senior. As neither was 
willing to yield the harder labor to the 
other, they finally separated, Dr. Wessel- 
hoeft going to L)Oston, where he remain- 
ed until his death. 

When settling up their accounts an- 
other difficulty arose. Both were stu- 
dents and, like Agassiz. had neither time 
nor thought to devote to their private 
money-matters. There arose a question 
as to which owed the other one hundred 
dollars ; each declared himself the debt- 
or and insisted on paying the amount to 
the other. Dr. Hering finally came off 
victor in the contest and forced the hun- 
dred dollars on his friend. Many. years 
later, when Dr. Hering was telling this 
incident to his daughter, he smiled and 
after a moment's pause added: "Unci dcr 
Alte hafte dock Rccht.'^ for long after- 
wards I incidentally found a slip of pa- 
per that proved it. But as I had had so 
nuich trouble in convincing him that I 
was right, T thought I wouldn't revive 
the old matter." 

Early in 1840 he lost his second wife. 
a sorrow which for a long time so seri- 
ously preyed upon his health that his re- 
covery was doubtful. During this time 
he was assisted in his large practice by 
his two brothers-in-law. Dr. Fritz Hus- 
mann and Dr. Jacob Schmidt, both of 
them his pupils in the healing art. 

Several years after the collapse oi the 
AUentown Academy. Dr. Hering was 

♦The old man was rifrht after all. 

asked by Hahnemann's widow to come to 
Paris and take her husband's practice : 
afterwards he was several times invited 
to settle in London. But, honorable and 
tempting as these invitations were, hj 
refused them all. He loved the country 
of his adoption, "his children's country," 
and would not expatriate them. 

He delighted in doing honor to indi- 
viduals and great events. Some time in 
the early forties, when Friedrich Ludwig 
Georg von Raumer visited this country. 
Dr. Elering gathered the prominent Ger- 
mans of that day in Philadelphia in his 
house in honor of this guest. Of course 
there was music, singing and feasting. 
One course, heralded by a blare of 
trumpets and brought in by four "print- 
ers' devils" in a huge punch-bowl, con- 
sisted of sauerkraut festooned and 
crowned with JJ^iirst. 

Visit to the Fatherland — Always a German 

In 1845 his failing health and a great 
desire to see his father, brothers and sis- 
ters, induced Dr. Hering to visit the fa- 
therland with his two little children, 
leaving his practice in the care of Dr. 
Husmann. While in Germany, visiting 
his relatives and many old friends, he 
married his third wife, Therese Buch- 
heim, daughter of Christian Friedrich 
Buchheim, army-surgeon in Bautzen. 
Saxony. The sudden death oi his bro- 
ther-in-law, Dr. Husmann. called him 
prematurely to Philadelphia, early in the 
summer of 1846. 

After several changes of residence, he 
finally in 1852 secured the property on 
Twelfth street, above Arch, which he 
had long tried to purchase, as it had a 
very large garden. Here he lived until 
his death. July 23. 1880. He took great 
delight in his large garden and for sotne 
years personally superintended the cul- 
ture and care of it. As soon as the 
weather permitted in the spring and un- 
til late in the autumn what time he couM 
give to his family aiul friends was spent 
there, either under a much-loved elm- 
tree, or in a grape-arbor, where the Ger- 
man afternoon-cotTee was partaken of. 

Ever pursuing his life-work wiih loy- 
al and unfailing ardor. Dr. Hering wa- 
broad-mindedlv interested in literature. 




art, Duisic and politics, and found his 
recreation in these. When the events 
which induced the Civil War were crys- 
tallizing, and ever after, he was a fervent 
and enthusiastic Unionist. \\'h€n Fre- 
mont was nominated for the Presidency, 
his whole soul was in the nomination. 

Fie bore testimony to his love for his 
native. country on all occasions, and was 
always deeply interested in German af- 
fairs ; even in his young manhood he had 
faith in the eventual accomplishment of 
German unity. In 1826, on a visit to 
Cologne, he was present at a banqutt, at 
Avhich he predicted the completion of the 
great cathedral. His prophecy was re- 
ceived with much mirth, but undaunted 
he arose and gave as a toast the senti- 
ment : "The cathedral of Cologne will be 
<:ompleted as surely as Germany will be- 
come one and united." The toast was 
drunk, amid much ironical laughter, and 
the young doctor complimented as an 
excellent satirist. But he meant no sat- 
ire ; he was in dead earnest, and lived to 
see Germany united and the completion 
■of the cathedral assured. 

His faith in the accompHshment. of 
German unity never wavered, and how 
well he foresaw what was to come is 
shown in a paper, read by him at a so- 
cial club called Die Kanncgicsscv, and 
subsequently printed in i860. "Die na- 
tilrliche Grcnze." In September, 1870. 
he had the happiness of celebrating the 
victory of German arms and unityby a 
festival at his own residence, beirin- 
nmg with a choral, ''IVic scJwn Icucht't 
uns dcr Morgoistcni;' by a quartet of 
brass-instruments at 7 a. m., and con- 
tinued during the evening. 

March 27^, 1876 — the Centennial year 
— his many friends celebrated the fifLieth 
anniversary of his graduation in medi- 
cine by- various ceremonies and a ban- 
quet at the Union League. He was an 
early member of the Deutsche Gcscll- 
sc/iaft, the Alte }f fuicrclioi'r and many 
other societies, but, unlike most Germans 
in America, Dr. Hering. though truly 
loving the country of his adoption, re- 
mained all through his life a German as 
he was born. The house on Twelfth 
street was bv manv called "Little Ger- 

many" ; the home-language was German, 
his children never addressing him in any 

His hospitality was unlimited. Xo 
German of note who came to this coun- 
try but visited and rested with him a 
while ; all were made royally welcome. 
The anniversaries of the great poets and 
men of science, and notable events, such 
as the successful laying of the Trans-At- 
lantic cable, etc., were all occasions to 
gather his friends about him to rejoice 
in German fashion. 

His Scientific Spirit and Untiring Industry 

When in quest of knowledge, every- 
thing else had to give way ; time, money, 
strength, sleep, all were sacrificed for 
the sake of science. He brought every- 
thing to the touchstone of scientific ex- 
periment, and was wont to say : "There 
is no such thing as belief in science. A 
property or thing is or is not." Every- 
thing was subjected to trial, and if it djd 
not stand the test, he never strove to 
bolster it up with a more plausible the- 
ory, but cast it off as useless. A year or 
two before his death he remarked to 
some of his students: "Well, gentlemen, 
to-day I have lost one of my best beloved 
children. For niore than twenty years I 
have been collecting facts and data to 
establish a pet theory of mine, and I was 
about to publish and give the results to 
the world, when to-day I have fully de- 
cided that it cannot stand the test of sci- 
entific experiment, and so I have buried 
it out of my sight. Not without a pang 
— but as my theory is not true, that is 
tlie end of it." 

Fie was not a money getter. He did 
not care to amass this world's goods ; 
but he wanted to be rich in learning, 
especially in all that pertained to his pro- 
fession. He was logical, discriminating, 
a great lover and close observer of na- 
ture, a hard student, oi unwearied in- 
dustry. While Wilhelm Jordan was 
staying at his house, he remarked to a 
friend : "Jordan is a man of wonderful 
ability, but 1 have lost regard for him. 
Last evening, in a burst of feeling, he 
said : *0, how badly it makes one feel to 
be convinced of error!' I felt indiurnant 
at such a statement and replied : 'No, not 



if one be moved by proper motives. The 
only feeling of an honest man should be, 
how glad I am to learn the truth !' I am 
sorry, but I have lost regard for Jor- 

He accorded the fullest respect to the 
opinions of others, and largely for that 
reasoii always commanded re.^pect. He 
was an earnest, j^atient and constant 
toiler, and died in working-harness, see- 
ing patients within a few hours of his 
death, and literally with pen in hand, 
correcting proof-sheets. His patients 
venerated, trusted, loved, almost wor- 
shiped him ; no other man could supply 
his place. 

He was a wonderfully industrious 
man, and found time, besides his large 
practice, to write and publish many ar- 
ticles, pamphlets and larger works. As a 
student he wrote a number of short 
stories, which were published together 
with some of his brother's. In the early 
forties he wrote a charming fairy-tale 
for his motherless children. Of- course, 
the greater number of his writings are 
medical. The last and greatest of these. 
''Guiding Symptoms," was going 
through the press at the time of his 
death, and afterwards finished from the 
manuscript, as he had foretold. 

Pennsylvania's Old Apprenticeship-Law 


THE repeal by the Legislature at 
its last winter's session of the 
Act of 1770, which has been the 
general foundation of apprenticeship in 
this State, serves to recall to mind a re- 
lationship which at one time flourished 
in this Commonwealth, but which lately 
has so fallen into disuse that the statute's 
repeal will scarcely affect industrial con- 

The Meaning of Apprenticeship 

What is meant by apprenticeship? We 
must first of all distinguish between the 
legal and popular significations of the 
word. Popularly we call a person who 
is learning a trade an apprentice. For 
example, where a man must sen.'e a cer- 
tain length of time before he is recog- 
nized in a certain trade as fully compe- 
tent to carry it on. we speak of such a 
man as an apprentice, regardless of 
many things which are essential charac- 
teristics of the legal status of appren- 
ticeship. The relationship is merely 
contractual like that of any other em- 
ployment. If the apprentice quits work 
an action of damages lies against him, if 
he is of age : if not of age, there is abso- 
lutely no remedy, because it is a rule of 
law that the contracts of a minor are 
voidable, except in cases it is not now 
necessary to consider. 

In the case of apprenticeship in its 
strict les^al signification before the re- 
peal of the Act referred to, we have to 


do with an entirely different matter. It 
was what is called in law a status rather 
than a contract rehtion. To be a legal 
appprentice, it was necessary, first, that 
the apprentice be under age ; if a male, 
under the age of twenty-one ; if a female, 
under the age of eighteen years. Sec- 
ondly, the relationship had to be created 
or the person be ''bound out" (as it was 
called), by the overseers of the poor — 
who were authorized to bind out. with 
the consent of two magistrates oi the 
county, all children whose parents were 
unable to support them and who in con- 
sequence came to be public charges — or 
by the apprentice's parents, guardians or 
next friends. In the former case the 
minor was not consulted and his consent 
was not obtained, but in the latter case 
his consent was necessary. Care was al- 
ways taken in binding out by t'le courts 
to see that the prospective master was a 
capable instructor and a man of good 
morals. When properly bound out in 
either of the ways just described, the ap- 
prentice was personally responsible for 
the performance of the a<:rreement en- 
tered into on his behalf, req-ardless of his 
minority, and upon attaining his major- 
• ity he became liable to an action for dini- 
aq:es if he was a partv to the ai^^reement. 
Other remedies of the master will be 
adverted to presently. 

Purpose and Effect, Rights ani Duties 
The purpose oi the binding out had 


_. ,^_. _ t / 1 * -" ' 

^^^,k:Tl: V/itnc (Teth,^ That ,X /5 e^ V^ OA**. ^ r.^j'-^- <'c-r, '^ » y^ ^';fj^' 
J-iath put himfelf, and \rj tjiefc Frefcnt;, i<y ^/X ^. ^A .fc^./^ y-«^V 

Y CDr>^4,^-,yf/>yt^<^d'<}P^S^<-**^jiy^''>^/t /t^ i^^ flr.tit vojiir.tarilv, crd cf his cwrj 
1^ <ifrec Will and Accord, rut himfe.f Afprcnt-cc to^ci^A-fX^/^-^^.,*, .V' 

^ to Icarn h ^<j Art, Trade arid'^Mvilcry, .•'rid afccr the Manner T-f nn Ap- 

^ ' .' prentice to ^zi^tj'^J.CaJ^uff^ '(<i Uc^:^Tc^^^^y^nj^u^ ivcm the DiV of 
^^ the Date hereof", for, and during, and to the full End and Term cf 

^^ ' 9UTxjt^ ^^r^ next enfuing. Di.irii»g all which Term, the faid Ap- 
prentice his faid M^y^^v faithfully /hall ferve, h t^ Secret; licep, h ^/ 
lawful Commands tstrj where readily obey. He fijall do no Damage to 
^ * . hisfaid Wla^U'r- ri^^r fee it to be done by others, without letting or 

giving Notice thereof to his faid M a.^^^^- He Hiall not wallc his iaid 
lAiC//^<.j Good?, nor lend tiicm uniawfuliy to any. He Ih.all not 
com'mit Fornication, nor contract Matrimony, within the faid Term : 
^^ f At Cards, Dice, or any other unlawful Games, he fhall not play, 
"^ whereby his faid M a-yr<^T' may liavc Damage. \V'ith his own 

! Goods, nor the Goods of others, <^/ithout Licence from his faid 
i 1 ts\.%4//c-7^ he (hail neither buy nor fell. He fnnll not abfcnt him- 

*sj^ •; fclf Day nor Night from hi^ faid xM a^><^ >-t?< Service, without h /;< " 
I Leave : Nor haunt Ale-houfes, Taverns, or Plav-houfcs ; but in all 


j^ .^ Things behave himfelf as a fair.hful Apprenrice ought to do, curing the 
"^^ '""^s^-fti^ TTm,. -yu«^ «k^. r,u! M.* //.'■-.. ■"ii^j.lJLuCixhc utmoft of h c'-- En- 

O" . dqavour to teach, or caufe to be tau:^> c or inllruc'tcd the fjid Apprcn- 
^ ' lice in the Trade or Myllery of J9[< --^K-.f^. ^i^^r .z^lJ ^''^t^, .-< 'j^ 4» -. 

N , and procure and provide for himfutncierit Meat, Drink t-^/T-ra. z..''/L- 
Lov^.ging and Wafhing, fitting for an Apprentice, dqring the falJ Term 


^i-Zt'^ '^A'^'^i i^//^-^ "/^JtV" t/^<«^c^ , /"^i^t tV^fV^^r>- *** 

'A N D for the tri'C Performance of all and fingubr the Ccvcnnnis 

and Agreements aforefaid, the faid Parties bind thcrafclves each unto the 

other hrmly by thefe Prefents. J N WITNESS whereof the fiid 

. parties have interchangeably fct their Hands and Seals hereunto. D.\t- 

cd the , 5/<7/v^ Day of '-^^'^tjV^ . in the 

1 ^^ J'pL^,><v^*"'* °* ^^^ Reign of our Sovereign Lord 

j *" Ay^^^/ /^^ y/f/r I) King of Grc^f'Urirjin, 'S:c. A':'::-^:;^ Dcraini 
One Thoufaid Seven Hundred anJyr,^'^^ <irv^^ ^ 

SeaUd and dilrccred in ^ 
tbc Pr^finceofiis <-j 


Fac-simile of Indenture of Appren liceship. Dated March ;. T704. 



to be to teach the apprentice some "art, 
trade, occupation or labor." in order to 
make the binding- out vaHd. An attempt 
was once made to bind out a ward as an 
ordinary servant, that is, without any 
idea of having him learn a trade, and the 
indenture was held to be unlawful. It 
was permissible, in some circumstances, 
to bind out foreigners as servants, but 
this custom was never extended to na- 
tive-born persons. 

The effect of apprenticing was in gen- 
eral to transfer parental rights and du- 
ties to the master. It was the duty of 
the master to furnish board, lodging and 
support generally to the minor. An in- 
denture of apprenticeship which releas d 
the master from the obligation of fur- 
nishing board during part of the year 
was therefore held invalid. It was not 
necessary to have the apprentice live in 
the same house as the master, but if he 
lived away, the master had to pay his 
board. The master also had to see to it 
that the apprentice received a reasonable 
amount of education. Just what was 
considered "a. reasonable amount" it 
would be difficult to say, but in all prob- 
ability, if the apprentice was taught *'the 
three R's" the master would not be held 
delinquent. It was further incumbent 
on the master to care for the appren- 
tice's morals. Compelling him to work 
on Sunday or allowing him at the age of 
six years to appear on the stage were 
grounds for avoiding indenture. Finally 
the master was bound to use reasonable 
endeavor to teach the apprentice the 
trade for which he was apprenticed. If 
a master did not substantially perform 
these duties, the apprentice could be re- 
leased from his obligations. 

The most important right of the mas- 
ter was to have the advantage of the la- 
bor of the apprentice. In order that he 
would be in a position to enforce this 
right, the master had what might be call- 
ed the remedial right of punishing thu 
apprentice and he was not responsible 
for excesses or mistakes, if he exercised 
good faith. The law provided too that 
punishment, even to the extent of impri- 
onment, could Ix^ visited on apprentices 
who did not live up to their aq^reements. 
Provision was also made bv which runa- 

way apprentices could be arrested and 
returned to their masters. Other duties 
and rights could be created by express; 

In certain ca"^es apprentices could Le 
assigned by their masters or their rep- 
resentatives. The Act of 1799 provided 
that, if a master died, the executors or 
administrators, if allowed by the original 
indenture, coul 1 assign the apprentice, 
subject to the approval of the Quarter 
Sessions. The same Act provided for an 
assignment by the master himself with 
the consent of minor and parents. 

The relationship was terminated in 
various ways, some of which were the 
death of the apprentice or his attaining 
his majority, mutual consent or cancel- 
lation by the court for the master's non- 
performance of his duties. 

Why Apprenticeship Became Obs:Iete 

The reasons why apprenticeship be- 
came obsolete are no doubt many, but 
among them the present-day employer's 
unwillingness to take upon himself the 
arduous duties of the master must be 
noted. The advantage 'to the master of 
being able to compel his employee to 
serve out his term is more apparent than 
real, because a sullen servant is hardly 
better than none. Finally, the idea of 
being compelled on pain of imprison- 
ment to work for a particular person 
came to smack too much of involuntary 
servitude for the liberty-loving employee 
of the nineteenth and twentieth centu- 
ries. The opposition to apprentice>hi!-> 
from this quarter became so great that 
it was necessary to pass a law forbid- 
ding any attempt to compel an employer 
to refuse to take apprentices. Though 
probably only some of the causes, these 
were enough to determine the fate oi ap- 

The original of tiio facsimile indenture of 
apprenticeship whicit accompanies this ariicl^ 
was kindly furnished us by Mr. Frank \. 
KautTman. of Oley. Fa. This ancient docu- 
ment is of speciaf interest, reciting in iletail 
the terms of the contract formally entered into 
between master and apprentice a century atnl 
a half ago. Moreover, it shows that "hu-i- 
banJr>- or farming" was included among tlie 
"arts, trades or mysteries"* which had to be 
learnt by means of an apprenticeship.— Ed. 



The Pennsylvania-Dutch 


"Assimilation" is the task which now presses 
most weightfiilly upon the American people; 
and the controversy over the restriction of im- 
migration practically tutns upon the question 
whether the newcomers are likely to become 
Americans, or at least the fathers and mothers 
of Americans. One party unkindly compares 
Uncle Sam to an ostrich, which envelops peb- 
bles, nails and broken glass, but does not di- 
gest them ;- on the other side people point to 
the indisputable fact that every American is 
an' emigrant or the descendant of an emigrant. 
The matter is getting serious in view of the 
fact that of the ninet}-- millions of Americans, 
about fifty millions are not descended from 
English ancestors: and we are all accustomed 
to the generalization that Xew York has more 
Germans than Breslau, more Irish than Dub- 
lin, more Italians than Milan, and that Chicago 
is a great roaring poKglot Vanity Fair, in 
which all nations may hear their own tongues 
and be injured by their own cookery. 


This question of the foreigner and his atti- 
tude to the native population is as old as the 
United States. Rogen Harlakenden among the 
Pilgrims was clearly of Dutch descent ; French 
Huguenots tried to settle the Carolinas a cen- 
tury before the English were permanently es- 
tablished; in several of tlie colonies, as at 
Palatine Bridge, Xew York, Xew Berne, 
North Carolina, and Salzburg. Georgia, there 
were early German settlements ; while into 
other colonies poured a stream of the tough 
and vigorous Scotch-Irish. It is not an acci- 
dent that Antrim. Dublin and Derry can be 
found in Xew Hampshire, and Donegal in 
Pennsylvania : for the Scotch-Irish and some 
of the pure Irish were among the early col- 
onists. By far the largest infusion of foreign- 
ers, however, was the settlement of Germans in 
Penns^dvania, for it was not only numerous, 
but prolific, both in stout children and in re- 
ligious sectaries, so that in colonial times it 
was in civilization and the character of the 
population different from other parts of the 
same colony. After nearly two centuries of 
life in America these people, who have received 
very few accessions from Germany since the 
American Revolution, are still separate, and 
show little signs of complete absorption into 
the remainder of the connnunity. Here is there- 
fore a test, or rather a suggestion, as to the 
future of other races which are forming colo- 
nies in the midst of the English-speaking popu- 

This race-element is conunonly called the 
Pennsylvania-Dutch, a term taken rather ill 
by educated people, who much prefer to be 
known as PennsyKania-Ciermans, but the ordi- 
nary farmer, though he perfectly knows the 

difference between a Holland Dutchman and a 
German, commonly speaks of himself and his 
family as "Dutch." Xobody knows how many 
of them there are, for they arc, of course, in- 
cluded in the census reports as native-born 
Americans, children of natiye-born parents, 
but the counties of Lancaster. Lebanon. Dau- 
phin, York, Cumberland and Berks, which con- 
tain more than 700,000 people, are probably over 
half Pennsylvania-Dutch; half a million would 
be a low e.-^timate for the total number of these 
people within the State of Pennsylvania alone. 


But it must not be supposed that there is 
only one kind of Pennsylvania-Dutchman : ex- 
perts enumerate at least six main varieties, 
divided according to their church. Of the first 
are the ordinary German Lutiierans; then the 
United Brethren, or Moravians : then the 
Dunkers, a Baptist sect : and tlien the three 
closely allied sects of Old Mennonites, Xew 
Mennonites and Amish. Among themsefvej 
these various religious bodies have as many 
points of repulsion as of attraction ; but they 
unite in obstinately sticking to two languages 
that are not English. The first is High Ger- 
man, so widely used that the annual edition 
of the Xcucr Gcuicinni\t:::ii^cr Pcnnsyhanischcr 
Calender, which is now in its seventy-eighth 
annual issue, is printed by the hundred thous- 
and, and includes among the saints' days the 
birth feasts of Adam and Eve. David and Ben- 
jamin Franklin. The second tongue is spoken 
and not written ; yet it is not the Americanized 
kind of German that one hears in "Over the 
Rhine" in Cincinnati. The Pennsvlvania-Dutch 
speak what is often called a dialect, but is 
really a barbarous compound of German and 
English word? in German idiom, somewhat re- 
sembling that mixture of Hebrew and German 
called Yiddish. Infinite are the quaint turns 
of this so-called language, whicli is ireely 
spoken and understood by several hundred 
thousand people, and has even been made the 
vehicle for verse, especially that of Rev. Mr. 
Harbaugh, who wrote a volume of poems 
called Hcirbau-^h's Harfc with an English 
translation on opposite pages. Some phrases will 
illustrate this speech. KookamuUo is an almost 
unrecognizable form of Guck uial da. Bu^^c^y- 
f or ray is Peimsylvania-Dutch for iin IWii^cn 
fahrcii. A droll phrase, especially applicable to 
this season of the year. is. "Is your oft oft?" 
meaning, "Is your vacation over?" .\ lawyer 
oi large experience and knowledge, former at- 
torney general of the State, declares that he 
has heard a Dutch ju>tice say: "Icli habc suit 
jebroui^ht and cwrntion i:cissucJ." The same 
eminent lawyer deposes that within about two 
years he happened to go into a court, where 
proceedings among Dutchmen were going on 




before a DiUch justice, ihc witnesses being 
examined in Pennsylvania-Dutch. The counsel, 
interrupted for a moment by a conversation in 
English, unconsciously resumed his question- 
ing in English, to which the witness replied in 
English; presently, without anybody's noticing 
it, the witness fell back into Pennsylvania- 
Dutch, and after a little the counsel also took 
up that tongue. Mcanv; liilc a stenographer 
was busy taking clown the testimony, and when 
asked what language he used, he answered : 
"Oh, I take notes in English, and nobody ever 
finds any fault." 

An example of phonetic transliteration of 
the dialect is as follows: "Der klca meant nicr 
azvcr^ sei net rccht g'sund, for cr kreisht ols 
so grciscl-hcftick orrick in dcr nacJit. .Dc olt 
Lazi'biicksy bchazvpt cr is zvos nier azc gc- 
zvocksa beast, nn meant vier set hraucha dc- 
f ore"— whizh in German would be : "Der 
kleines meint mir aher, sei nicht recJit gesund 
das cr schreit aus so greiielheftig org in der 
nacht. Die alte Lazvhucksin hehauptct er ist 
ivas zcir gezvachsen heissen, und meint zcir 
solUcn hraiichcn dafilr." In English : ''The 
child seems to me not to be quite well, for he 
screamed so cruel hard in the night. Law- 
bucks's woman insists he has dropsy and thinks 
that we ought to do something for it." 

A copy of a singular example of an inscrip- 
tion in Pennsylvania-Dutch hangs in the house 
of General Hensel near Lancaster: 







It takes close attention and a subdivision of 
the puzzle into component words to discover 
that this is a German inscription put up by 
Peter Bricker and his "Brickeress" asking 
"God to bless this house and all that goes 
therein or out and all authority and the village 
and the pulpit and to God alone be the honor 
else mankind no more. Anno the year 1759." 
One of the worst specimens of Pennsylvania- 
Dutch on record was recorded by an ear-wit- 
ness as follows : "Icli habe mein Hans ge- 
shingled nnd geclapboarded." Although any- 
body who knows some German can catch the 
sense of Pennsylvania-Dutch, none but an 
adept could express his more elusive emotions 
in this tongue. 


As a matter of fact probably seven-tenths 
of the Pennsylvania-Dutch can talk English, 
and many of them perfect English; still there 
are many thousands who are dependent upon 
the jargon for comnumication with their fcl- 
lowmen. The Pennsylvania-Dutchman 'does 
not favor too much education for young people 

because, he says, "It makes them lazy": if 
pushed a little farther, he defines his saying 10 
mean that if young people are too much edu- 
cated they are not willing to stay on the farm, 
and farm-work is what people are made for. 
It is one of the mysteries of the situation that 
the free schools have not long since broken up 
and dispelled the Pennsylvania-Dutch lingo, as 
they have di*- posed of so many other foreign 
languages. One trouble is that the free schools 
of Pennsylvania were not founded until well 
on in the nineteenth century, and to this day 
the State authorities are not rigorous in en- 
forcing the requirements as to the length of 
the school-term and the character of the teach- 
ing; furthermore, in many communities the 
children are all or nearly all Pennsylvania- 
Dutch and are not driven by that wholesome 
desire to be like their neighbors, which causes 
many foreign-born children to shake ott their 
accent. Xevertheless there are several col- 
leges kept up by the Pennsylvania-Dutch 
churches and many of the sects have an edu- 
cated ministry. 


Some of the children of Pennsylvania-Dutch 
families find their way into the great world at 
last, and many of them might compete in out- 
ward show with Yankees, for the Pennsyl- 
vania-Dutch are a rich people. The most in- 
teresting anVl probably the most thriving place 
in the Dutch counties is Lancaster, which in 
the time of the Revolution was already so im- 
portant that the Continental Congress sat there 
for a time. Its conservatism is shown by the 
existence on one street of five business-houses, 
carried on under the same firm-name as one- 
hundred and forty years ago. It is almost the 
only town in the United States which still pos- 
sesses two of the old-fashioned inns, where 
you drive through an archway into a court- 
yard surrounded by galleries, such as Dickens 
loved to describe. 

How many thousand stamping horses have 
kept how many thousand guests awake in the 
old Leopard Inn at Lancaster? There in Lan- 
caster and the other cities of the region, the 
Pennsylvania-Dutch for the most part have 
thrown over their peculiar ways, and have 
become identitied with the rest of the 
communitj' — so much so as sometimes to 
be observers oi the peculiarities oi their 
countrymen. The typical Pennsylvania- 
Dutchman is a farmer, possessing a smaller 
or a greater (usually a greater") quan- 
tity of that bountiful soil which, properly en- 
riched, makes Lancaster county the richest ag- 
ricultural county in the United States. Some- 
where on this property is one of those enor- 
mous barns with an overhang for handling 
the cattle : and incidentally there is a house, 
which, though on a much smaller scale than 
the barn, is usually neat and almost invariably 
clean. The farming would take away the breath 
of a Kansas or Texas brother, for beef-cattle 
are raised in considerable numbers alongside 



splendid crops of grain. But in Lancaster 
county the product of most value is tobacco; 
and it is a truth vouched for by experts that 
from one farm of 130 acres last year was taken 
$ in tobacco, besides $3,000 worth of 
other crops. Almost every square yard of the 
countryside is under cultivation, till you reach 
the hilltops where there is some woodland; it 
i'; like Iowa for the sweep ^.f completely occu- 
j)icd farmlands. The ordinary farm-team is 
still four horses, with a man mounted on the 
near-wheel horse, although the old-fashioned 
Conestoga wagon, which in old times could be 
seen in trains of as many as two hundred to- 
gether, with its high body looking like the fore- 
castle and aftercastle of a seventeenth-century 
ship, and its canvas top, has almost disap- 


These are the canny people from whose sav- 
ings arise banks and trust-companies ; whose 
trade makes part of the wealth of the thriving 
cities, whose capital has constructed a network 
of trolleys ; whose investments extend through- 
out the I'nion. Yet the true Pennsylvania- 
Dutchman is never a "country gentleman'* ; he 
likes to have money and will spend large sums 
for anything upon which he sets his heart, but 
has a thick streak of resolute determination 
not to part with his money on slight occasion. 
It was one of the many brilliant generalizations 
of the late Nathaniel Shaler, that one of the 
main ditnculties with American government, 
and especially with city government, is the 
attempt of a foreign peasant class to adapt it- 
self to urban life. Now the true peasant is 
hardly to be found anywhere in the United 
States, outside the rural negroes of the South ; 
the Southern poor white has not the peasant's 
thrift; the Western farmer is a yeoman and 
not a yokel ; the New England agriculturist 
is a town-meeting in himself. The Pennsyl- 
vania-Dutch are, however, genuine peasants, 
much of the type of the well-to-do French 
peasant, accustomed to a simple and inexpen- 
sive life, unterrified by the accumulation of 
money, extravagantly fond of owning land, 
and therefore showing striking contrasts of 
standard and behavior. 

Here is one example taken from a recent 
personal experience. There is in Lancaster 
county a Pennsylvania-Dutchman, a cigar- 
nianufacturt;r on a small scale, who lives in a 
very comfortable house, recently enlarged, and 
is known to be "well fixed."' A party of visi- 
tors came to his place, but Heinrich was away 
and the honors of the place were done by Mrs. 
Heinrich. a stately and handsome woman, who 
would have been at perfect ease with the gov- 
ernor of the Connnonwealth. had he been one 
of the company, and did the honors of the 
place as a duchess might have done. When 
someone noticed a hruidsonie porcelain refrig- 
erator standing in the living-room, and asked 
if he might look into it, she replied with per- 
fect serenity: "Oh, yes, but there isn't anything 

in it but newspapers. You see it's thisaway. 
Heinrich thinks wc don't need ice because we 
got such a cool cellar and so we don't use 
that refrigerator." ''But where is Heinrich to- 
day?" "Oh, you see it's thisaway, we started 
yesterday, of! in one of our automobiles and 
it broke down, and we had to come home in 
the trolley; and so today Heinrich, he took 
our other automobile, and he's gone to get that 
one fixed." Heinrich is a dabster in automo- 
biles, buying and selling to buy a better one: 
and he is perfectly willing to pay a hundred 
or two dollars for a refrigerator; but what 
is the use of laying out money on ice, when 
you have such a cool cellar? 


It is only when on the ground that one real- 
izes that the Pennsylvania-Dutch are not the 
only individual and discordant factor in that 
State ; central Pennsylvania was settled by four 
different race-elements — the Germans, the 
Scotch Trish, the Quakers, and the people of 
English stock, including a few Yankees. The 
Quakers took up a belt of territory running 
through the Chester Valley, and among them 
grew up an anti-slavery and abolition strip: 
the Scotch-Irish took a parallel belt ; and the 
German lay between the two ; hence an antag- 
onism which has not yet worn out, since the 
Quakers were anti-slavery. But their Irish 
and Dutch neighbors were inclined to be pro- 
slavery. In the riot at Christiana, a few miles 
from Lancaster, in 1851. when one Gorsuch 
was killed in the effort to recapture his run- 
away slaves, the whole eastern end of the 
State was in an uproar, and a governor was 
defeated on the issue of siding with the pro- 
slavery faction. The Scotch-Irish as farmers 
have ' steadily lost ground to the Dutchmen, 
who stand ready to buy up farms as they be- 
come vacant; and there is a good story of a 
lonely Scotch-Irishman, the only one left in a 
township, who linds all his neighbors voting 
againsi him on the question of changing a 
road, and when the vote is taken, says, "I don't 

mind the d d Dutchmen, but they come in 

here and spoil our society.'' Simon Cameron 
was of the Scotch-Irish, or rather of the pure 
Scotch blood, but married into the Pennsyl- 
vania-Dutch. Of course the reason for the 
fading away of the Scotch-Irish farmers is 
that they are gone to the cities to make iron. 
to make money, and to make material for the 
suits of the attorney general of the United 
States. Undoubtedly, however, one of the rea- 
sons for the permanetice of the Pennsylvania- 
Dutch is the lack of harmony and neighborly 
feeling with their nearest neighbors. You know 
a Scotch-Irish farm when you see it. because 
it has not a red barn and is not so neatly kept 


A Stronger reason for the segregiition of 
these people is their fondness for abstruse the- 
ological hairsplitting, such as might better be- 
tit their Calvinistic neighbors. The German 



immigrants as early as 1708 began to include 
Baptists — of whom the strongest sects nowa- 
days are the Dunkers.and ascetics like the com.- 
munities at Ephrata, Lititz and Bethlehem. 

The Ephrata community, which was practic- 
ally a monastery and nunnery, founded by 
Conrad Beissel in 1728, is not yet quite ex- 
tinct; -and the Chrouicon Epiiratcnsc, in Dr. 
Mark's genial translation, is one of the quaint- 
est services of American church-history. In 
his early life in Germany Beissel was almost 
prevented from entering on his work by con- 
sumption, till a counselor said to him, '"My 
friend, you meditate too much on the world's 
dark side"; and after he had given him some 
instructions as to his condition, he prescribed 
the Use of sheep's ribs, "by which means, 
through God,'s grace, he became well again." 
In Lancaster county the Mennonites and the 
Amish (pronounced "Awmish"), are the most 
numerous and decidedly the most picturesque, 
since they still maintain a costume, special ob- 
servances, and a separate life. The old ]Men- 
nonites ahd the new Mennonites appear to be 
visibly distinguished in that the white caps of 
the old Mennonite women are allowed to flow 
loosely, while among the new ^Mennonites, as 
a stricter and severer church, the cap-strings 
are tied firmly under the chin. The women 
wear blue or red tight-fitting dresses with a 
pointed cape of gray and commonly a sunbon- 
net over the cap; the Mennonite men are not 
very different from their neighbors. New 
Mennonites literally put their fingers in their 
ears if exposed to religious exhortation of any 
but their own people, even at a funeral. The 
Amish, however, are strongly marked, because 
the men give to their head a "Dutch cap," 
which makes them resemble the Holland youth 
whose portraits adorn the advertisements of 
cereals, let' their beards grow (hence they were 
formerly called "beardy men"), and fasten 
their gray home-made garments with hooks 
and eyes. Neither ^Mennonites nor Amish will 
take an oath, nor go to war ; hence, when other 
Pennsylvania-Dutchmen during the Revolu- 
tion entered the patriot army the Mennonites 
were considered Tories. Accepting this con- 
servative position in politics, they became Fed- 
eralists, and their region approved the Federal 
Constitution of 1787; the other Germans, in 
their role of patriots, became Jet^ersonian 
Democrats, and to this day Berks county, in 
which they abound, is an unalterable Demo- 
cratic strongliold, in which for thirty years 
after his death th.ey were still reputed to be 
voting at every election for Andrew Jackson 
for President ; while neighboring Lancaster 
county, in which Mcmionites are abundant, is 
overwhelmingly Repui)lican. The Amish, bet- 
ter than any of the other sects, stand by their 
ancient customs ; women commonly do not sit 
at the table with the ukmi. who 'take each his 
own portion from a common dish; and the wo- 
men come afterward. The Amish almost in- 
variably worship in private houses ; there arc 

only two church buildings of that sect in Lan- 
caster county; their religious services last 
three or four hours, including sermons by lay 
preachers. Their weddings last all day, and if 
there be an unmarried brother or sister older 
than the bride, the guests go through the cere- 
mony of setting the person thus passed by "on 
the bake-oven." As you go through the coun- 
tr}' the Amish houses may be recognized by 
their extraordinary colors; a stone house stuc- 
coed and painted orange : a wooden house rasp- 
berry color with blue blinds, or a fine shade of 
mauve. The Amish are fond of good horses 
and if your automobile passes a couple of 
Amish girls in their scant red dresses, black 
aprons and white caps, they will adjure you: 
"I^on't let her run off now yet," but in the 
same breath will call you to notice that they 
are driving a borrowed horse; the implication 
being that they have better horses at home. 
The Amish stand by eath other in times of 
difficulty and are a straightforward and hon- 
est folk, though a bit too much like the good 
people of Thrums when it comes to doctrine. 
There is a branch of the Amish popularly 
known as the '"whip-socket Amish," founded 
by a brother who rebelled at the discipline 01 
the regular Amish because he would have a 
whip-socket, instead of carrying his whip in 
his hand, as was th.e custom. Nevertheless the 
Amish are quick to take up new agricultural 
and household implements, and are highly es- 
teemed amid the fraternity of patent wash- 
boilers, hayforks and stump-pullers. 


Intermingled with the Dutch and the Irish 
and the Quakers in Lancaster county are most 
interesting memorials of another Church and 
influence. As the Boston politician, Ireland- 
born, remarked when he noticed the names of 
the candidates for school conunittee : "How 
these Americans are pushing in I" Some of 
the oldest Episcopal churches in the Middle 
States are to be found in Lancaster county. 
especially Lacock church ; Donegal church. 
which lies close by the Cameron estate : and 
St. John's churchyard, in which is the renown- 
ed tombstone of "Adelaide with the broken 
lily." emblem of a "life ruined by a worthless 
husband. The old King's highway, the first 
road toward the Far West, can still be travers- 
ed from Philadelphia to Lancaster, and along 
it are strung many old taverns, such as the 
IHrd-in-Hand. with a large space in front 
where the wagons were drawn up at ni^ht. 
There is a hospitable house at Kinzer. near 
Lancaster, where on the piazza hang two of 
the fine old signboards, one of them. "The 
Three Crowns." shot through with the bullets 
of Republican enthusiasts, and insutficiently 
painted over as "The Waterloo." 

Really to enjoy this region one needs a host 
who shall be brimful of the lore of the coun- 
try: and a company of emineiu spirits who will 
give a day's holiday to motoring over the un- 
deniably bad road"*, among the , rich farms 




and through the picturesque hills, stopping at 
JJtitz for the children to be treated to ice 
cream sandwiches by a Pennsylvanian whom 
the children, unabashed by "excellencies," 
straightway "know by his picture," and so to 
the mansion of a former Pennsylvania senator 
who loves the soil of Lancaster county best of 

all the surface of the earth. Socially, polit- 
ically, financially, industrially, the Pennsyl- 
vania-Dutch can not furnish their own leaders, 
yet whatever their religious and social narrow- 
ness, they have set to the whole nation an ex- 
ample of industry, thrift and respect for the 
rights of others. 

Pennsylvania Historical Societies: 

Their Aims and Their Work 

The encouragement of historic research being losically a part of our desisiiated fiela of labor, we have 
opeucd a department deToted chiefly though not exclusively to the interests of the societies constitutlns tr.e 
Penusylvania Federation of Historical Societies. This department will give data relating to the work of bis- 
toi-fcal societies — notable meetings, contributions, papers read, etc. As space permits, short sketches of indl- 
vl<lual societies will be given, telling their history, objects, methods of work and the results achieved. We 
cordially tender the use of these columns to the societies for the expression and exchange of Ideas relating to 
their work. 

The Wyoming Historical and Geological Society 


Organization and Membership 

The Wyoming Historical and Geological So- 
ciety was organized in the old Fell Tavern, 
Northampton street, Wilkes-Barre, February 
II, 1858, to commemorate the successful ex- 
periment made by Hon. Jesse Fell, February 
II, 1808, of burning the Wyoming anthracite 
coal in a domestic grate. The Society has had 
a continuous existence for fifty years. 

Its fiftieth anniversary will be celebrated 
February 11, 1908. The centennial of Jesse 
Fell's discovery, which has brought such im- 
mense wealth to the Wyoming Valley and 
northeastern Pennsylvania, will be celebrated 
by this Society on the same day. The experi- 
mental grate used by Judge Fell in his dis- 
covery has long ceased to exist, but one of his 
grates made and used by him in his home, is 
preserved in the Society rooms. 

The Society was organized to cover the orig- 
inal limits of Luzerne county (185S). and 
therefore extends over the entire counties of 
Luzerne, Wyoming and Lackawanna. 

The members of the Society are divided into 
honorary, corresponding and resident, the last- 
named into life members and annual members. 
The annual dues are five dollars; the life 
members' dues, which cover all financial obli- 
gations and constitute an invested life-member- 
ship fund, one hundred dollars. The life mem- 
bers number 150. of whom nine subscriptions 
are not yet due; thus the life-membership fund 
is $14,100. Any person who contributes to the 
Society at one time a sum not less than one 
thousand dollars, will bo placed on the life- 
membership list as a benefactor. 

Building and Library 

The home of the Society is a handsome edi- 
fice of brick in the rear of the Osterhout Free 
Library, South Franklin street. Wilkes-Barre. 
facing the street. This building is provided 

by the will of the late Isaac S. Osterhout, a 
member of the Society, who, in founding the 
well established library which bears his name, 
generously provided this Society with a perma- 
nent home, free from all charges of rent, light, 
heat or repairs. Xo financial aid was given 
wdth this tine legacy. The building itself is 
40 feet wide by 60 feet long and three stories 
high. Its interior furnishing of cases, desks. 
etc., is the work of the Society. It is supplied 
with a fine large fire-proof safe, in which the 
Society's rare manuscripts are preserved. 

The library of the Society contains 
books and pamphlets, very few of which are 
duplicated by either the Osterhout Free Li- 
brary of 38,000 books, or the Albright Free 
Library, of Scranton, Pa., of 53,000 books. 

Of tlie Society's books, i6,ooo are on Ameri- 
can history and genealogy, and'jooo on geol- 
ogy. The library has also 1200 bound volumes 
of local newspapers, the only ' full set oi 
United States statutes at large in northeastern 
Pennsylvania and, being also a Pennsylvania 
and a United States depository, it contains 
tule published by the State and the general 
Government. The department of genealogy*. 
English and American, contains nearly lOOD 

While this Society is a private institution. 
supported solely by the dues of its members 
and the income from its endowment, it has 
opened its library and museum for reference 
and study to the public free, each weekday 
from 10 a. m. to 5 p. m. The annual visiting 
list of schools, classes and individuals numbers 
between 6000 and 7000 persons. 

The Osterhout Free l\ibrary and the Scran- 
ton Free Library, jo miles east of Wilkes- 
Barre. two libraries aggregating nearly 100.- 
(XX) volumes, buy very few books on American 
history anil geology, and none on genealogy, 
hut refer all students of such subjects to the 



i ^ 1: 

^^^ f 



library of this Society. The latter is therefore 
the purveyor of these three lines of study for 
almost the entire northeastern portion of Penn- 
sylvania. Of magazines alone pertaining to 
these subjects the Society keeps on file one 
hundred not found in the above free libraries. 
A card-catalogue, covering all the books in 
the library except those of the United States 
depository of about 4000 volumes, facilitates 
research, and the librarians gladly serve all 
inquirers who visit the institution. Owing to 
the lack of funds the work of cataloguing the 
depository-books and the large annual addi- 
tions to the library has been suspended. 

Departments of Geology and Ethnology 

The genealogical department of the Society 
contains 2000 books and pamphlets on geology, 
including nearly complete sets of the publica- 
tions of the geological surveys of the United 
States, Canada and ^le.xico, the surveys of 
the various States of the Union, geological mag- 
azines, etc. The geological cabinets contain 
the fine collection of 5000 paleozoic f(,»ssils pre- 
sented by the late Ralph I). Lacoe and the 
Christian II. Scharar collection of ncArly 1000 
paleozoic fossils from the outcropping of the 
carboniferous limestone at Mill Creek. Lu- 
zerne county, Pa., now covered by tons of 
culm; also 3000 carefully arranged mineral- 
ogical specimens, witii about 3000 tine examples 
of the anthracite-coal tlora, paleobotany, num- 

bering 200 types arranged by the late Curator 
R. D. Lacoe and classified by him and Prof. 
Leo Lesquereux. 

The paleozoic collection is kept in a separate 
room, with an excellent library for 'the use of 
students. It is, however, made practical to 
the public, especially to schools and students, 
by a carefully arranged case in the geological 
room, containing representative specimens 
showing the terrestrial strata from the 
nrchaean to the cenozoic age. 

The ethnological department of the Society 
contains an excellent library on the subject 
and an unusually tine collection oi Indian relics 
of the h